среда, 31 июля 2019 г.
Running Head: THE RHETORICAL ANALYSIS IN Ã¢â¬Å"NO WOMAN NO CRYÃ¢â¬ The Rhetorical Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ by Bob Marley and the Wailers Karen Start Dr. Felicia Dziadek Composition 1301 October 1, 2011 Abstract In this paper, the rhetorical analysis of the lyrics to Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ , made famous by Bob Marley and the Wailers, has been analyzed to reveal the rhetoric mean. Historical events in the Jamaican governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s actions influenced the singer to protect, in a peaceful manner, the people and culture of his country, Jamaica.Repetition of phrases, sentence structure, tones and values of the song are used by the artist to help Ã¢â¬Å"moveÃ¢â¬ the people then and still today. The Rhetorical Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ by Bob Marley and the Wailers Try not start the opening sentence with a quote. Ã¢â¬Å"1979, Boston, MA, live at Amandla Festival-Harvard Stadium, Bob Marley and the Wailers performed the song Ã¢â¬ËNo Woman No C ryÃ¢â¬â¢ mid day because promoters feared a riot [would spark in the streets. Ã¢â¬ (moga1985's Channel, 2006) One of the great songs ever written, Ã¢â¬Å"[n]umber 37 on Rolling StoneÃ¢â¬â¢s 500 Greatest Song of All TimeÃ¢â¬ (Wailers, B. M. , 2011. ), made a huge impact on society when the famous musician Bob Marley helped to bring peace into his country. But what is it that attracts and persuades people to react after listening to words of a performer? The music,take out the the lyrics, tones, beat, or is it the rhetorical statement within the song?After completing the recent research of Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ , the proposed purpose of this melody is said to preach the word for a better government, and is dedicated to Bob MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Ciddy, for the love and support she provided through the hard times in Trenchtown, Jamaica. The people of Jamaican took the rhetorical meaning of the song into action. Rebellions and riots were feared to hit the streets to fi ght for peace and love the natives deserved in Jamaica. Bob MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s face and name revolves around the drastic change of Jamaica. Taking the hetorical meaning of this simple song is strong enough to be used as a weapon to protect rights; to have a better life. To help further understanding of Bob MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s words, the information collected has been constructed, analyzed, and developed into a thought of the rhetorical analysis, (and the reasoning for the words carefully chosen for the song Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ ) take this out. Bob Marley carefully chose his words for the song Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ to show the desperate need for peace and to love to his nation by using repetitions, a variety of tones and beats, and peaceful rebellion.The rhetorical analysis of BobÃ¢â¬â¢s songs helped to motivate the people into an understanding of the need for peace. In everyday life we experience rhetorical situations, such as advertisements or just simply trying to get someone to raise the thermostat without asking but initially presenting the issue. In most rhetorical situations, people continue to retain the music or rhythm without noticing the rhetoric in songs, poems, and articles. Such an example is the famous repetative song Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ by Bob Marley and the Wailers.It is believed the song was intentionally written for Bob MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Ciddy, or for the sake of his country and religion. Reason for such rhetorical words was because of the independence of Jamaica. Marley was being Ã¢â¬Å"[e]xposed to the staunch realities of abject poverty, low pay, malnutrition and disease and a lack of political rights by the poor, houses which were anything from cardboard boxes to beaten out oil drums nailed together, roadblocks, migration, [and] food shortage. Ã¢â¬ (rasta man vibrations, 2011. Life became hard for the Jamaicans therefore the songÃ¢â¬â¢s rhetorical message relates to the politics at the time being and influ enced millions world-wide for peace. The phrase Ã¢â¬Å"[i]n the government yard in Trenchtown, Oba, ob-serving the hypocritesÃ¢â¬ (Ford, Vincent, 1976) refers to the lack of help and support for the people suffering. MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellion wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t just to preach how bad the government is or to persuade the public to revolt; in fact his voice rang another bell. To teach the world to love and take care of one another is the message in between the lines of the lyrics.His famous quote Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ has imprinted the Jamaican government with a rhetorical situation of hard times in life, and the tone peace and love sets a good state of mind in the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s hearts; in which helped the movement of Jamaican independence. The message from the lyrics means more than just singing to be heard, itÃ¢â¬â¢s about having a better life, and to show that Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman [should] No[t] CryÃ¢â¬ (Ford, Vincent. ) because the future will be better. To get to the rhet orical message, you must first discover the features of the song Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ for a better understanding of how and why the lyrics and beats influence the message.The construction of a song can show other characteristics about the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s appearances or beliefs. First recognized by the audience are the diction and the chronological order of ideas from the performer. Bob MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s chose of words are mainly informal diction. He speaks to his audience as if he personally knows them. BobÃ¢â¬â¢s language is so passionate and his words relate to the audience on a deep personal level. A popular choice of writing is repetition of words or phrases also used in the Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ . The lines Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"EverythingÃ¢â¬â¢s gonna be alrightÃ¢â¬ (Ford, Vincent. are repeated and detain a deeper message verses just seeing the plain text. Sentence structure is also a helpful tool used by artist. The arrangement of ideas in a song is very important. In the Also, the performance of the song is very sophisticated. Because MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s words were so passionate, people literally took the rhetorical message into action. Most reggae music is a form of steady beat and ska combined and slowed. Usually the third or fourth string is accented and this tends to be the standard rhythm.The rhythm, beats, repetition of words, and the order of Bob MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas all contribute to the rhetorical message of the song. Content and form are presented in the song and correspond to one another. The main purpose received from Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ was the simple fact to not worry or stress and that the individual will be reassured Ã¢â¬Å"everything will be alrightÃ¢â¬ . The author of the song appeals to the reason of hardship in Trechtown, Jamaica. Such reason of this is the change of JamaicaÃ¢â¬â¢s government control. Independence was won shortly before the burst of reggae music.People began to view life differently and shift to a new prospective. Not only does Bob Marley make music but he also changes many individual minds on a variety of subjects. When individuals listen to the words presented in a song, they form an image or story of what the performer is introducing. For the song Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ , the audience infers it is about a woman and the performer is trying to reassure her that there is no reason to cry. But in reality, the sweet words are directed into two ways. One line in the lyrics Ã¢â¬Å"Then we would cook cornmeal porridgeÃ¢â¬ (Ford, Vincent. ) is eferring to the dinners Marley would enjoy with his mother. Ã¢â¬Å"Although porridge for dinner was an indication of the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s economic need it was also conversely an indication of strength and love through BobÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction with having such a meal. Ã¢â¬ (rasta man vibrations, 2011. ) This line is so sincere about the memories he shared with his mother growing up poor without food . After analyzing the song, a different perspective is formed. Majority of the audience assume the rhetorical message is directed to the relationship between Marley and his family and also to preach for a better system of government for Jamaica.Emotionally the audience feels a sense of hurt, hope, and calming peace from the performer. To contribute to this sense, form of the lyrics helps to portray such emotions. The structure of communication is sculpted into public communication; Ã¢â¬Å"In other words, it is the intention of the communicator that what is communicated might be received/apprehended by anyone. Ã¢â¬ (Faulkner, Andrew, 2009. ) The performer, Bob Marley, uses such communication in hopes the audience will receive the information of the public to understand and continue to fight for the hope of having a free and peaceful country.This usage of form and content helps the artist reach out to the public. MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to the public and the techniques he had chos en were very useful to get his rhetorical message in his song clear to the point. Performers write and sing for various reasons and another key element to a performerÃ¢â¬â¢s writing is his audience. When listening to a song, a thought of whom the lyrics are directed to is proposed. Ã¢â¬ËWho could the writer possibly be directing his attention to? Ã¢â¬â¢ is question often brought to mind. In the perspective of Marley, his intentions were to his people; the natives suffering in Jamaica. Then we would cook corn meal porridge, Of which I'll share with youÃ¢â¬ this line considers the meals Bob Marley would eat with his mother. At the time in Jamaica, the public was so poor they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to have a diversity of food. The message within these lines is directed to his mother. Like many of the Jamaicans, Marley had experienced hardship therefore we can only assume his audiences are the people of Jamaica. Ã¢â¬Å"In its literal sense the song can be interpreted as an ode to MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother and the hardships they both faced in Trench TownÃ¢â¬ . (Rasta man vibration, 2011).The performer used much of his personal experiences show that he too feels the same as the rest of the public. In sense that the public wanted a better life; to have food, free of diseases, and a home to live in. We as the modern day listeners, interpret the song into manners in which we can understand. It is believed the information Marley has given to his audiences is exposed for the spread of the good word; peace. Historical events influence the people experiencing the change of life, hardship, pain, and the need of support from those who want to Ã¢â¬ËruleÃ¢â¬â¢.The wide range of audiences Bob Marley has obtain have continued to spread the peace, love, and happiness in hope that one day the people of the world will not have to Ã¢â¬Å"sheÃ¢â¬â¢d no tears. Ã¢â¬ (Ford, Vincent, 1974. ) Out of such powerful performances and significantly constructed communication cu lture and values can be produced. Marley had Ã¢â¬Ëmoved the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ into a cultural development people today continue to practice his motivations. Individuals practice the art of marijuana, love, peace movements, and creating reggae music. MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s face can be seen from posters to T-shirts and his words are used as greetings or goodbyes.Till this day, MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s name is best known for his perspective on life, the fight for his people, to keeping his religion, and a better government in his country. Many audiences have been reached out by the words of Bob Marley and his music lives on today touching the hearts of many people. The only clear cut rhetorical message Bob Marley has given to the world is the uplifting phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"Peace, Love, and Happiness. Ã¢â¬ Rhetorical analysis can provide a deeper intellectual thought of an article, book, poem, or song. In this case, the song Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ by Bob Marley and the Wailers was analyzed to receiv e the message within the lines.Love, hope, pain, and sorrow all contribute to the long lasting song Bob Marley has given us. The sentence structure, structure of communication, and features used help to contribute the reasoning of Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ . The performances of the artist contribute to the passive moving lyrics as well. A performer will most likely present the rhythm and beats to help the sentence stucture of the lyrics. Looking through the fine print of casual writings reveals rhetorical analysis with a little research and historical fact support. References 1. Bob MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s song No Woman No Cry. n. d. ). rasta man vibration. Retrieved October 2, 2011, from http://www. rasta-man-vibration. com/no-woman-no-cry. html. 2. __video_username__, m. (2006, April 2). moga1985's Channel Ã¢â¬â YouTube . YouTube Ã¢â¬â Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved October 2, 2011, from http://www. youtube. com/user/moga1985. 3. BobMarley. com | The Official Site of Bob Marley . (2010, December 27). BobMarley. com | The Official Site of Bob Marley . Retrieved October 2, 2011, from http://www. bobmarley. com/. 4. Wailers, B. M. (2011, September 20). No Woman, No Cry Ã¢â¬â Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved October 2, 2011, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/No_Woman. 5. Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No Cry Lyrics Ã¢â¬â Bob Marley. Ã¢â¬ Lyrics, Song Lyrics Ã¢â¬â LyricsFreak. com. N. p. , n. d. Web. 2 Oct. 2011. ;http://www. lyricsfreak. com/b/bob. 6. Ford, Vincent. Ã¢â¬Å"No Woman No CryÃ¢â¬ lyric credit. (1976) 7. Faulkner, Andrew. Ã¢â¬Å"The Structure of Communication Ã « Reflections and Insights on Transformation. Ã¢â¬ Reflections and Insights on Transformation. N. p. , 17 May 2009. Web. 2 Oct. 2011. ;http://sureshfernando. wordpress. com/2009/05/17/the-structure-of-communication/;.
вторник, 30 июля 2019 г.
