четверг, 11 июня 2020 г.
What is hegemonic masculinity? Hegemonic masculinity makes men as superior human and sees women as submissive and weak objects that should live according as the man says. According to the male dominance, they always should subordinate and contribute the womens position because women are not so great, perfect and brave as men. The theory of hegemonic masculinity was reviewed by many sociologists and scientists during all periods. Hegemony is a total winning and holding of power over other social groups. Masculinity sets men as the highest class of society and maintains their domination over women. Men are considered to have hegemonic masculinity if they exhibit the features of traditional masculinity. There is a certain set of qualities that a man should have, such as power, dominance, heterosexuality, leadership, rationality, control of their emotions. The traditional masculinity harms gender equality and sets men higher and much more important than women. Masculinity definition by various sociologists If to trace back to the Middle Ages, the philosopher Aristotle from Greece assumed that masculinity is equal to the rationality and strength of men, when women are marked by such things as emotions, sexuality and their bodies. The Australian sociologist R.W. Connell says that masculinity doesnt exist as an unchanged and single form. Connell presumes that a man of the modern society shouldnt have the qualities that considered masculine. She also insists that homosexuality is also a form of masculinity, despite on those facts that a lot of people define homosexuality as the opposite thing to the masculinity. Thanks to the Connells theory, people could study the history of masculinity. Her work showed that masculinity is a concept that can change. David Iacuone in his book Ã¢â¬Å"Real Men and Tough GuysÃ¢â¬ (2005) views masculinity as a blueprint that defines the real mans behavior and describes qualities he must have. According to Iacuone, hegemonic masculinity defines women as an object, gives them mostly domestic duties and notes their value for men only as sexual objects. But some men groups try to avoid hegemonic masculine culture, mostly when they want to improve their women welfare and try to change the traditional relations where patriarchy is dominating. Sociologists Michael S. Kimmel and Amy Aronson (2008) made a pattern of a real man; they defined him as a young, heterosexual, white, married, urban, with college education, employed, and with defined weight and height. They assumed that any man who doesnt fit this pattern, should be defined as unworthy. Ross Haenfler (2006) defines advantages and disadvantages of masculinity. He says this concept has got good benefits to set men higher than women but in the same way they should pay price for this with shorter life, lack of emotions in relationship and poor health. Haenfler noticed that men who lose control over relationship and work, become strict in self-control. They start to control thoroughly their sexual appetites, personal lives, and fitness because of the crisis, and as a result, try to avoid womens influence. According to Haenfler theory, since late 19th century, the base of masculinity was broken and modern men dont understand how to be a man. The traditional male role of breadwinner was destabilized a lot and taken by women, and apart from this, feminists make a challenge to men with changing gender inequality. Other critics and scientists who made researches on hegemonic masculinity says that the definition of this concept do not reflect the actual life of men, so the entire theory gives an imprecise report about male identities in society. Due to increasing and development of industrialization in our world, hegemonic masculinity started to lose its real meaning in modern society. Nowadays, a lot of women take leadership positions at work and assume the main role of breadwinners because a lot of young men try to avoid responsibilities that are dictated by masculinity. In our society women work as hard as men, and there are no differences between genders in this sense. Earlier women should mostly listen to their men, sit at home, raise children. Modern world totally changed this view with active position of feminization that lead to the current situation when gender is equal.
вторник, 26 мая 2020 г.