Good morning class. The theme of my IA is motocross but today I will speak specifically on the topic Ã¢â¬Å"The development of motocross as an established sportÃ¢â¬ . What is motocross?Ã¢â¬ ¦. Motocross is defined as a timed motorcycle race over a closed outdoor course consisting of a winding dirt trail with hills, jumps, sharp turns, and often muddy terrain. This sport originated in Britain as an off-road event called scrambling. The first known scramble took place at Camberley, Surrey in 1924. The earliest motorcycles were little more than bicycles with small internal combustion engines attached. During these early years people sometimes, used the tracks built for bicycle racing for scrambling events. These early scrambling events were used to show case motorcycles entered by manufacturers to publicize their brand in much the same way they do today. By the late 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"ScramblingÃ¢â¬ had become very popular in both Britain and France. The French added new dimensions to the sport, they shortened the tracks added laps and man made obstacles such as jumps. They also changed the name to what it is known as todayÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Motocross which is a combination of motorcycle and cross country. The bikes used for motocross during the late 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s were very similar to those used on the streets at that time such as Harley DavidsonÃ¢â¬â¢s and Indians, which had rigid frames. By the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s these then gave way to frames containing suspension and more advanced swinging fork rear suspension by the early 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. According to the FIM motocross went international in 1947 when the Dutch national motorcycle federation hosted a competition called the motocross des nations for national teams on an estate in the Netherlands. Three countries were entered in the first year of the competition they were Great Britain, The Netherlands, and Belgium. The riders competed in races consisting of two heats each of eight laps, over a two mile circuit. Scoring was done by computing the total times of the top three riders from each national team. The British who were represented by, Bill Nicholson, Fred Rist, and Ray Scovell riding 500cc bikes manufactured by the British Small arms company won the competition, beating the Belgians by only 9 seconds. The popularity of the event was shown to have greatly improved as the second staging of the event in Belgium attracted thirty thousand spectators. The British continued to show their dominance in the sport as they went on to win the motocross des nations 15 times in the first twenty years of the event. In 1952 the FIM (Federation Internationale de Motocyclisme), the motorcyclingÃ¢â¬â¢s international governing body, created an individual European Championship, and then upgraded it to a World Championship title in 1957. In 1962 a young engineer in East Germany Walter Kaaden, made a technological breakthrough that greatly improved the two-stroke engine and its usefulness which in turn Ã¢â¬Å"revolutionizedÃ¢â¬ the motorcycle industry. His discovery was that of the principle of the expansion chamber, which when properly shaped, instantly increased the power of a two stroke engine by over 25 percent. This gave the 2 stroke engine a power to weight ratio that easily exceeded the 4-stroke engine. Another benefit of the 2 stroke engine was that it was less complicated and much cheaper to mass produce. As a result of this many industrial nations including Germany, Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, Sweden, Spain, and Japan quickly embraced the new technology. As engine design and power improved competition for 250cc motorcycles the class in which 2 strokes performed their best, began to gain in popularity and in 1962 the FIM created a 250cc world championship. As a result of the introduction of the 250cc class the growth of motocross during the 1970s was nothing less than a motorsport revolution. The growth of motocross when measured by the number of American motorcycle association sanctioned events grew one hundred fold between 1965 and 1975. In the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s the sport developed even more in the US, the 250cc class went through the decade and in 1985 the East/West 125cc class which was created for the younger less experienced riders was formed. During the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s the 250 class remained in the spotlight, with the main focus now moving from Europe where motocross had been more popular, to the USA, where riders such as Jeremy McGrath and Jeff Stanton consistently dominated the sport. Today, as a result of the advancements and achievements in the world of motocross it has allowed for the world to recognize it as an established sport in which many have excelled and shown greatness Ã¢â¬ ¦. persons such as Jeremy McGrath, Ricky Carmichael, and James Stewart are some of the greatest names associated with the sport of motocross. Motocross Good morning class. The theme of my IA is motocross but today I will speak specifically on the topic Ã¢â¬Å"The development of motocross as an established sportÃ¢â¬ . What is motocross?Ã¢â¬ ¦. Motocross is defined as a timed motorcycle race over a closed outdoor course consisting of a winding dirt trail with hills, jumps, sharp turns, and often muddy terrain. This sport originated in Britain as an off-road event called scrambling. The first known scramble took place at Camberley, Surrey in 1924. The earliest motorcycles were little more than bicycles with small internal combustion engines attached. During these early years people sometimes, used the tracks built for bicycle racing for scrambling events. These early scrambling events were used to show case motorcycles entered by manufacturers to publicize their brand in much the same way they do today. By the late 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"ScramblingÃ¢â¬ had become very popular in both Britain and France. The French added new dimensions to the sport, they shortened the tracks added laps and man made obstacles such as jumps. They also changed the name to what it is known as todayÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Motocross which is a combination of motorcycle and cross country. The bikes used for motocross during the late 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s were very similar to those used on the streets at that time such as Harley DavidsonÃ¢â¬â¢s and Indians, which had rigid frames. By the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s these then gave way to frames containing suspension and more advanced swinging fork rear suspension by the early 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. According to the FIM motocross went international in 1947 when the Dutch national motorcycle federation hosted a competition called the motocross des nations for national teams on an estate in the Netherlands. Three countries were entered in the first year of the competition they were Great Britain, The Netherlands, and Belgium. The riders competed in races consisting of two heats each of eight laps, over a two mile circuit. Scoring was done by computing the total times of the top three riders from each national team. The British who were represented by, Bill Nicholson, Fred Rist, and Ray Scovell riding 500cc bikes manufactured by the British Small arms company won the competition, beating the Belgians by only 9 seconds. The popularity of the event was shown to have greatly improved as the second staging of the event in Belgium attracted thirty thousand spectators. The British continued to show their dominance in the sport as they went on to win the motocross des nations 15 times in the first twenty years of the event. In 1952 the FIM (Federation Internationale de Motocyclisme), the motorcyclingÃ¢â¬â¢s international governing body, created an individual European Championship, and then upgraded it to a World Championship title in 1957. In 1962 a young engineer in East Germany Walter Kaaden, made a technological breakthrough that greatly improved the two-stroke engine and its usefulness which in turn Ã¢â¬Å"revolutionizedÃ¢â¬ the motorcycle industry. His discovery was that of the principle of the expansion chamber, which when properly shaped, instantly increased the power of a two stroke engine by over 25 percent. This gave the 2 stroke engine a power to weight ratio that easily exceeded the 4-stroke engine. Another benefit of the 2 stroke engine was that it was less complicated and much cheaper to mass produce. As a result of this many industrial nations including Germany, Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, Sweden, Spain, and Japan quickly embraced the new technology. As engine design and power improved competition for 250cc motorcycles the class in which 2 strokes performed their best, began to gain in popularity and in 1962 the FIM created a 250cc world championship. As a result of the introduction of the 250cc class the growth of motocross during the 1970s was nothing less than a motorsport revolution. The growth of motocross when measured by the number of American motorcycle association sanctioned events grew one hundred fold between 1965 and 1975. In the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s the sport developed even more in the US, the 250cc class went through the decade and in 1985 the East/West 125cc class which was created for the younger less experienced riders was formed. During the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s the 250 class remained in the spotlight, with the main focus now moving from Europe where motocross had been more popular, to the USA, where riders such as Jeremy McGrath and Jeff Stanton consistently dominated the sport. Today, as a result of the advancements and achievements in the world of motocross it has allowed for the world to recognize it as an established sport in which many have excelled and shown greatness Ã¢â¬ ¦. persons such as Jeremy McGrath, Ricky Carmichael, and James Stewart are some of the greatest names associated with the sport of motocross.
понедельник, 29 июля 2019 г.
Energe policy - Research Paper Example (Fox-Penner and Peter S, 2010) A huge sum of monety is required before their implementation is attained. This may lead to tax rate increament. Although the regulations may affect people in terms of employment and costs, it is implemented for the advantage of the people. This is due to the health risks caused by these energy productions and also the environment. The life of a human being is more important than the money or the living standards of people. (Fox-Penner and Peter S, 2010) People should gauge the advantages and disadvantages in order to react to the effect of energy from ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s administration. In this paper we will be able to see two policies which should be considered and be implemented immediately and one which is not necessary for it to be implemented. Ozone is a combination of chemical reaction which includes methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and other volatile organic compounds. The Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards should be implemented in order to prevent its effects to the living things both animals and plants. This is in section 109 of the clean Air Act which includes both primary and secondary standards .The primary standards are used to protect the health of the citizens while the secondary standards are used in protecting the animals, vegetation, visibility and buildings. This act thus suggests that there should be control measure implemented on sources of air pollutants like industries and vehicles among others in order to reduce the effect of air pollution to the environment. (Implementation of the Clean Air Act National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 1998) This is because there effect will lead to an increase in health complication amongst the citizens subjected to the pollutants. The result of this will include spending money in solving these issues and many people might lose their lives. This will cost the government of about $19 to $90 dollars in order to be implemented which is high but it should also be considered that its effect will be affecting everyone. The effect of the ozone will affect the ecosystem at large as most of the plants will not be able to survive and humans will immune system will decrease increasing the chances of its effect to the human system. Emission reduction strategies should be used in both the local, state tribunal agencies from the menu of control measures in order to attain the national Ambient Air Quality standards on attaining a new primary ozone standard. Coal is a major producer of electricity in America by producing 54% of electricity supplied in the market. It is also used for cement among other purposes at home. Although it is useful to the American citizen it also has effects both to the health and the environment. The use of coal ash has many effects during combustion as they affect the human health for example they cause cancer and respiratory complications. They also affect the environment as it contains toxic elements like sulfur, mercury an d fluorine among others which also affect the environment. Coal plants emit carbon dioxide which affects the climate change as it prevents the emission of heat from the Earth surface which leads to the global effect. This can be seen by the reducing level of waterways as a lot of water evaporates. The percentage of coal production is over million tons and about 78% million are disposed while the rest is sold. Coal also causes aid
воскресенье, 28 июля 2019 г.
Why do Organizational Change Initiatives Often Fail - Research Paper Example How to change may differ across organizations but change is essential for progress or as Abrahamson (2004) calls it Ã¢â¬Å"creative destructionÃ¢â¬ . Without pain no change is possible and the justification for change is Ã¢â¬Å"change or perishÃ¢â¬ . Change could involve a process, technology or public process. Research indicates that almost 56-70 percent of mergers and acquisitions fail to achieve the intended objectives while 90 percent of culture change initiatives fail (Atkinson, 2005). If the change objectives are not achieved, the organization should strive to evaluate the causes of failure. Once the causes can be identified it may be possible to apply change management procedure to achieve the change objectives. Consequences of change failure can be disastrous. Change failures not only result in waste of resources but when changes fail people go cynical and lose motivation to work. Failure in managing change can lead to preconceptions and perceptions that can have a demora lizing effect on employees. The causes of failures that have emerged include shortcomings in change leadership, insufficient attention given to the complexities in the change process, or repetitive change syndrome resulting in initiative overload, change chaos and cynicism. Failures could also occur due to lack of clear compelling statement or vision, or when there is no definite plan or directives, no goals and programs, no methods or deadlines. Speeding up the change process could lead to errors that could be devastating. Management may also fail to recognize that adjustment to change could take time. Various tools have been suggested to manage change effectively the most important suggestion being that change requires effective leadership; it requires more than just managing change. This should be a visionary leadership where the vision is effectively communicated to the people concerned. Empowerment is another effective tool to obtain the intended outcome in the change process a s empowerment helps eliminate the obstacles while it also reduces the alienated feeling that employees develop. However, a practicing manager needs to ensure that the stakeholders are involved in the change process from the very beginning. No sense of urgency should be transmitted as this could end up in change chaos. Communication should be honest and be able to generate trust and confidence. Short-term wins should be created as it is an effective tool in receiving cooperation for furthering the process of change. This research was conducted to synthesize the varied perspectives on change leadership and change models that could help an organization to achieve the change objectives. The research will review the top reasons for change initiative failure and how they can be remedied. Various change models of renowned scholars such as Kotter, Lewin, Bridges and Abrahamson have been reviewed and evaluated. 2. Literature Review 2.1 Causes of failure in the change process 2.1.1 Resistance to change Manifestation of resistance Employee resistance to change can be exhibited or communicated in a number of ways, the employees could express cynicism or they may not be Ã¢â¬Å"openÃ¢â¬ to change or Ã¢â¬Å"not readyÃ¢â¬ for change (Peccei, Giangreco & Sebastiano, 2011). The resistance to change manifests itself mainly through low-engagement in pro-change behaviors. There can even be more active anti-change behaviors as when people speak out in public against the change or when they undermine its implementation. Resistance is often displayed passively and covertly, asserts Atkinson. If they were displayed in a forthright manner it would have been possible to deal with them logically. Some times staff may attend a change project and display approval but underneath this external facade they nurture
суббота, 27 июля 2019 г.
CPU scheduling - Essay Example Sometimes people speak of pseudoparallelism in this context, to contrast it with the true hardware parallelism of multiprocessor systems (which have two or more CPUs sharing the same physical memory). Keeping track of multiple, parallel activities is hard for people to do. Therefore, operating system designers over the years have evolved a conceptual model (sequential processes) that makes parallelism easier to deal with. (Tanenbaum, 2006). The difference between a process and a program is subtle, but crucial. An analogy may help make this point clearer. Consider a culinary-minded computer scientist who is baking a birthday cake for his daughter. He has a birthday cake recipe and a kitchen well stocked with the necessary input: flour, eggs, sugar, extract of vanilla, and so on. In this analogy, the recipe is the program (i.e., an algorithm expressed in some suitable notation), the computer scientist is the processor (CPU), and the cake ingredients are the input data. The process is the activity consisting of our baker reading the recipe, fetching the ingredients, and baking the cake. The key idea here is that a process is an activity of some kind. It has a program, input, output, and a state. A single processor may be shared among several processes, with some scheduling algorithm being used to determine when to stop work on one process and service a different one. Operating systems n Creation of a process: Operating systems need some way to make sure all the necessary processes exist. In very simple systems, or in systems designed for running only a single application (e.g., controlling a device in real time), it may be possible to have all the processes that will ever be needed be present when the system comes up. In general-purpose systems, however, some way is needed to create and terminate processes as needed during operation. There are four events that cause process to be created: 1. System initialization 2. Execution of a process creation system call by an existing process. 3. A user request to create a new process. 4. Initiation of a batch job. When an operating system is booted, often several processes are created. Some of these are foreground processes, that is, processes that interact with (human) users and perform work for them. Others are background processes, which are not associated with particular users, but instead have some specific function. For example, a background process may be designed to accept incoming requests for web pages hosted on that machine, waking up when a request arrives to service the request. Processes that stay in the background to handle some activity such as web pages, printing, and so on are called daemons. Large systems commonly have dozens of them. During the running of multiple processes, the processes compete among themselves. When more than one process is in the ready state and there is only one CPU available, the operating system must decide which process to run first. The part of the operating system that makes the choice is called the scheduler; the algorithm it uses is called the scheduling algorithm. Introduction to scheduling: Back in the old days of batch systems with input in the form of card images on a magnetic tape, the scheduling algorithm was simple: just run the next job on the tape. With timesharing systems, the scheduling algorithm became more complex, because there were generally multiple users waiting for service. There
пятница, 26 июля 2019 г.
Dael with deferent situation - Essay Example However, money is a short term motivator and only money is used to motivate the workforce, than can create an unhealthy relationship as the workforce can start perceiving the management as unfeeling, tyrannical force which does not have consideration for their actual needs. At the higher levels of work, the workforce require non-money motivators such as praise, recognition, acknowledgement, and a sense of belonging which can go a long way in building the sense of belonging and the self-esteem need is hence, fulfilled creating a good working relationship and effectively, a positive outlook. Answer:2 There are forms of power and two of those, are called as visible and invisible powers. Visible power is defined as the first face of power and is the vocal voice of power in a manner of speaking. This is that source of power which can be demonstrated through participation in decision making and having a certain influence in the decision making process itself. This power can be observed and is "pluralist" sense of power. The second categorization of power; invisible power is that power which allows the shaping of people's needs and wants. It is embedded in the social, cultural, ideological values and norms. It is an internalized sense of power which cannot always be observed. ... d resources-clearly, the difference of the composition of these two results in the basic differences in power itself If a person is more motivated to prove himself/herself, she would be motivated to show the skill by a visible sense of power while a equally motivated person could be more interested in remaining on the sidelines and shaping the wants and needs. Answer 3: A diagram depicting the main ideas of the article: Decreasing Incinerators usage PVCs decreasing -Mercury levels down-Proper disposal-Eyeing greater biological swath Energy & H2p conservationProduce of Dioxin Healthier food practices-greener suppliers-No VOCs or Low Vocs b) The stakeholders interested in this venture and who would have a certain aim, stake involved would be the; the environmentalists such as the United States Protection Agency, other concerned environmental groups, the community consisting of people going to hospitals, the people working in the health sector, the healthcare industry including the public and private officials, the architectural firms who specialize in healthcare projects, and if the situation becomes critical then even the World Health Organization. The perspective of the healthcare industry and its officials would be that they would want to have this issue taken care of as soon as possible. The publicity that this issue has been getting has created a negative image and has caused extensive damage to the credibility of the industry itself .By taking preventive measures, the industry officials want to clean up the "mess" while safeguarding the future The perspective of the concerned community would that of safeguarding their interests by
Investor Protection - Essay Example When there is strong investor protection, there is low insider expropriation, which in turn leads to lower profits appropriation, lower tunnelling of assets as well as reduced dilutions (DeFond & Hung, 2007); in return, minority and external shareholders enjoy lower agency costs, thereby reinforcing investorÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence. Better investor confidence eventually culminates in many benefits including higher profitability, lower costs of debt and equity, higher access to capital, higher valuation and liquidity. Moreover, better investor confidence leads to increased savings, productive investment of savings, and enhanced capital accumulation. Investor protection can be achieved through the legal approach to corporate governance, which provides laws and regulations for the protection of external investors (Spindler, 2011). Investors often feel safer to invest in countries where their rights are protected under the law, because they understand their vulnerability to expropriation. Unlike employees or suppliers who are less likely to be mistreated by firms due to their continued usefulness to the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ operations and sustainability, external investors must rely on the law for protection in an unfamiliar environment. Legal protection of external investors undermines expropriation technologies and mechanisms, while in an environment with no legal protection the so-called insiders (managers and controlling stockholders) can easily steal a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profits (La Porta et al., 2000). In that respect, investor protection renders the diversion techniques ineffective so that the insiders expropriate less, thereby crea ting a positive reputation for their organizations and obtaining external financing on better terms than when expropriation is high. The legal framework provides laws and regulations that mandate certain rights or powers belonging to
четверг, 25 июля 2019 г.
Quantitative Risk Analysis in Investment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words
Quantitative Risk Analysis in Investment - Essay Example Risk analysis is common now-a-days in all types of investment as the modern risk management literature has grown significantly. Many theories and models have been developed in the area of risk management by eminent thinkers. This paper takes a look at the classical risk analysis framework, namely mean-variance framework. The essay takes a descriptive approach wherein the mean variance model is discussed in the context of single as well as portfolio investment. An attempt is also made to incorporate the application of the model in pricing of insurance policies. Risk analysis in the context of investment is the process of quantifying the possibility of incurring loss to the return from the investment. The return from an investment is prone to risk when the actual return varies from expected return. Since risk measures the possibility of incurring an outcome, it can be measured with the help of probability and other statistical measures. As defined by T. V Bedford, risk analysis is the process of identification and quantification of scenarios, probabilities and consequences (Bedford 2001 p. 11). It is notable here that risk analysis cannot be possible without measuring return from the investment as risk and return are correlated and risk measures how actual return varies from expected return. ... Risk analysis of individual security investment is relatively easy as compared to that of portfolio. Risk Analysis in Portfolio Investment Portfolio is the collection of securities selected for investment. The logic behind investors' preference for portfolio rather than individual security is that the risks in portfolio can be reduced more easily than that of individual security. In other words, portfolio facilitates the risk diversification through spreading risks across all securities in the portfolio. The loss in one security can be nullified by the profit from another security/ securities in a portfolio. Calculation of Expected Return The analysis of risk in a portfolio is possible only after measuring return there from. The level of return expected from an investment is calculated by using the expected value of the distribution, and the probability distribution of expected returns for a portfolio. Then, risk is measured by the degree of variability around the expected value of the probability distribution of returns. The most accepted measures of this variability are the variance and standard deviation (Frank 2002 p. 21). The expected return from a portfolio can be estimated with the following model: (Source: Frank 2002 p. 21) Where, = 1.0; n = the number of securities; = the proportion of the funds invested in security i; = the return on i th security and portfolio p; and = The expectation of the variable in the parentheses (Source: Frank 2002 p. 21) Calculation of Portfolio Risk Risk is the chance that actual return will differ from their expected values. The expected value of return can be obtained from probability estimates for expected
среда, 24 июля 2019 г.
RBA Decrease Rates for Christmas - Essay Example The economy is made up of various components and each and every single component affects the economy differently. In the explanation and analysis of the Ã¢â¬Å"RBA Decrease Rates for ChristmasÃ¢â¬ article, a number of economic components are considered. These components aid intensive analysis of the article based on the context of actions taken by the RBA, Central Bank and the economic responses experienced in the financial markets and the economy at large. Aggregate demand and supply plays a central role in the economy, determining the overall level of performance of the economy1. Unemployment and inflation are key determinants of the direction that the economy takes and they both affect decisions made within the economic context. Monetary policy on the other hand is undertaken by the Central Bank as a measure to manage the economy alongside fiscal policy. The two measures are crucial in managing currency trends that further determine the level of inflation in the economy. Analys is in the Context of Economic Concepts/Theories Aggregate demand and Supply The economic model is made of different sectors and industries. Each constituent sector or industry contributes towards the overall welfare of the economy. Aggregate demand and supply denotes the entire economyÃ¢â¬â¢s output. ... Aggregate demand brings on board total spending in the economy. The different levels of spending in the economy are made up of consumption, investment, government purchases and net exports3. The aggregate supply curve comprises of an inflationary and a non-inflationary region. This factor provides a basic principle for the required analysis in this paper. Different factors affect both aggregate demand and aggregate supply. However the interaction of the two is critical to any given analysis in the economy. National output can be either nominal or real, depending on the price base used in their computation. Where more stable prices are used to compute national output given an identified base year, real national output is computed. On the other hand, where current prices are used, nominal national output is computed. Real GDP is obtained when the aggregate demand and aggregate supply interact. On the same point, the resultant equilibrium results in the national inflation rate4. The fig ure below shows an aggregate demand-aggregate supply model: A number of factors affect both aggregate demand and aggregate supply. Only the factors that are important to this analysis will be highlighted. Income, wealth, credit availability, government demand, investment and future expectations on inflation, income, wealth and interest rates causes the aggregate demand curve to shift to the right upon an increase in any of them. An increase in some other factors causes the aggregate demand curve to shift leftwards. These are: interest rates and taxation. On the other hand, a rightward shift is observed on the aggregate supply when prior investment,
вторник, 23 июля 2019 г.
Welfare and Food Stamps - Research Paper Example The program has tried to reduce hunger and improve food security among low-income Americans. This paper will discuss the high administration costs, alleged fraud cases in the program, and the negative effect on the labor market make it a failure. There is a need for urgent reforms in the food program to reduce enrolment and government spending, and localize it to the state level. The history of food stamps dates back to the 1930s. The Food Stamp program was both a farm price support program as an anti-poverty one. This has been the case since the early days of the program in the 1930s. The depletion of food surpluses and mismanagement saw the phase out of the program. It took several years to re-establish the program and congress passed legislation to provide food stamps to low-income Americans. However, only pilot programs took shape. It was only after President Lyndon Johnson directed congress to pass the Food Stamp Act of 1964 that saw the initiation of the modern food stamp program. The main aim of the program was to boost the agricultural economy and improve nutritional levels of Americans. Presently, it faces several challenges, especially after the 2002 farm bill, the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, and Energy Act of 2008 under the Obama administration, allowed noncitizens to register. This, coupled with easier claiming of benefits, in creased the trend of registration to the program. After the change of name from Ã¢â¬Ëfood stampsÃ¢â¬â¢ to the Ã¢â¬ËSupplemental Nutrition Assistance ProgramÃ¢â¬â¢, President ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s 2009 stimulus bill further stretched the program by increasing benefits by 13.6 percent (Tanner 2). Consequently, roughly 48 million Americans receive SNAP benefits today, and in so doing, this gives taxpayers a yearly cost of more than $78 billion (Tanner 2). Because of this surge, critics suggest that food stamps and the farm bill should be two separate entities
понедельник, 22 июля 2019 г.