One Easy Tip About Esl Essay Samples Uncovered English is really the most demandable language on earth from past many decades. Students lead busy lives and frequently forget about a coming deadline. A students should aim to provide a reminder of the principal flavors of the essay. Also, ESL student needs to be able to locate services on the internet to aid in the writing process. Rumors, Lies and Esl Essay Samples There's, obviously, a limit on the variety of pages even our very best writers can produce with a pressing deadline, but generally, we can satisfy all the clients seeking urgent assistance. There are a lot of ways you are able to get ready for the test. In planning for the end of the essay, the students should choose the chance to reaffirm their position. You wish to find examples of good academic writing from students, like the type of writing you're have to do on the exam. What Esl Essay Samples Is - and What it Is Not When you compose a brief essay, you shoul d try to remember that there are not any elements to be sacrificed. Practice shows it to compose an essay, it's essential to have understanding of the way to structure your suggestions and samples can aid you with that. To start with, it's required to understand this in order to understand how to compose an essay, you must find a great sample, expository essay is quite hard to write and you'll probably require assist. In other kinds of essays, the content might vary. English essay format is vital, so you need to adhere to a particular structure. ESL Essay is an essay that's written by means of a person whose mother tongue isn't English. In an essay, these essays, 2013 if you're able to practice will help you to assist essay. The ESL essay ought to be grammatically accurate. Writing essays, obviously! The Esl Essay Samples Trap In such an important society, an excellent appearance can help in some sort of work. Along with few great policemen who save lives and are always prepared to help, there's almost always a lousy cop, not noticed by the superiors. You never know what sort of ideas they're going to come up with, or what they're likely to put on their clothing, and what type of hair style they are likely to set up. Esl Essay Samples Explained You may use the samples as a foundation for working out how to write in the suitable style. A hint may at times be included like a root verb that has to be changed, or the very first letter of the term etc.. Like its namesake, more complicated versions can be constructed in line with the refinement of the appetite. Different types of task There are lots of elicitation strategies that may be used when writing a test. There are naturally many other varieties of tests. It is possible to also get different discounts on our site which will help you to save some more money for future orders or anything you want to spend them on. It's called short essay in the feeling that the manner a certain topic is presented is congested but still focuses on the aim of making the audience understand the entire point of the essay. Multiple choice Choose the proper word to finish the sentence. There's typically no demand for more explanation. In case the answer is open-ended it is going to be harder and time consuming to mark and there can also be a an element of subjectivity involved with judging how `complete' the answer is, but nevertheless, it might also be a more accurate test. You cannot write a great essay whenever you are in a rush or thinking about various other things you need to do. An important point to bear in mind is to make certain you don't have a thing in the essay that isn't related to your topic.
воскресенье, 17 мая 2020 г.
How reliable are computers at translating French? Should you be using Google Translate to complete your French homework? Can you trust a computer to translate your business correspondence or should you hire a translator? The reality is that, while translating software is helpful, it is not perfect and should not replace learning any new language yourself. If you rely on machine translation to switch between French and English (and vice versa), you may find yourself at the losing end of a conversation. What is Machine Translation? Machine translation refers to any kind of automatic translation, including translation software, hand-held translators, and online translators. While machine translation is an interesting concept and considerably cheaper and faster than professional translators, the reality is that machine translation is extremely poor in quality. Why Cant Computers Translate Languages Properly? Language is simply too complicated for machines. While a computer may be programmed with a database of words, it is impossible for itÃ to understand all of the vocabulary, grammar, context, and nuances in the source and target languages. Technology is improving, but the fact is that machine translation will never offer more than a general idea about what a text says. When it comes to translation, a machine simply cannot take the place of a human. Are Online Translators More Trouble Than Theyre Worth? Whether or not online translators like Google Translate, Babylon, and ReversoÃ are useful is going to depend on your purpose. If you need to quickly translate a single French word into English, youll probably be okay. Similarly, simple, common phrases may translate well, but you must be wary. For instance, typing the sentence I went up the hill into Reverso produces Je suis montÃ © la colline. In the reverse translation, Reversos English result is I rose the hill. While the concept is there and a human could figure out that you probably went up the hill rather than lifted the hill, it wasnt perfect. However, can you use an online translator to recall that chat is French for cat and that chat noir means a black cat? Absolutely, simple vocabulary is easy for the computer, but sentence structure and nuance require human logic. To put this plainly: Should you be completing your French homework withÃ Google Translate? No, thats cheating, first of all. Secondly, your French teacher will suspect where your answer came from.Adults hoping to impress a French business associateÃ should also put a real effort into learning the language. Even if you mess up, they will appreciate that you took the time to try rather than send entire emails translated by Google. If its really important, hire a translator. Online translators, which can be used to translate web pages, emails, or a pasted-in block of text,Ã can be useful. If you need to access a website written in French, turn on the translator to get a basic idea of what was written. However, you should not assume that the translation is a direct quote or completely accurate. You will need to read between the lines on any machine translation. Use it for guidance and basic comprehension, but little else. Remember, also, that translation - whether by human or computer - is an inexact science and that there are always numerous acceptable possibilities. When Machine Translation Goes Wrong How accurate (or inaccurate) are computers at translating?