Determining Databases and Data Communications Essay In this paper the writer will seek to respond to the questions designated for both scenarios. This paper will list typical fields for each type of data. Provide an example of two relationships that you need to track. This paper will also answer the questions of: Do you need a database system? If not, can ExcelÃ ® handle the data and the output? What are the advantages and disadvantages? Would you use a personal database or an enterprise database? Explain your answer. Would a decision support system (DSS) be helpful? Explain your answer. When directing companies who work diligently with computer technology, it becomes increasingly imperative to have an adequate knowledge of the technology that is obtainable. This will allow those who have to manage information to make the most effective choice concerning what technology should be used for the company. In the two scenarios, making the best choices in technology allows the manager to best confer time and energy with superficially formidable responsibilities. For instance, in the first scenario, an marketing assistant of a consumer electronics company is asked to not only maintain the booths for various trade shows from beginning to end, but is also asked to ensure that there any issues that arise during the delivery of the products are resolved. First, it is important to realize what information should be maintained in order to best ensure that the tools that are used during the trade shows. In cas es like these, it would be important to have a list that details what displays, equipment and booths are needed for specific trade shows, as well as when the displays, equipment, and booths should be shipped to the area and back. For example, if a trade show located in Tulsa, OK only needed one booth with one display in order to accommodate the space, it would be the job of the marketing assistant to ensure that the various parts made it to Tulsa, as well as ensure that the booth and display made it back to the office for future use; it would be necessary to know when it would be sent, as well as when it will be delivered back (which could be maintained with the knowledge of the delivering postal tracking number). In order to keep track of what is necessary for each trade show, there are several technological tools that would be instrumental in maintaining the information that will be transmitted. While one could use an Excel to begin the process of tracking the information that is needed, it would not be the best method of collecting that type of information, and it could be overwhelming over time. A database, on the other hand, could handle the information that is contained, and would allow the marketing assistant to create reports later on that can be used to analyze what changes could be made in the future whether it is making earlier shipments in order to ensure that it reaches an area on time, etc. (Middleton, 2009). Since there would only be one person keeping track of the information, it would not be necessary to create an enterprise database, which would have the capabilities of being made available to other departments within the company (Web Definition, 2012). This would allow one person to maintain the pertinent information that other departments may need without having too many people managing information, which could lead to confusion regarding where equipment is or what is needed for certain trade shows. Also, in order to maintain the large amount of information that would come from managing various trade shows, it would be necessary for the marketing assistant to have a decision support system, which is a Ã¢â¬Å"computer system that is designed to provide assistance in determining and evaluating alternative courses of actionÃ¢â¬ by Ã¢â¬Å"acquiring data from the mass of transactions of a firm,Ã¢â¬ by Ã¢â¬Å"analyzing it with advanced statistical techniques to extract meaningful information,Ã¢â¬ and by Ã¢â¬Å"narrowing down the range of choices by applying rules based on decision theory (Web Definition, 2012).Ã¢â¬ This will allow the marketing assistant to gain better knowledge of what could be improved upon for future trade shows. In the second scenario, technology has to be used in order to manage a consulting team of seven, some of whom work in an office and others who work from home. In this case, ensuring that there is equ al accessibility to each employee is paramount to maintaining the business. A wide area network, or WAN, would help to accommodate the needs of employees who are working in the office as well as those who work from home. The WAN would create several LAN connections that would allow workers to the same access to important information regardless of where they are (John, 2009). Also, for projects that more than likely will be time-sensitive, employees within the consulting team will have access to the printers and other equipmentÃ¢â¬â¢s that is a part of the network, so that tasks are completed in a timely manner (John, 2009). While there are certain security risks with using WAN that includes the potential infiltration from people other than employees and the possible placement of viruses that would threaten the maintenance of information that is stored, the use of anti-virus programs and other programs would help to protect the computers and information that they have, and the benefit far outweigh the potential risks. Also, a wireless access would better assist the team in completing tasks in different areas. Like WAN, wireless access would assist employees in gaining pertinent access to the information may normally be stored in in the office. For a consulting team who works in different areas, privacy and computer protection become a relevant problem that can be addressed with creating a virtual private network, or VPN. A VPN would ensure that the information that is held at the office for the team remains on a network that would only be accessible by the team, and it would prevent others who are not a part of the team from placing viruses on the computers or accessing the information, which could greatly hinder the completion of tasks and the accessibility of information. When considering what wireless networks should be used, cost as well as features must be considered. Excel documents often help to organize this information in order to assist leaders in making decisions regarding the best wireless network to purchase. For instance, if a wireless network is priced low but does not offe r the speeds or other features necessary to operate for a company, the network would not be good to expend money on. However, it could be equally dangerous to expend a lot of money on a wireless network that has a lot of features that may or may not be used. As a result, this requires that a company list the various features that would be necessary for the functioning of the company. The company can then review the list of features that are included for wireless networks that they are considering, listing the price of each network. This allows them to find the wireless network that best meets their companys needs without paying a lot of money for it. In conclusion, having a working understanding of the technology that is available to a company can help managers make wise and efficient choices regarding what tools should be used. In the first scenario, using databases in comparison to excel documents allows the marketing assistant to properly track equipment that is used on a daily b asis, as well as track where it is being shipped to. In the second scenario, using WAN or wireless networks allow a team to maintain access to pertinent information that could help employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s complete tasks in a timely manner regardless of their location. In these ways, technology assists companies in maintaining their business. References: Decision Support System. (2012). Ã¢â¬Å"Decision support system.Ã¢â¬ Retrieved from: http://www.decisionsupportsystem.info/ Middleton H. (2009). Ã¢â¬Å"Maintaining a relational vs. flat file marketing database.Ã¢â¬ Retrieved from: http://www.dbmarketing.com/articles/Art223.htm Charlene N. (2010). Ã¢â¬Å"Benefits of developing maintaining a database.Ã¢â¬ Retrieved from: http://www.reviveprojects.com.au/blogs//2010/10/06/benefits-of-developingmaintaining-a-customer-database- Web Definition. (2012). Ã¢â¬Å"Enterprise data.Ã¢â¬ Retrieved from: www.dataclaritycorp.com/cognos-glossary.html
An overview of the Ozone Layer INTRODUCTION Ã¢â¬Å"THE OZONE LAYERÃ¢â¬ The ozone layer is a portion of earth atmosphere that contains high levels of ozone. The atmosphere is divided into five layers: the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere, and the exosphere. The troposphere is the layer closest to earth and is where all weather happenings occur. The stratosphere is located directly above the troposphere, about 10-50 kilometers above the planet, and houses the ozone layer at an altitude of 20-30 kilometers. The mesosphere is located approximately 50-80 kilometers above the earth, while the thermosphere rests at an altitude of approximately 100-200 kilometers above the earth surface. Finally, the boundary of the outermost layer, the exosphere, extends roughly to 960-1000 kilometers above the earth. The ozone found in our atmosphere is formed by an interaction between oxygen molecules (composed of two oxygen atoms) and ultraviolet light. When ultraviolet light hits these oxygen molecules, the reaction causes the molecules to break apart into single atoms of oxygen (UV light + O2 > O + O). These single atoms of oxygen are very reactive, and a single atom combines with a molecule of oxygen to form ozone (O3), which is composed of three atoms of oxygen (2O + 2O2 > 2O3). Need for OZONE LAYER The ozone layer is essential for human life. It is able to absorb much harmful ultraviolet radiation, preventing penetration to the earth surface. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is defined as radiation with wavelengths between 290-320 nanometers, which are harmful to life because this radiation can enter cells and destroy the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of many life forms on planet earth. In a sense, the ozone layer can be thought of as a UV filter or our planets built in sunscreen. Without the ozone layer, UV radiation would not be filtered as it reached the surface of the earth. If this happened, cancer would break out and all of the living civilizations, and all species on earth would be in jeopardy. Thus, the ozone layer essentially allows life, as we know it, to exist. A Dobson Unit is a measurement of how thick a specific portion of the ozone layer would be if it were compressed into a single layer at zero degrees Celsius with one unit of atmospheric pressure acting on it (standard temperature and pressure STP). Thus, one Dobson Unit (DU) is defined as .01 mm thickness at standard temperature and pressure. Since the ozone layer over this area would form a 3 mm thick slab, the measurement of the ozone over Labrador is 300 DU. Ozone depletion: Who is responsible? It is important to recognize the sources of ozone depletion before one can fully understand the problem. There are three main contributors to the ozone problem: human activity, natural sources, and volcanic eruptions. Human activity is by far the most prevalent and destructive source of ozone depletion, while threatening volcanic eruptions are less common. Human activity, such as the release of various compounds containing chlorine or bromine, accounts for approximately 75 to 85 percent of ozone damage. Perhaps the most evident and destructive molecule of this description is chloroflourocarbon (CFC). CFCs were first used to clean electronic circuit boards, and as time progressed, were used in aerosols and coolants, such as refrigerators and air conditioners. When CFCs from these products are released into the atmosphere, the destruction begins. As CFCs are emitted, the molecules float toward the ozone rich stratosphere. Then, when UV radiation contacts the CFC molecule, this causes o ne chlorine atom to liberate. This free chlorine then reacts with an ozone (O3) molecule to form chlorine monoxide (ClO) and a single oxygen molecule (O2). This reaction can be illustrated by the following chemical equation: Cl + O3 > O2 + ClO. Then, a single oxygen atom reacts with a chlorine monoxide molecule, causing the formation of an oxygen molecule (O2) and a single chlorine atom (O + ClO > Cl + O2). This threatening chlorine atom then continues the cycle and results in further destruction of the ozone layer . Measures have been taken to reduce the amount of CFC emission, but since CFCs have a life span of 20-100 years, previously emitted CFCs will do damage for years to come. Natural sources also contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer, but not nearly as much as human activity. Natural sources can be blamed for approximately 15 to 20 percent of ozone damage. A common natural source of ozone damage is naturally occurring chlorine. Naturally occurring chlorine, like the chlorine released from the reaction between a CFC molecule and UV radiation, also has detrimental effects and poses danger to the earth. Finally, volcanic eruptions are a small contributor to ozone damage, accounting for one to five percent. During large volcanic eruptions, chlorine, as a component of hydrochloric acid (HCl), is released directly into the stratosphere, along with sulfur dioxide. In this case, sulfur dioxide is more harmful than chlorine because it is converted into sulfuric acid aerosols. These aerosols accelerate damaging chemical reactions, which cause chlorine to destroy ozone. Rocket Launches May Need Regulation to Prevent Ozone Depletion As the rocket launch market grows, so will ozone-destroying rocket emissions, if left unregulated, rocket launches by the year 2050 could result in more ozone destruction than was ever realized by CFCs. Since some proposed space efforts would require frequent launches of large rockets over extended periods. In the policy world uncertainty often leads to unnecessary regulation, this could be avoided with a more robust understanding of how rockets affect the ozone layer. Current global rocket launches deplete the ozone layer by no more than a few hundredths of 1 percent annually. But as the space industry grows and other ozone-depleting chemicals decline in the Earths stratosphere, the issue of ozone depletion from rocket launches is expected to move to the forefront. Today, just a handful of NASA space shuttle launches release more ozone-depleting substances in the stratosphere than the entire annual use of CFC-based medical inhalers used to treat asthma and other diseases in the United States and which are now banned. Highly reactive trace-gas molecules known as radicals dominate stratospheric ozone destruction, and a single radical in the stratosphere can destroy up to 10,000 ozone molecules before being deactivated and removed from the stratosphere. Microscopic particles, including soot and aluminum oxide particles emitted by rocket engines, provide chemically active surface areas that increase the rate such radicals leak from their reservoirs and contribute to ozone destruction. Every type of rocket engine causes some ozone loss, and rocket combustion products are the only human sources of ozone-destroying compounds injected directly into the middle and upper stratosphere where the ozone layer resides. Although U.S. science agencies spent millions of dollars to assess the ozone loss potential from a hypothetical fleet of 500 supersonic aircraft a fleet that never materialized much less research has been done to understand the potential range of effects the existing global fleet of rockets might have on the ozone layer. Since 1987 CFCs have been banned from use in aerosol cans, freezer refrigerants and air conditioners. Many scientists expect the stratospheric ozone layer which absorbs more than 90 percent of harmful ultraviolet radiation that can harm humans and ecosystems to return to levels that existed prior to the use of ozone-depleting chemicals by the year 2040. Rockets around the world use a variety of propellants, including solids, liquids and hybrids. Ross said while little is currently known about how they compare to each other with respect to the ozone loss they cause, new studies are needed to provide the parameters required to guide possible regulation of both commercial and government rocket launches in the future. To reduce the risk that unpredictable and more strict ozone regulations would be a hindrance to space access by measuring and modeling exactly how different rocket types affect the ozone layer. Volcanic Aerosol Clouds and Gases Lead To Ozone Destruction The volcanic gases released during eruptions accelerate reactions that lead to ozone destruction. The researchers found that even relatively small volcanic eruptions can destroy ozone and create localised holes in the stratosphere. Previously, scientists had concentrated on the climatic effects of the tiny particles of volcanic sulphate created from the sulphur dioxide gas emitted during an eruption. For the first time, analysing data from a 2000 eruption of the Hekla volcano, Iceland, the researchers discovered that volcanic gases may also lead to the formation of ice and nitric acid particles. This is a critical finding as these particles switch on volcanic chorine gases, accelerating reactions that lead to ozone destruction. Volcanic eruptions which penetrate the stratosphere can lead to the formation of the type of clouds that promote reactions with volcanic chlorine gases gases that destroy stratospheric ozone and lead to the formation of mini-ozone holes. The ozone hole: Why over Antarctica? When the topic of the ozone layer arises, many people immediately think of the hole over Antarctica, but few know why the hole is actually there. In 1985, British scientists discovered this hole. A special condition exists in Antarctica that accelerates the depletion of the ozone layer. Every Arctic winter, a polar vortex forms over Antarctica. A polar vortex is a swirling mass of very cold, stagnant air surrounded by strong westerly wind. Since there is an absence of sun during Arctic winters, the air becomes incredibly cold and the formation of ice clouds occurs. When the sun returns in the spring, the light shining on the nitrogen oxide filled ice particles activates the formation of chlorine. This excess of ozone destroying chlorine rapidly accelerates the depletion of the ozone layer. Finally, when the polar vortex breaks up, the rapid dissolution decreases. It is evident that the effects of the polar vortex are dramatic.For about two month every southern spring, the total ozone declines by about 60% over most of Antarctica. In the core of the ozone hole, more than 75% of the ozone is lost and at some altitudes, the ozone virtually disappeared in October, 1999. The average size of the ozone hole is larger than most continents, including South America, Europe, Australia, and Antarctica, and the maximum size of the ozone hole in 1996 was larger than North America. Finally, one must note that the hole over Antarctica is truly a hole only in the Antarctic spring, when the depletion is extremely severe due to the vortex. The hole above Antarctica has clearly proven to be detrimental. Plankton, organisms that live on carbon, light, and nutrients such as nitrogen, are near the bottom of the food chain, and are accustomed to low levels of UV. In December of 1994, on the island of Bacharcaise off Antarctica, increased levels of UV radiation decreased the number of photoplankton dramatically. Photoplankton are the main source of food for krill, which in turn are the main source of food for various birds and whales in the Antarctic region. At this time, due to the decreased number of photoplankton, the krill level was so low that it could not support the penguin population. Thus, some penguins were forced to travel up to two hundred miles in search of food, but most returned with none. Furthermore, when summer came, only approximately ten of the 1800 hatched penguin chicks survived. This tragedy illustrates the fact that even underwater creatures are not protected from harmful UV rays, and is a perfect example of the entire food chain being affected due to an increase in the UV radiation as a result of the thinning ozone layer. EFFORTS TO REDUCE OZONE DEPLETION Internationalefforts to attempt to limit the production and release of CFCs began once the role of CFCs in ozone destruction was established. In 1987 the United Nations Montreal Protocol was agreed and came into effect in January 1989. The countries that signed up to the protocol aim to phase out the use of CFCs globally. The main CFCs ceased to be produced by the signatories in 1995, and the European Union ceased using them in 1998, except for a very small amount in limited and essential uses such as medical sprays. Although the Montreal Protocol has been successful, it should be noted that without the subsequent amendments, recovery of the ozone hole would have been impossible. Thehydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) were developed to replace CFCs. These gases can still damage ozone if they reach the stratosphere, but they are less likely to since their extra hydrogen atom allows them to be destroyed in the lower layers of the atmosphere. These gases are also controlled under the Montreal Protocol and were phased out after 2004. The gases that replaced both the CFCs and HCFCs are hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs), which do not contain any chlorine atoms and so have no ozone depleting effect. Unfortunately, many of them are powerful greenhouse gases and could contribute to global warming if emitted in large quantities. SincetheCFCshaveatmospheric lifetimes of about 50 to 100 years, and take 5 to 10 years to reach the upper atmosphere where they are broken down, the atmosphere reacts slowly to the cuts made in emissions of these gases. Stratospheric ozone should begin to increase as the amount of chlorine and bromine decreases. However, ozone is affected by changes in other gases, such as methane, temperature changes due to climate change, and also indirectly by particles from volcanic eruptions. Compoundscontainingbromine, such as methyl bromide (mainly of natural origin) and the brominated CFCs (halons: used mainly as fire retardants), are also ozone-depleting chemicals. While the total amount of chlorine in the lower atmosphere peaked in 1994, and is now slowly declining, the total amount of bromine is still increasing. An assessment by the World Meteorological Organization in 1998 estimated that global and Antarctic ozone levels would return to pre-1980 levels by 2050, and in 2003 evidence suggested that the rate at which ozone is disappearing had indeed slowed down markedly, although estimates as to when ozone can return to a proper balance have now been revised to the latter half of the 21st century. However, many factors influence ozone, and future levels are not completely predictable. SOCIAL ASPECTS The most obvious, and perhaps most important connection between society and the ozone layer is the fact that scientific research suggests depletion of the ozone layer directly and indirectly endangers the health of the population. Research has focused on connections between the depleting ozone layer and skin cancer, immuno-suppression, cataracts, and snowblindness. Ozone depletion and skin cancer: What is the connection? Exposure to UV radiation increases the risk of skin cancer and causes damage to the DNA in the skin cells. DNA is extremely sensitive to UV radiation, especially UV-B radiation. UV radiation is located in the optical radiation portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, while UV-B radiation is a subdivision of the ultraviolet spectrum and consists of a wavelength of 280 to 315 nanometers. Thus, DNA is especially sensitive to radiation with a wavelength between 280 and 315 nanometers . When UV radiation hits the skin, it can cause the cell to lock up and scramble or delete DNA information. This action causes confusion in the DNA, and the body loses control of the growth and division of the cell. If the conditions are right, the cell may become cancerous. It is important to note that not all affected cells turn into skin cancer, for many can repair themselves. However, continual exposure to UV radiation increases the risk of skin cancer due to cumulative damage of the DNA. Skin cancer can be divided into two categories: melanoma and non-melanoma. The melanoma form of skin cancer is the more dangerous of the two. This type of cancer has the ability to spread quickly throughout the body and invade other cells. On the other hand, non-melanoma skin cancer is not to be taken lightly either, but is a less serious form of the disease. Non-melanoma skin cancers are not usually life threatening, and removal is relatively routine. However, treatment does include radiation therapy or surgery. The concern of many is that sunburn may lead to increased risk of acquiring skin cancer. Some forms of cancer are associated with sunburn, while other forms are not. Melanoma skin cancer is a form that sunburns may play a leading role in. Jan van der Leun, a Dutch scientist, explains that, light hitting the outer layer of the skin, the epidermis, triggers the production of some substances which diffuse into the dermis below. The dermis is filled with blood vessels, and the c hemical substances cause them to dilate, making the skin red and warm to the touch. The bottom line is that UV ray exposure increases the risk of skin cancer. However, controversy lies around the question of whether or not the depletion of the ozone layer will lead to more sunburns, and in turn, more skin cancer. Some scientists suggest that the skin will gradually adapt to higher UV-B levels as the ozone gradually depletes. The opponent to this theory would state that the thinning of the ozone layer would lead to more human UV-B exposure. This increased UV-B exposure would, in turn, increase the damage to the DNA making it difficult for the cell to correct the damage before it divides. This damage accumulates over time and increases the chances that a cell will turn cancerous. In addition, since UV-B radiation damages the immune system, it is much more likely that a cell will turn cancerous.In animal studies, immunosuppressive effects caused by UV-B have indeed been shown to play an important role in the outcome of both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Furth ermore, states that for the non-melanoma skin cancers, the evidence is compelling and there are estimates that each percentage decrease in the stratospheric ozone will lead to a two percent increase in the incidence of these cancers. Thus, if the ozone depletes by ten percent over a certain time period, 250,000 more people would be affected by these cancers each year. Due to controversy in the scientific community, it is difficult to clearly state whether or not ozone depletion will lead to an increased risk of skin cancers, but scientists agree on the fact that UV-B radiation plays a large role in the formation of cancer. Thus, it may very well be that as the UV filter we call the ozone layer thins, the increased amount of UV-B radiation posed on human skin may contribute to an increased amount of skin cancer. Yet, one can only weigh all the evidence and speculate, for science has yet to provide a cut and dry answer for society to base its judgments on. DISCUSSION Regardless of the details of the arguments, it is obvious that the depletion of the ozone layer is a serious problem that poses many consequences to society. Although scientific controversy exists, the possibility seems high that the depletion of the ozone layer will prove detrimental if action is not taken. For example, research shows the strong possibility of a number of health risks associated with increased UV-B exposure as a direct result of the thinning ozone layer. These health risks include skin cancer, immuno-suppression, cataracts, and snow blindness. Furthermore, the possibility that increased UV-B radiation results in lower crop yields should provide a wakeup call to those who feel the thinning ozone layer is not a problem. For if we are not able to breed UV-B resistant plants, the worlds food supply would become dramatically decreased, resulting in higher levels of famine and malnutrition. Studies from Antarctica tell society that increased UV radiation can directly affect the food chain. Recall the decrease in food supply as a result of reduced levels of photoplankton in Antarctica. This may seem like an isolated, non-significant, and remote problem; however, this incident illustrates the dangers of reduced food supply and alteration of the food chain as a result of the thinning ozone layer. Even though the photoplankton were located at the bottom of the food chain, the whole chain was affected. In the future, problems like this could potentially affect the global food web and result in an overall decrease in food supply. Thus, realize that the dangers posed by ozone depletion are real now, and will be in the future, if action is not taken. Take Action: Teamwork does the trick Although the earth will be able to heal itself if the CFC level continues to stay as it is, the depletion of the ozone layer is still a problem that society should be concerned with. In order for earth to repair the damage humans have posed on the ozone layer, society must take an active role. There are many tasks individuals can involve themselves in to help combat the problem of ozone depletion. First of all, one can simply check product labels for ozone friendly status. Many companies have gone to great lengths to remove CFCs from their products. These products do not do as much damage to the ozone layer, and thus, are denoted as ozone friendly. A collaborative effort by society not using products with CFCs is a major step toward the healing of the ozone layer. Unfortunately, many products still used in society are detrimental to the ozone layer. For example, CFCs marketed under the trade name Freon are used in appliances with refrigerants such as refrigerators and air conditioners. When individuals must dispose of products with refrigerants in them, certain actions must be taken in order to prevent the CFCs from escaping from the disposed product. For example, when an agency, such as a waste hauling company, comes to pick up the unwanted appliance, check to make sure refrigerant-recovery equipment is used by the agency. This equipment allows for the disposal of refrigerants without damage to the ozone layer. Society can also help the problem of ozone depletion through education, as well as through various donations. If individuals contribute time or money to environmental agencies focused on healing the ozone layer, the agencies will be able to organize activities promoting the understanding of the ozone problem. If society is educated through these means, more individual efforts will be taken to make ozone smart decisions such as using ozone friendly products. Although thinning ozone may not directly affect the generation growing up today, future generations depend on the actions taken now. Thus, it is important for society to recognize that the thinning ozone layer is a problem and to take action in order to ensure the safety and survival of future generations. Result It is very much clear from the above discussions that there is an urgent need of the hour to realize the importance of the very critical ozone layer which is just like a god gift to human civilisation. It acts as a protection shield which prevents the dangerous and harmful UV rays entering the earth surface. It job is to filter those harmful particles present in the rays that can lead to severe destruction of mankind, wealth and property. The impact of ozone depletion can be seen on the world`s economy today it has slow down the progress of not only any particular nation rather it is a global phenomenon which is hindering development. According to surveys conducted it has been seen that year 1998 observed max. decline in amount of ozone depletion. SUMMARY The ozone layer is essential for protecting society from harmful UV radiation by acting as a filter. However, this protective layer has been thinning due to three main sources: human activity, natural sources, and volcanoes. Human activity is responsible for the most damage to the ozone layer, thus, society should recognize that much can be done to prevent ozone layer damage. In 1985, in a region over Antarctica, the yearly polar vortex had caused the ozone layer to deplete so greatly, that it could be classified as a hole. In 1996, this hole was large enough to cover Antarctica. The depletion of the ozone layer does not come without problems. Scientific research has suggested the probability that increased UV-B radiation as a result of the thinning ozone layer leads to increased cases of skin cancer, immuno-suppression, cataracts, and snowblindness due to radiation damage of the DNA. Additionally, experiments have shown a correlation between increased UV radiation and crop damage due to UV radiation damaging the plants DNA. Some scientists, however, feel that this will not be a problem in the future due to the possibility of breeding UV resistant crops and plants. Many national governments and agencies recognized the problem of ozone depletion, and therefore, united in 1987 to sign the Montreal Protocol. This agreement was implemented to decrease CFC levels in order to help protect the thinning ozone layer. Clearly, ozone depletion is a dangerous problem due to possible disease outbreaks and famine as a result of increased UV-B radiation. However, society can collectively attempt to combat this problem by relatively simple means such as education and the practice of ozone smart behavior. For if society acts now, future generations will be handed a safe and healthy planet.