Ã To demonstrate some of the problems inherent in machine translation, lets look at how three sentences fared in five online translators. In order to check the accuracy, each translation is run back through the same translator (reverse translation is a common verification technique of professional translators). There is also a human translation of each sentence for comparison. Sentence 1:Ã I love you very much, honey. This is a very simple sentence - beginning students could translate it with little difficulty. Online Translator Translation Reverse Translation Babylon Je taime beaucoup, miel. I love you much, honey. Reverso Je vous aime beaucoup, le miel. I like very much you, the honey. FreeTranslation Je vous aime beaucoup, le miel. I like you a lot, the honey. Google Translate Je taime beaucoup, le miel.* I love you very much, honey. Bing Je taime beaucoup, miel. I love you, honey. What went wrong? All of theÃ automatic translators took the word honey literally and used mielÃ rather than the intendedÃ term of endearment.Three translatorsÃ compounded the error by adding theÃ definite article. The same three translatedÃ you asÃ vous, which doesnt make much sense, given the meaning of the sentence.Bing lostÃ beaucoupÃ in its reverse translation, but Reverso did a particularly bad job - the word order is atrocious. Human Translation:Ã Je taime beaucoup, mon chÃ ©ri. Sentence 2:Ã How many times did he tell you to write it? Lets see if aÃ subordinate clauseÃ causes any trouble. Online Translator Translation Reverse Translation Babylon Combien de fois vous a-t-il dit de lui crire? How much time does it have says you to write to him? Reverso Combien de fois vous a-t-il dit de lcrire ? How many times did he tell you to write it? FreeTranslation Combien de fois a-t-il dit que vous crivez il? How many times he says that you write it? Google Translate Combien de fois a-t-il de vous dire lcrire?* How many times did he tell you to write? Bing Combien de fois il vous a-t-il dit lcrire ? How many times he has told you to write it? What went wrong? Babylon inexplicably decided that it was anÃ indirect object, rather than theÃ direct objectÃ that it is, which completely changed the meaning. In its reverse translation, it mistakenly translated theÃ passÃ © composÃ ©s auxiliary verb and main verb separately.Google added theÃ prepositionÃ de, which makes it sound like how many times does he have to tell you to write it. In its reverse translation, it lost the direct object.FreeTranslation and Bing did even worse, with grammatically incorrect French translations. Reversos translation and reverse translation are both excellent. Human Translation:Ã Combien de fois est-ce quil ta dit de lÃ ©crireÃ ?Ã orÃ Combien de fois ta-t-il dit de lÃ ©crireÃ ? Sentence 3:Ã Every summer, I drive up to the lake house and cruise around with my friends. A longer and more complicated sentence. Online Translator Translation Reverse Translation Babylon Chaque t, je conduis la maison et la croisire de lac autour avec mes amis. Each summer, I lead to the house and to the cruising of lake around with my friends. Reverso Chaque t, je conduis(roule) jusqu la maison de lac et la croisire autour avec mes amis. Every summer, I lead(drive) (run)((drive)) up to the house of lake and the cruise all around with my friends. FreeTranslation Chaque t, je conduis jusqu la maison de lac et jusqu la croisire environ avec mes amis. Every summer, I drive to the house lake and to the cruise about with my friends. Google Translate Chaque t, je conduis la maison et le lac autour de croisire avec mes amis.* Every summer, I drive at home and around the lake cruise with my friends. Bing Tous les ts, jai avancer jusqu la maison du lac et croisire autour avec mes amis. Every summer, I proceed to the home of the Lake and cruise around with my friends. What went wrong? All five translators were fooled by the phrasal verb cruise around and all but Google by drive up - they translated the verb and preposition separately.The pairing house and cruise caused problems as well. It seems that the translators could not figure out that cruise was a verb rather than a noun in this instance.In its reverse, Google was fooled byÃ et,Ã thinking that I drive to the house and to the lake are separate actions.Less shocking but still incorrect, is theÃ translation of drive asÃ conduireÃ - the latter is aÃ transitive verb, but drive is used hereÃ intransitively. Bing choseÃ avancer, which is not only the wrong verbÃ but in an impossible conjugation; it should just beÃ javance.And whats up with capital L with Lake in Bings reverse translation? Human Translation:Ã Chaque Ã ©tÃ ©, je vais en voiture Ã la maison de lac et je roule avec mes amis. Common Problems in Machine Translation Though a small sample, the above translations offer a pretty good idea of the problems inherent in machine translation. WhileÃ online translators can give you some idea about the meaning of a sentence, their numerous flaws make it impossible for them to ever replace professional translators. If youre just after the gist and dont mind decoding the results, you can probably get by with an online translator. But if you need a translation that you can count on, hire a translator. What you lose in money youll more than make up for in professionalism, accuracy, and dependability.