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Odysseus: Character Analysis Odysseus Leader Odyssey Odysseus: a leader of past and a pioneer of the present era Odyssey, the leading character of The Odyssey is quite complex, fascinating and inspiring. Odyssey is quite dominant as a leader who is certain of his words and actions. However, there exists some uncertainties in his character which, at times, take the form of contradictions in the character of a great leader, overshadowing his true potential. Throughout the Odyssey, the lead character, Odysseus, has been presented as an ideal leader who treats his men well and deals efficiently with problems that are presented before him. Now there might arise a question as to how can the ideal leader be defined. An ideal leader has often been defined as one commands the respect of those being led, but also gives respect. He must be intelligent and cunning, and able to think logically with the intentions of keeping the well being of those under him. An ideal leader must have an ability to lead a military victoriously, but at the same time realizes as to when military action is unnecessary, and therefore must be avoided. Odyssey, at various occasions presents that he not only has attained these qualities but also demonstrated his keenness to enhance these qualities to the best of his ability. For example, Odysseus did not need to send his men probing the unfamiliar island, but still felt it necessary. This decision is one that had to be made, but given past experiences, the reader would expect Odysseus to choose otherwise, especially when his men felt hesitant. They were all silent, but their hearts contracted, remembering Antiphates the Laistrygon and that prodigious cannibal, the Kyklopes But seeing our time for action lost in weeping, I mustered those Akhaians under arms, counting them off in two platoons, myself and my godlike Eurylokhos commanding. (X, 217-224) Another instance when Odysseus demonstrates his leadership ability is when he is faced with the escape from Polyphemuss cave. His quick thinking and strategic approach gave him victory over the giant, two traits Homer emphasizes in Odysseus. Odysseus is able to lead his men to blind the Kyklops, but shows how no mortal man can be perfect, no matter how heroic, by shouting back at Polyphemus and telling him who had truly blinded him. Odysseuss similarity to some of the known leaders of ancient Greece can be used to express how Odysseus was presented as the ideal Greek leader. The first of whom being the democratic leader of Athens, Pericles, and second being Alexander the Great. Pericles was much like Odysseus in a sense of his ability to manipulate and influence those under him, a necessary skill in any democratic society. He was able to influence the other elected officials into believing what he wanted, and stemmed his success from that ability. Although not an especially admirable trait, the ability to influence men into what is needed to be done in the eyes of the leader is most certainly necessary, especially when it involves military authority. Alexander the Greats decisiveness is paralleled only by Odysseus, which is another trait that all strong leaders must possess. Another element to a leader that is often present is that of arrogance, as Alexander the Great believed himself to be half immortal, and he ld himself in comparison with Hercules. Alexander was even known to sleep with copies of Homers books under his pillow, and drew heavy influence from Homers characters, including Odysseus. At the same time Odysseus has been shown to be a complex person who suffers greatly on his return from Troy. As the gods challenge him with a wide variety of trials, Odysseus creates a positive influence for anyone in the ways he responds to each new test. In some instances, Odysseus shows himself to be a remarkable hero. In other ways, however, he shows himself to be a fallible human being Ã¢â¬â the true qualities of a leader. In other words, analyzing Odysseus throughout The Odyssey, one can see that Odysseus is a multifaceted character who displays both strengths and weaknesses. The epic hero of The Odyssey, Odysseus is a fascinating character full of contradictions. On one side he is eager in returning to his home to his faithful wife, Penelope, and his son, Telemachus, whom he has barely seen. Then on the other side he is perceived also perceived as a person who sleeps and lives with not one but two beautiful goddesses during his travels. On one hand, he shows little remorse for his infidelities, while on the other he still hates the suitors attempting to court his wife. These contradictions extend even to his intellect. Blessed with great physical strength, which he amply demonstrates, despite his hard years, he has an equally keen mind that bails him out of many dire situations. There is no better improviser or strategist in Greek mythology, though the label attached is often cunning or deceiver, indeed, many Greeks saw Odysseus habit of lying as a vice and a weakness. His penchant for disguise compliments his ability to make up plausible stories about his background. Although Odysseus ingenuity comes across as his chief weapon, his weakness is the frequency with which he falls victim to temptation and makes grave tactical errors, none more so than when adding insult to injury to Polyphemes and revealing his true name (his main fault!). Still, Odysseus is aware of this flaw, and bids his men to tie him up when they pass by the Sirens, the paragons of temptation. By the end of his journey, he has learned to resist temptation, willingly suffering abu se by the suitors to meet his eventual goal of destroying them. However, temptation hurts his crew, as well, in their encounters with Circe, the bag of winds from Aeolus, and the oxen of Helios. Despite his occasional mistake, Odysseus is a courageous and just leader who inspires admiration and respect from his shipmates and servants; the faithfulness of his dog and swineherd after so many years shows this. The near-constant protection he enjoys from the goddess Athena (the goddess of cunning and wisdom thus representing his counterpart in Mt Olympus) seems justifiable for a man who has endured so many hardships, and cast away so many luxuries, to reunite with his beloved family. Odysseus is considered to be one of the greatest mythological heroic leaders. Not only is he presented as the model for the ideal Greek leader, but has influenced many other leaders throughout history, including Alexander the Great. Odysseus was a model for ancient Greek leaders, and still influences our views of leadership today, although we may not even notice it. Employee Turnover: Literature Review Employee Turnover: Literature Review Employee turnover refers to the number of incoming and outgoing workers from an organization or company. The turnover of employees can occur following a myriad of factors, such as an excessive workload, not having sufficient authority, low salary, or the inefficient facilities of the organization. This study refers to the problems of employee turnover. Suggested causes of employee turnover include: Job dissatisfaction A lack of employee rights Management gives the workload of two people to an individual (excessive workload) A lack of decision making power Poor leadership A lack of allowances, bounces or fringe benefits Preferential treatment of employees No future in the company (i.e. repeatedly not being promoted) LITERATURE SEARCH Now we will search about the literature we are required for the study of Employee turnover, I referred to different articles, books, online databases and found the following researches previously done on the Employee turnover. From a study I found that causal relationship is if and then statement for example If price increase then demand will be decrease. In other words we can say causal relationship explore the effect of one thing upon other. From the study four models which show the causal relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employee turnover. We study that satisfaction build commitment in employees. And commitment creates satisfaction in employees. We understand that there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover. If employees are satisfied by their jobs it will leads commitment in employees towards organization (Magid Igbaria,Tor Guimaraes,Journal of Management Information Systems,Volume 16 Issue 1, June 1999 table of contents) From another study we understand that the attitude and behavior of employees affect the organization outcomes and profit. We can see if the organization is not encouraging the employees according to their rights then there will be higher rate of employee turnover. We can say that organization behavior, employee turnover, employee satisfaction can affect profitability and buyer satisfaction. We collect data from different sources like employee survey, manager survey, and customer survey and from the record of company for showing that how employee attitude and behavior can affect the company objective. From collected data we can observe that if human resources works well then there will be fewer turnovers in employees and business results will be better. (Daniel J. Koys, Personnel Psychology, Volume 54, Issue 1, pages 101-114, March 2001) From this study we understand that satisfaction level and perception of employees about jobs can be examined by checking the behavior of employees and organization. We examined that if employees are treated well they have good image of organization and satisfied with their jobs. If employees are satisfied with the behavior of organization that organization treat them fair attitude then satisfaction level about jobs of employees will be higher and turnover will be low. (John E. Dittrich and Michael R. Carrell 1978, University of Colorado, USA, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Volume 24, Issue 1, August 1979, Pages 29-40) From another study we understand that mental understanding, economic conditions and concepts about jobs of employees are the reasons of employee turnover. There is need to develop a structure or system in the organization for making policies to build the positive image about job in the minds of employees that will reduced the thinking of employees about economic conditions and satisfied the employees to continue their jobs that will cause the results low turnover of employees. (Baysinger,Barry D, Mobley,William H (APR 1982), Employee Turnover: Individual and Organizational Analyses). From this another study we get understanding that employee turnover is a big problem and it is a difficult task for human resources manager to reduced employee turnover in asia.we study that the attitude of employees are not positive, employees having negative attitude, because they think there is shortege of labour and it is not a difficult task for them to find a new job thats why employee turnover rate is very high that is a big issue for human resurces manager in asia.we study that the employee turnover rate in singapore is highest among asia.singapore companies developed a good setup to reduced the employee turnover rate in their home companies.from the abstarct we find that there are reasons of employee turnover like low organization commitment, lacke of justice for employees, and hope of new job in the mind of employees. (Naresh Khatri, Chong Tze Fern, Pawan Budhwar, Human Resource Management Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1, pages 54-74, January 2001) From this study we examined that there is high employee turnover rate in private clubs and industries. It is said by management that the reason for this is that employees are leaving their jobs on hourly basis that leads to high rate of employee turnover. Managers of private clubs and industries are appointed to find the reasons of employee turnover. Because manager having vast experience in their relevant field they can easily suggested that what are the reasons of employee turnover. We find that it is difficult for a team manager to create positive environment in industry to build the image of clubs and industries in the mind of employees to control the employee turnover rate. (Naresh Khatri, Chong Tze Fern, Pawan Budhwar, Human Resource Management Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1, pages 54-74, January 2001) We do another study we get understanding that how employee turnover can be control.here 153 New Zeland companies are selected to determine their employee turnover rates.153 companies of New Zeland use the skilled based and grouped based compensation plan to control the employee turnover rate.its means that they compensate their employees according to their skills,experience and qualifications.we observed that if employees are compensate according to their rights,thet are provided bounses,incentives then the employee turnover can be reduced. (James P. Guthrie, University of Kansas, Group Organization Management December 2000 vol. 25 no. 4 419-439) From this another study we find that there is problem of employee turnover is discussed. We can find here how employee turnover can be measured in different situations and importance of employees in organization.employee is the backbone of organization. It is discussed here how turnover rate can affect the organization effectiveness to chieve its objectives.there is need to reduced the employee turnover rate to prevent organization cost. (Kevin Morrell, John Loan-Clarke, Adrian Wilkinson (DEC 2002), International Journal of Management Reviews, Volume 3, Issue 3, pages 219-244, September 2001) From this study we can find what the relationship between organizational change and employee turnover is. Organizational change means the environments are not suitable for employees and employees are not compensating according to their rights thats why employee turnover rate is higher. If the organizational changes are in favor of employees then turnover can be reduced and it is also important for manager that the turnover can be controlled. (Kevin M. Morrell, John Loan-Clarke, Adrian J. Wilkinson, (2004) Organisational change and employee turnover, Personnel Review, Vol. 33 Iss: 2, pp.161 173) From this study we get understanding 353 nurse leavers the hospital in the national health and service of England nad Wales.it describe why the