пятница, 15 мая 2020 г.
In the last six years a new standards system has been created for high school students in order to help them prepare for college classes; this system is the Common Core State Standards Initiative. The Common Core system, developed in 2009, addresses both mathematics and English language arts. It creates a system of standards that map out skills and abilities from grades K-12 that need to be focused upon in order for students to be successful in the future. The creators of the Common Core State Standards wanted the system to become universal however, many educators began to criticize certain aspects of the standards, such as the overall effectiveness of the standards and types of elements that are included in the standards. Among the many school systems in the nation, debates arose around whether it would be better for them to adopt the Common Core standards or to create their own standards. Purpose of Report Rather than address both elements of the standards, the purpose of this report is to analyze high school Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and related debates. Topics include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ A discussion of the basic elements of the curriculum Ã¢â¬ ¢ An analysis of responses Ã¢â¬ ¢ An analysis of status and results Results of Report This report concludes that Common Core State Standards for English Language attempts to prepare high students for college level English Language Arts classes and create national standards that are available for every state to use. However,Show MoreRelatedEssay on Common Core State Standards and Its Impact on Curriculum 1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCommon Core State Standards and Its Impact on Curriculum Introduction Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is a voluntary state led initiative that looks to establish clear expectations for learning in grades kindergarten through twelfth that are standard from state to state. The purpose of the standards is to make certain that there is uniformity in student proficiency and high school graduates have the know-how and ability needed for college and a competitive workforce in the twenty-first centuryRead MoreCommon Core State Standards Act852 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCommon Core State Standards Common Core State Standards is being heard throughout the education world. Many cringe when the words are spoken and many fight to support what the words stand for. Common Core was introduced in 2009 by state leaders. Common Core State Standards were developed to prepare children for the business world or the reality after grade school. Ã¢â¬Å"The Common Core is a set of high-quality academic standards in mathematics and English language arts/literacy, also known as ELAÃ¢â¬ (AboutRead MoreCommon Core State Standards Essay1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages45 states that have adopted the same educational standards called Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The initiative is sponsored by the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers and seeks to establish consistent education standards across the states. The Common Core Standards is initiative state-led effort that established a single set of clear educational standards for kindergarten through 12th grad e in English and Mathematical standards. These standards helpRead MoreCommon Core Standards Of Today s Education System1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbehind the Common Core standards is simple: uphold clear parameters as to what concepts students need to understand for their grade-level nationally. It seems like a no-brainer. Every student, no matter his or her background or geographic location, is entitled to the same education, and is expected to know the same things by the time they graduate. In this paper I will argue that Common Core standards are necessary in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s education system. Section 2. An Argument in Support of Common Core StandardsRead MoreCommon Core Ineffectiveness1022 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Common Core State Standards (CCSS) was first implemented in 2010, nine years after I graduated from high school. Although I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t personally affected by the new academic standards, it has a direct impact on the current and future generation of leaders, innovators, and world changers including my future children. The initial purpose of the Common Core Standards is to set high-quality learning goals designed to prepare students to be college and career ready. Given the current controversies surroundingRead MoreEssay Common Core State Standards919 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesall with different assessments with subjects like science, math, and language arts. However, within the past year many schools in the United States of America have switched their state standards to a new standard known as common core. Common core is now a nationwide standardized test with s ubjects like reading, writing, and math. Some standards that are evident in the common core are, Ã¢â¬Å"research