nursing turnover rate is so higher in hospital of national health and service.its reason is that the understanding and image of hospital is not good in the minds of nurses thats why their turnover rate is so high.the analysis of this research is that how employee turnover rate can be reduced.it can be reduced by improving the understanding of image of hospital in the minds of employees.it is also benificial for management and organization that their nursing turnover can reduced and it will be cost effective for hospital. (Kevin Morrell, John Loan-Clarke, Adrian Wilkinson(NOV 2004), British Journal of Management, Volume 15, Issue 4, pages 335-349, December 2004) We do another study Here we find what kinds of expensess and how much expensess can be faced to an organization due to the high employee turnover.here we study that if any employee leaves the organization then organization have to face expensess like recruitment, selection and training again.and it will be time consuming for organization.if employee leaves the organization then it will be difficult for management to hire suitable and productive employees and trained him easily and guide him. (J. Bruce Tracey, Ph.D, Cornell University School of Hotel AdministrationÃ Timothy R. Hinkin, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly February 2008 vol. 49 no. 11) From this another study we observe that how salaried employees having share in development activities of organization.here we study conducted analysis of a survey through this we understand that 667 employees think that on job traing which is providing to employees positively increased the commitment of employees towards organization and create positive image about organization and will result in reducing the rate of employee turnover.so the employee turnover can be reduced through providing them job related training and prepared them for marketable place and improve their skills.promoted the employees and build good relationship to reduced the turnover rate. (George S. Benson, MAR 2006, Human Resource Management Journal, Volume 16, Issue 2, pages 173-192) Here in this study we find that salaries issues and incentives are the reasons of employee turnover and low productivity. For this we collected data from 400 retail shop of UK.here in UK all the 400 shops compensate their employees on hourly basis, and there is no reward for workers on their productivity basis. When there is no productivity reward for workers then it create negative image. The employees who are productive will leave the firm and only low productive employees remains with the firm. When employees are satisfied with their jobs then productivity will increased. (Chevalier, Arnaud, Siebert, W. S, Viitanen Tarja, May 2003 University College Dublin. Institute for the Study of Social Change (Geary Institute) In this study we find that when the top management or leaders of an organization change the policies or structure at grand scale without proper planning or the frequency of these changes is high this results in high employee turn over and also cause senior employees to leave as it becomes difficult for them to cope with these changes as they have practiced old policies for a long time and are not able to change themselves quickly. (Baron, J. N. and Hannan, M. T. and Burton, M. D. (2001) Labor pains : change in organizational models and employee turnover in young, high-tech firms., American journal of sociology., 106 (4). pp. 960-1012.) According to integrative and expanded contextual model there are different variable which lead an employee to make the decision to stay or leave in an organization, it divides these variables in the following manner. Structural/Process Variables: Career growth opportunities, Rewards according to individuals performance, ease of communication, and finally the challenge involve in performing the duty. Environmental Variable: One environmental variable is that how much better opportunities are available in the market. Mediating Variable: What methods are adopted to keep the employee interested in there job. Demographic Variables: Finally the social (occupation, age, education, and sex) variables and there fulfillment. (THOMAS N. MARTIN, JR. Southern illinois University-Carbondale) This study discusses employee engagement behavior, according to it racial base pairing of supervisor and junior in an organization shows this result. At low levels where supervisor and junior are of same race tend to stay together in an organization for longer period as compare to supervisor and junior of different race, but at the higher levels of management members of different race tend to remain for longer period in the same organization. Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs | Marketing Essay Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs | Marketing Essay Research has been conducted on Maslows Hierarchy of Needs theory parallel to the theory of Personality Trait. Consequently, theoretical and practical implications of these theories have been discussed in regards of Chinese and Australian market. Trait theory focuses on the identification and quantitative measurement of personality in terms of specific psychological characteristics (Schiffman et al, 2011). Maslows theory of needs identifies five basic levels of human needs, which rank in order of importance from low-level (biogenic) needs to higher-level (psychogenic) needs (Schiffman et al, 2011). It provides an overview of the consumer market of China and Australia, as well as compares the products and contrasts them in terms of the different aspects of consumer behaviour of both the regions. This report also analyses the position an Australian exporter might have in China and the product it focuses on is tourism and how to market it to the Chinese population. Contents Introduction The aim of this report is to discuss the difference in consumer behaviour in China and Australia in terms of two personality theories the Trait Theory and Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory. China is one of worlds growing economies at the moment and comparing and contrasting consumer behaviour in Australia and China will help marketers decide what type of products they should concentrate on to expand and be a part of globalisation. It may even open up doors for Australian exportation to China for various products. The report explains the trait theory and Maslows theory as well as describes how some of the Chinese products relate to it in terms of consumer behaviour. This is followed up by contrasting them with Australian consumer behaviour and finally it discusses the opportunities for Australian exporters in China. Trait Theory Trait theory in psychology, as an approach of researching individuals personality, is prevalent in the field of management as well in terms of its relationship with peoples behaviour. Generally speaking, a trait can be considered as a comparably constant and stable characteristic that leads individuals to behave in certain ways. According to Gordon Allport, portrayed as the originator of the doctrine of traits (Zuroff D, 1986), traits are divided into three main categories: cardinal traits, central traits and secondary traits, which determine a persons characteristics in different levels. In the present days, the trait theory is more relating to the Big Five framework of personality traits, known as a robust model of acknowledging the relationship between traits and behaviours (Poropat, 2009). The five critical elements in Big Five can be recognized as extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness. Based on the association between personalities and behaviours, trait theory is broadly applicable to the study of consumer behaviour, especially in the aspect of culture referring to the global marketing. Different consumer behaviours are associated with divergent cultures which exert great impact on individuals personalities. Unlike the independent self-model that Western (especially North America) culture fosters, East Asian (particularly China) tends to be more collective between individuals and group members (Kanagawa, Cross, Markus, 2001; Yulia E Jeanne L, 2010), leading to different conventions and patterns of goods consumption. 2.1 Luxury goods Even not being in the individualism-asserted country, consumers in China are still under the impact of scarcity, which means they would pursue limited resources to satisfy unlimited wants. As the increase in purchasing power and divergent cognitions in brand of Chinese consumers, their demands for luxury goods have expanded in an accelerating rate. Luxury goods companies are expanding rapidly in China based on their forecasting global growth in the next 10 years. It has been reported (CLSA, 2011) that handbags, leather goods and jewellery are going to experience fast growth in the following several years; the fact is Chinese buyers have already been the biggest customers while Richemont, Gucci and Hermes also have large amount of sales made in China (about 22%, 18% and 11% respectively). 2.2 Cars Social status is a significant element existing in Chinas convention, leading the brand to be a critical consideration when choosing motor vehicles like cars. The consumer market research of Western multinationals in Asia comes to a conclusion that consumers in China are most interested in brands and trademarks (Backman M Butler C, p191-192). Although home-grown brands of Chinese car industry are increasingly emerging, the Western giants such as PSA Peugeot and Mercedes still have relatively more market share compared with home-branded companies in China. Chinese consumers tend to have more preference and confidence in famous-branded cars to show their social status as well as the wellbeing. 2.3 Media Products Personal and cultural values can be recognized as another important determinant in trait. According to Morriss (1956) Way to Live survey, the way act and enjoy life with group participation ranked in the second place, which means that Chinese people prefer to make group decision rather than independent one. Generally speaking, consumers in China are more likely to make group purchase of media products. To be more specific, the purchase of media products is not a simple decision to make for it is relatively large-portion spending of income in families. Given that an individual has introduced one preferable type of media products he has, counterparts (including friends, colleges and family members) are potentially to purchase the identical or similar product as well. However, the growing importance of self-valuation orientation cannot be ignored in the present years, which requires the subsidiary of multinational companies to get more emphasis on the personalization in designing their products. 2.4 Special Belongings Since the traditional cultural values, especially the god worship, have great influence on large amount of people, special belongings or so-called lucky charms are prevalent all around China. This product ought to be unique and meaningful to certain individuals. Under the force of convention, flexibility and performed to be local is a vital strategy to obtain success in such particular industry. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory Maslows hierarchy of needs, also known as Maslows macro theory, consists of a pyramid of needs, where people move up the pyramid by fulfilling the levels one by one. It starts off with physiological needs such as food and shelter, followed by needs for safety, social affiliation, self-esteem, and finally self-actualisation. According to Schiffman et al (2011), consumers tend to satisfy lower level needs first and it is necessary in order to move up the pyramid. When the initial need is satisfied, consumers face a new need which is of a higher-level. This continues on until the consumer presumably reaches the top of the pyramid of needs. When it comes to products however, it differs from culture to culture. For example, a product may be treated differently in Australia in comparison to another country, such as China. For consumers, their needs motivate their future needs, so for example, if they satisfy one particular need that will stop existing for them and give birth to another need. This allows them to pursue another need which seems more important to them (Kotler, 2000). For example, if a person needs a new phone, he/she will go buy it. This diminishes his/her need for a phone so that need will no longer be pursued. This means the initial need has been satisfied. However, now the person may think that they need to buy a case for their phone. So he/she will pursue this need now instead which seems more important in comparison now because the first need has been satisfied (appendix A). According to some researchers, lower level needs continue to motivate consumers and cause them to buy more products (Engel et al, 1995). Since this report talks about consumer behaviour in China and Australia in terms of personality theories, it can be said that Maslows theory will affect the different cultures in similar ways when it comes to certain products such as a phone and/or its case. Marketers use Maslows theory to target consumers. Sometimes a single product can satisfy multiple levels of the hierarchy. For example, a necklace from Tiffanys will fulfil a persons social affiliation as well as self-esteem needs its a pride and social issue for the consumer (appendix B). In the same scenario, a jacket from Louis Vuitton not only fulfils a persons physiological needs, but also their social and self-esteem needs (appendix C). Some researchers have come to the conclusion that Maslows theory is not fully valid as it did not go through all the necessary empirical research (Churchill Peter, 1998). Despite these claims, many think that Maslows theory helps marketers. Consumers buy different products for different reasons, sometimes one product can satisfy multiple needs. For example, Johnny Walker Black Label, a brand of alcohol, not only serves as a drink, but also as a symbol of prestige and social affiliation (appendix D). China is a collectivist society, as opposed to Australia which takes an individualistic approach. When applying Maslows theory of needs, it is essential to keep in mind that in Chinese cultures, the consumers will react to the affiliation step differently compared to Australian culture. Difference in the consumer behaviour 4.1 Media With the changing environment and continuous pace of Chinese consumer market, products are very often being accepted by the consumers before it has successfully established its place in the market. Traditionally, advertisement on television helps a lot in gaining attention of the Chinese consumers. However, the consumers react best while they get a recommendation from someone close to them. In China it is still very high likely to get peoples response via television commercials whereas in Australia the response rate is higher in radio advertisement. 