and evidence based, clear, understandable, and consistent, aligned with college and career expectationsRead MoreCommon Core Standards Are Necessary Today s Educational System1517 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbehind Common Core is simple: uphold clear parameters as to what concepts students need to understand for their grade-level nationally. It seems like a no-brainer. Every student, no matter his or her background or geographic location, is entitled to the same education, and expected to know the same things by the time they graduate. In this paper I will argue that Common Core standards are necessary in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s educational system. Section 2. An Argument in Support of Common Core Standards Part ARead MoreCommon Core Standards Should Be Just1460 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCommon Core Standards Should Be Just That: Common Common means to share something mutually, why do people find it so difficult to share? Share oneÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling? No! Share oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas? Not that either. No one wants to even share a set of benchmarks. The common core standards are only a set of benchmarks to assure students are learning fundamentals at the right grade level. Yes, they are a work in progress but nothing was perfect in the beginning. While some states have decided against the commonRead MoreEssay On Common Core958 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Core Issue with Common CoreÃ Ã Ã The American education system is falling behind. According to international rankings, America ranks 17th in math, 17th in reading, and 21st in science out of 34 industrialized countries. In an effort to improve the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s rankings, educators have developed a curriculum called Common Core. To form the Core Standards, educators acquired standards from higher-ranking countries and incorporated them into American education. After adopting the Core Curriculum in statesRead MoreThe Education Of The Virgin Islands1639 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBut the improvements made within the department never stopped there. In the high wings of discussing what there would be in the sense of higher education, many ideas came about. The greatest achievement in education in the Virgin Islands was the establishment of the College of the Virgin Islands, now called the University of the Virgin Islands, resulting in adding higher education to the territory (Modern Times). In recent outlooks from people in the community, they could say that the teachers are
среда, 6 мая 2020 г.
The Boston Police Were Justified in Going Out on Strike in 1919 nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The period after the Civil War was a time when many businesses and corporations grew to a size where power was the key to success. Different companies would have to compete with each other to stay on top of the fast enlargement of industry. Many businesses and corporation grew so large that the factory owners did not care about the laborers themselves or there concerns, but how much time and work they could out of them. Machines became so abundant in factories that they almost took the place of human workers. Child labor was also an issue. Children, some as young as six, were often employed as factory workers. This ignorance caused the growthÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As a result of this quot;threatquot; of entering a labor union, the commissioner of police, Edward Curtis, told the men that no policemen were to join a union. After men decided to join the American Federation of Labor, Curtis decided to suspend those men. Leaders of the union were angered b y this action and told the commissioner not to punish the men or else all union members would go on strike. Compromises were brought the Curtis, but none were accepted. Soon, a vast majority of the police department was on strike. It did not take long for violence in the streets to set in. Many volunteers were put in the line of duty. Angry mobs ran the streets, and many newspapers ran articles such as, quot;Riots in Bostonquot;, quot;Terror Reigns in Cityquot;. This was a disgrace to the city of Boston. After eight deaths of seventy wounded, and thousand of dollars of damage done, the cities order was finally restored. The officers were given the raises that were requested and no longer had to pay for there uniforms. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The police stations were so old that they were infested with rats. These working conditions had to be improved. No policeman could work to there fullest potential in a place where the rats chewed leather off of the policemanÃ¢â¬â¢s helmets. The cities government did absolutely nothing to improve these places. This was not a place where the people that maintain peace in the city should have had to work in.Show MoreRelatedPolice Enforcement Has Behind The World Of Technology972 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction From the night watch in Boston, to the present day policing, law enforcement has behind in the world of technology. As time rolled through the political era, professional era, and community-oriented era, police patrols would use the rapidly advancing technology in their favor. Those were desperate times for policemen in a hostile country with unpaved streets and uneven sidewalks, sometimes miles from the police station, with little prospects of assistance in case of need.... It tookRead MoreLong-term Effects of European Colonization on Africa Essay1265 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessub-standard. August of 2005 brought about the Ã¢â¬Å"officialÃ¢â¬ end of apartheidÃ¢â¬â¢s separateness. However, the practice of racism has been hard to change. Stereotypes still exist while Africans strive for equality after centuries of oppression. In April 2010, police had to use barbed wire to separate Africans and whites outside of a courthouse in South Africa that were rioting as two murderers appe ared for the first time in public. These murderers were accused of murdering an extremely conservative, white supremacistRead MoreEssay on Theodore Roosevelt907 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesInstitute of 1770, Hasty Pudding Club , Alpha Delta Phi , O.K. Club , Natural History Society , The Harvard Advocate (editor) , Glee Club , and in the Class Committee. After he graduating from Harvard in 1880 , he married Alice Hathaway Lee of Boston. In the same year he entered Columbia University Law School. But historical writing and politics lured him away from a legal career. His yearning for public acknowledge plus the corrupt state of New York led him to join a local Republican ReformRead MoreThe Mystery Of Mystery Stories1349 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThese stories may be the result of his experiences , when he accompanied the local police on criminal investigation and performed autopsies as a physician(3). Emile Gaboriau (1832 - 1873) French writer,novelist and journalist, best known as the father of roman policier (detective novel). Gaboriau created most popular fictional sleuth of nineteenth century French fiction Monsieur Lecoq ,based on a real police detective Eugene Francois Vidocq. Monsieur Lecoq appeared in 5 novels out of GaboriauRead MoreImportance Of Unions : History And Significance946 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfire in New York killed nearly 150 workers (mostly Jewish and women minorities) in a fire because of locked doors and stairwells. Wisconsin becomes first state to provide workmanÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation, and developed the Wisconsin Ã¢â¬Å"Safe PlaceÃ¢â¬ Statute 7) In 1912 the Bread and Roses strike was begun by immigrant women in Lawrence, Mass. with 23,000 men and women and children on strike, and the Department of Labor was created in Congress. 8) In 1913 Woodrow Wilson is made president and appoints the first secretaryRead MoreEssay about Film Analysis: Scarface vs. The Departed1962 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMusketeers of Pig Alley (1912) and Underworld (1927), the genre has become increasingly complex in its development, evidenced by the sophisticated narratives and advanced cinematographic techniques of more recent films such as Road to Perdition (2002) and The Departed (2006). This paper will serve to analyze only two of these brilliant works, and will do so through a compare and contrast format. Howard HawksÃ¢â¬â¢s Scarface: The Shame of the Nation (1932) focuses on gang warfare and police intervention duringRead MoreRights of Juvenile Delinquency Essay1374 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand New York City, John Augustus known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Father of Probation. Ã¢â¬Å"He persuaded the Boston Police Court to release an adult drunkard into his custody rather than sending him to prison. His efforts at reforming his first were not only successful he convinced the court to release other offenders under his supervision. His efforts and title did not come easy because they were resisted by people like the police, court clerks,and etc who only made money when offenders were incarcerated. Augustus extendRead MoreApartheid : A System Of Racial Segregation1176 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthousand high school students took to the streets in Soweto (a black township in South Africa) in protest of the use of Afrikaans as a language of instruction in the non-white schools. They were intended to be peaceful protests, but the protesters and police clashed and they turned violent. At least one hundred and seventy six people were killed and thousands more were injured. One of the first killed was a thirteen ye ar-old named Hector Pieterson. June sixteenth is now remembered by an open occasionRead MoreFrances Perkins1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbusinesses collapsed and were bought out, so the wealth didnÃ¢â¬â¢t last long. In 1870, the PerkinsÃ¢â¬â¢ turned to dairy farming to get their money. Shortly after, FrancesÃ¢â¬â¢ father, Frederick married a woman by the name of Susan Bean. On April 10th, 1880 in Boston, Massachusetts Fannie Coralie Perkins was born. In 1884, when Fannie was four years old, Frederick and Susan had a second child, Ethel (Downey 7). Fannie was very close to her family her entire life. She often spoke of ancestors, she adored andRead MoreCia Intervention During The Soviet Union1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe contradictions of US foreign policy.Ã¢â¬ (Mariano) One of the most criticized policy is that while the U.S. isnÃ¢â¬â¢t okay with other countries getting involved around the world the U.S. has done it time and time again intervening as some kind of world police. Which leads to these increased tensions between Russia and the U.S. The effects of colonialism had a great role in the socio economic and political development throughout Latin America. Although most of Central AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s countries followed similar
Eldon S. Hendriksen and Michael F. van Breda, Four Thousand Years of Accounting, Chapter 2 of Accounting Theory, 5th edition, Irwin, 1992 Accountancy, from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accounting. Retrieved January 20, 2011. Contents of lecture notes: 1. Introduction 2. Why bother with the history of accounting? 3. The beginnings 4. So what is Ã¢â¬ËaccountingÃ¢â¬â¢ (or Ã¢â¬ËaccountancyÃ¢â¬â¢)? 5. Double-entry accounting 6. Why double-entry accounting? 7. The period 1500 to 1800 8. The period 1800 to 1955 9. The period 1955 to 1970 10. The period 1970 to the present 11. The Conceptual Framework Project 12. Summary of developments over the period 1800 to the present 13. Emergence of the profession 14. Legislation 15. The industrial revolution 16.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Kumarasinghe, 2010) are from Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Inscriptions in Anuradhapura: Wages of monastery servants Inscriptions in Polonnaruwa Ã¢â¬â Donations from tax Ã¢â¬Å"I, Thalatha Lakshmi, daughter of Sangha, the revenue officer of Mahagama, donated for the welfare of Harayada temple, one kiriya of the paddy field called Paraha in Harayada belonging to my family, all that I receive as one tax out of the three taxes for this village, as well as my share of meat tax for hunting peacocks and deer , as well as my share of the tax equal to amount of paddy sown and my share of familys tenure rights as one of twin cultivators. (Kokebbe inscription - 141 AD) Inscriptions in Anuradhapura: recording Donations Inscriptions in Polonnaruwa: KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Governance Though Sri Lankan history is more than 2,600 years old, the significance of the archaeological findings in terms of accounting history has not been much investigated. This poem draws researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention to that area of study. A counting history Beyond a thousand years Somewhere in the far away East People had carved on stones Their earnings, taxes, expenses Lying long under the earth Quadrant pillars and slabs Saved and secured imprints Survived like gold and gems Proud West tossed into the bin By Enrons and Worldcoms Pacioli wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t brawny enough To make those barons liable The wind has started blowing In the opposite direction Awakened spirits in shrines Unearthed the inscribed stones Scholars in developedShow MoreRelatedEssay on Bus310 Accounting Theory and Accountability954 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBUS310 ACCOUNTING THEORY AND ACCOUNTABILITY WORKSHOP 1 SOLUTIONS 1) GHHT: Chapter 1: Theory in Action 1.1 The article describes how a particular theoretical approach has been replaced by another. Explain why one theory replaces another, and who, or what, determines whether an existing theory survives. A theory is primarily meant to explain or predict an event, behaviour or outcome. Proponents of a theory look for evidence to support the theory. This evidence should be independently observedRead MoreUnified Field of Accounting Essay884 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUnified Field of Accounting Accounting is generally regarded as a mathematical discipline founded on mathematics. However, as the unified field chart created by Maharishi University of management shows, accounting is a Multi-layered discipline founded in the unified field of natural law. Maharishi explains that cosmic intelligence, absolute intelligence of Natural Law, displaying its infinite managing power in the orderly administration of the ever-evolving, ever-expanding universe. - Yogi,Read MoreGenetic Variance Between And Within Species1638 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGenetic variance between and within species had long been thought to be controlled through the impact of natural selection in adaptive evolution. With the publication of two independent papers this central tenet was brought into question with the new notion of selectively neutral mutations accounting for the majority of identified variance. This hypothesis termed the Neutral Theory of Evolution, at first questioned, has allowed significant advanc es in our understanding in the impacts of selectionRead More Role and Evolution of The International Accounting Standards Board703 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesRole and Evolution of The International Accounting Standards Board The International Accounting Standards Board, (IASB), began life as the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) in the 1973. The IASC was created in June 1973 as a result of an agreement by the accountancy bodies of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Ireland and the United States. These countries constituted the Board of IASC at that time. 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Chinese Culture Essay Throughout Chinasencased history it has developed much differently thanwestern parts of the world. Chinese culture varies greatlycompared to ours. These great differences between easternculture and western culture make China a very interestingplace. Some of the vast differences include literature, socialstructure, and government. The greatest difference isChinese philosophy and way of thinking. China hasdeveloped a strict system of tradition that has given Chinagreat advantages and disadvantages. This is shown inChinese literature. Tradition in China is a set of unwrittenlaws. This is why China turned its eyes from the outsideworld and looked in. China found everything it needed inTradition (4). The strong traditions and customs playprobably the greatest factor in the life of a Chinese person. This strict philosophy influences marriage, children, family,and duty in life. Marriage is much different and has differentlevels of companionship. One man may have many wivesand or concubines. The status of these wives and concubinesare very important. The lower you are on the husbands listthe lower you were treated (1). When in a marriage if youwere having children a son would be most desirable for youto have. You would be thought better of if you produced ason. This shows the male dominance in Chinese culture. Once a son was born the expectations for him were great. He was supposed to learn all great literature and be veryscholarly (2). A girl, also was supposed to be raise toappreciate art and literature. Most of all though childrenwere supposed to respect tradition. The traditions gave onea feeling of not the individual but the whole as a group. People grew up knowing their part in the world and strive todo that well. They learn to acknowledge their emperor as theSon of Heaven (4). Everything someone does, is done fortheir county, and their duty in life. Chinese literature showsthat when everything is done for tradition and the individual isnot priority, many people get forced into a hard and unfairlifestyle. This is shown in the movie Raise the Red Lanternwhen the tradition made the lives of four wives strict anddependent on the master and whom he chose each night. Their lives were so strict on tradition that one of the wiveslost her life because that is what tradition said should happenif she broke a rule (1). In other cases nothing could belearned or changed because of the restriction of tradition. Such was in the movie The Forbidden City. In this movie italso showed how the customs of the concubines and unicswere very constricting to their lives (3). In the book SixRecords of a Floating Life tradition creates theimpracticality of a test for magistrates that is purely literarybut decides the head of a certain area of land (2). In Chinatradition and customs has done a lot but has hindered the lifeof many of its people. Finally after thousands of years, thewithdrawn China was being seen by the western world. Soon after, European explorers slowly started seeping in. China tried to keep foreigners out finally with force but theold traditional weapons of the Chinese were no match forthe technologically advanced Europeans. So after Europedefeated Chinese forces and got their foot in the door toChina they slow started to enter. After the Chinese saw thenew foreigners they started questioning their owngovernment, philosophy, and social systems (5). When theforeigners started to build factories and to start gainingpower the Chinese recognized that if their country was toprotect itself against foreign domination, it would have tobecome a modern nation (5). This new reason to reformeventually brought about the Communist Revolution. Thecommunists did away with many of the old traditions andstarted to modernize the country. A new generation broughtnew ideas, and technology slowly started to replace tradition(6). China slowly started opening its eyes to the rest of theworld. China has come a long way in the past 50 years, froma withdrawn country run by tra dition, to a major modernsociety. This has given its people a chance to choose theirown destiny and to be open to the rest of the world. Chinasstrong heritage and knowledge of the past show that China isnow and will be in the future a great world power. WorksCited (1) Movie: Raise the Red Lantern. (2) Six Recordsof a Floating Life By Shen Fu, Advisory Editor: BettyRadice. Published 1983 by Penguin Books. (3) Movie: TheForbidden City. (4) Lecture On China: Mrs. Larsen11-27-96. (5) The Human Expression: World Regions andCultures. Paul Thomas Welty and Miriam Greenblatt,Published 1992 by Macmillan/McGraw-Hill. (6) The JoyLuckClub, Amy Tan, Published 1989 By The BallantinePublishing Group.