4.2 Personal Characteristics Considering the factors of the Big five Model, Chinese people emphasis more on the concept of Face which is the influence of others. They are more likely to buy expensive/ luxurious product to keep up their face. They would always go for branded items or try something unusual and expensive. Researches show that the most popular brands of China are Louis Vuitton, Chanel, Gucci etc. On the other hand Australian people look for something reliable and longer lasting. The trait theory describes about consumers different characteristics which influences their purchase behaviour. For instance, people in China are low in dogmatism and so they have the drive towards new launch. This reflects the idea that, whether or not they will make a purchase just because its the newest, most popular item available or because it is truly what they need and/or want. On the other hand people with high dogmatism will stick to the brands they feel comfortable with. Purchasing behaviour of a consumer is also influenced by the way the product is advertised by the marketer. It entirely depends on how the market identifies its potential customer. For example the Billy Martin and George Steinbrenners emphasises on both taste and its less filling quality (appendix E). Traditionally, Chinese people are more likely to drink with a gathering of friends and family. So they would not respond very well to this television commercial. To sum it up, along with all the characteristics, culture and social norms are equally important for a product to be successful. If the product represent the existing values of specific region its more likely to receive better response. 4.3 Maslows Theory According to the Maslows hierarchy theory income is one of the major elements effecting consumer behaviour. As wages are continuously rising from the past few years in china, theres been a drastic change in peoples behaviour. The basic needs are met, so people are looking forward for the upper level of Maslows hierarchy pyramid. On the other hand, Australians expenditure has dropped down due to few financial strikes over the last few years. So, the Australian consumer market is concentrating more towards the Physiological needs level of Maslows hierarchy. Marketing Opportunity for Australian Exporter The increasing westernization of China, coupled with the rapid growth rates experienced by a developing economy, has seen a marked increase in international investment within the Chinese economy; representing a global perspective of strong economic potential from such a large market base. The nature of the Chinese economys growth facilitates an increase in wealth per capita and allows for higher disposable incomes, which means that consumers have a greater ability to satisfy higher levels of Maslows hierarchy of needs. Tourism represents a positive marketing opportunity for an Australian exporter due to the dramatic social, cultural and economic change that has taken place, as well as the potential influence that this market base might have on the entire tourism industry (S Chen and M Gassner 2012). The China National Tourism Administration forecasts that by the year 2015, China will have 100 million international travelers (World Travel Online 2011). Providing a diverse range of all-inclusive package tours empowers Chinese tourists to make consumer choices based on their personal characteristics and values. Packaged offerings could take advantage of the gift buying culture in China by including specific shopping stages throughout the trip, helping to fulfill the social needs of Chinese tourists (M Chiang 2012). This differentiated approach to package tours not only provides Chinese Tourists with a greater variety of options, but also helps them to learn about the wide range of Australian tourism p roducts (D Buhalis and E Laws 2001). The marketer could also emphasize the importance and evolving nature of the relationship between Australia and China as a reason to choose Australian tourism products over other western offerings. Furthermore, since mostly the Middle Upper class of Chinese society will be the target market for the exporter; select Australian tourism products could be marketed as being luxurious or lavish, which can help to satisfy the ego level of Maslows hierarchy of needs. 6. Conclusion In conclusion, it can be seen that the cultures in China and Australia are different as well as similar when it comes to consumer behaviour they react differently to advertisements and then to products. It is very important for marketers to account for this fact as explained with the help of Trait theory and Maslows theory of needs. This report also explains how tourism is a rising product that Australia can promote tourism to China as there is great potential for many joint ventures. It is important to also account for the similarities if the marketers want to get maximum advantage out of the consumers. 7. References Beckman. M, Butler. C, 2003, Big in Asia, p191-192, Martins Press, Great Britain Churchill, Gilbert A. Peter, J. Paul, 1998, Marketing: Creating value for Customer, 2nd Edition, Irwin/McGraw Hill (Boston) Engel James F., etc., Blackwell R.D., Miniard P.W., 1995, Consumer Behaviour, 8th Edition, U.S.A, Dryden Press D Buhalis and E Laws , Tourism Distribution Channels: Practices, Issues and Transformations 2001 Jennifer L. Aaker, Dimensions of Brand Personality, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Aug., 1997), pp. 347-356 Frans Giele , Chinese Consumer Behaviour, An Introduction, 6th February 2009. Kotler, Philip, 2000, Marketing Management, Millennium Edition, Prentice Hall (Upper Saddle River, N.J.) Meera Komarraju , Steven J. Karau, Ronald R. Schmeck, Alen Avdic, 2011, The Big Five personality traits, learning styles, and academic achievement, Elsevier, p472-477, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, United States Schiffman, Leon, OCass, Aron, Paladino, Angela, DAlessandro, Steven, Bednall, David, 2011, Consumer Behaviour, 5th Edition, Pearson Australia Pty Ltd. Sergio Picazo-Velaa, Shih Yung Choua, Arlyn J. Melchera, John M. Pearsona, Why provide an online review? An extended theory of planned behavior and the role of Big-Five personality traits, Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 26, Issue 4, July 2010, Pp 685-696. World Travel online, China is forecast to be the number one source of tourists by 2015, 1 April 2011 Yulia E. Chentsova-Dutton, Jeanne L. Tsai, 2010, Self-Focused Attention and Emotional Reactivity: The Role of Culture , p507-519, Georgetown University, Stanford University, American Yang Kuo-shu, 1986, Chinese Personality and its Change, p106-170, Oxford University Press, Hong Kong Zuroff. David C, 1986, Was Gordon Allport a Trait Theorist, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Cultures of Collecting: Pros and Cons Cultures of Collecting: Pros and Cons Why do people collect? What are the oppressive and the more therapeutic aspects of the Ã¢â¬Ëcultures of collectingÃ¢â¬â¢? The phenomenon of collecting is a universal feature of societies across the world. Current research recognises that museums organised over the last 150 years Ã¢â¬Ërepresent all sorts of possibilities for exploring other times, places and ways of life,Ã¢â¬â¢ yet as Gosden and Knowles state, there has been little Ã¢â¬Ëin-depthÃ¢â¬â¢ research into the meaning and status of collections . This essay seeks to define the major approaches to studying the phenomenon of collecting, and how these approaches have been informed by a historical understanding of collections that has developed over time. Particular focus will be given to a Euro-centric understanding of collecting and how collecting has been used to represent autonomy and preserve cultures which are under threat. Susan Pearce, from the University of Leicester, suggests that in modern post-Renaissance western society, museums are the Ã¢â¬Ëpolitical and cultural institutions entrusted with holding the material evidence, real things, which constitute much modern knowledge.Ã¢â¬â¢ PearceÃ¢â¬â¢s paper examines how and why museums are perceived to embody set knowledge and values, while recognising that study of museums and collections has three distinctive approaches. Firstly, each museum object and specimen can be seen as individual, secondly, there exists the professional care approach that seeks to better understand the mechanisms and motivations behind the collections themselves, and thirdly there are interpretive approaches which examine the nature of collections. Scholarship recognises that the inclination to collect can be most clearly identified to have originated in the eighteenth century (eg: Benedict, 2001). Benedict identifies her study as an examination of the representation of curiosity, of curiosities, and of curious people, again like Pearce suggesting that the cultures of collecting are to be considered in direct relation to all three distinctions. Curiosity that Benedict argues lies at the heart of collecting was manifested in a variety of forms in the eighteenth century. In his review of BenedictÃ¢â¬â¢s book Dennis Todd writes that these manifestations can be seen in novels, satiric poetry and drama, journalism, trial transcripts, prints, and reports of scientific experiments; as well as in museums, exhibitions, and cabinets of curiosities; and in works by Shadwell, Swift, Pope, Defoe, Walpole, Beckford, Samuel Johnson, Radcliffe, Godwin, and Mary Shelley. Collecting in early societies has been identified as being closely associated with exhibiting as a process through which to display a collectorÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and education. For example, Wolfram Koeppe, from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, states that pre-Renaissance societies had a taste for collecting the strange and the curious, and that this inclination had long been part of human evolution. Suetonius (died 122 A.D.) records that Augustus, the Roman Emperor had his houses embellished, not only with statues and pictures but also with objects which were curious by reason of their age and rarity, like the huge remains of monstrous beasts which had been discovered on the Island of Capri, called giants bones or heroes weapons. The desire to showcase collections as symbols of power, knowledge and authority has meant that some collections have tended to possess less artistic merit and are more assertive and thus oppressive in their content and organisation. For example, Afric an museum contents have proven to be a strong area for museum researchers to focus on. The Scramble for Art in Central Africa is a study of a group of collectors, such as Torday, Frobenius and Schweinfurth, who worked in the Belgian Congo at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and were interested in how objects such as carved figures or metal items reflected local social forms. As Gosden and Knowles explain, Ã¢â¬Ëthis is a process by which Africa was invented for the West, arriving back in the northern hemisphere stripped of context and presented in private collections and museums so as to create particular impressions of African tribalism and designs.Ã¢â¬â¢ By removing objects from their original context and moving them to suit the commercial and social aspirations of a very different culture, the objectsÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning is thus obscured and essentially altered. Although collecting objects in this way can, in some cases, preserve the existence of the objects, the motives behind the desire to possess the objects in the first instance are questionable. Many collectors in early twentieth-century England were unscrupulous in their acquirement and handling of unusual and collectable items. For example, the archaeologist and antiquarian collector known as Edward Cunnington developed a poor reputation for removing objects that he particularly Ã¢â¬ËlikedÃ¢â¬â¢ and keeping them at his own premises. Benedict highlights the phenomenon of collecting to be intrinsically linked to ambition both personal and national, often with hegemonic motivation. In the eighteenth century, curiosity was associated with an Ã¢â¬Ëempirical bent of mindÃ¢â¬â¢ in relation to new social opportunities and a new commercial culture that echoed Ã¢â¬Ëcuriositys desire for novelty and for the personal, intellectual, and moral development.Ã¢â¬â¢ Todd writes that collecting Ã¢â¬Ëhad an air of menaceÃ¢â¬â¢: that Ã¢â¬Ëin its restless exploration of new realities, curiosity was dangerous, subversive [..] By definition, it was motivated by a discontent with what one knew or with what one was. Its essence was ambition.Ã¢â¬â¢ It is the opinions of many scholars that European countries have attempted to build strongholds for themselves by using collections to their economic and imperialistic advantage, thus asserting their independence from, and authority over, other countries. Cultural imper ialism as constructed through Eurocentric means of production, imbued with Western ideologies, has resulted in biased interpretations of historical events. This means that ways of representing and exhibiting material can often tend to favour and reinforce historical events which place Western societies in a strong and favourable light, focussing less on historical events or material that suggests otherwise. In Photography, as suggested by Mark Sealy Director of Ã¢â¬ËAutographÃ¢â¬â¢, the Association of Black Photographers a Ã¢â¬ËEurocentric hierarchyÃ¢â¬â¢ has developed from Ã¢â¬Ëthe propagation of canonical figures to sustain hegemonic control across the cultural and commercial industries.Ã¢â¬â¢ Sealy highlights Photography and the associated control of the distribution of images as being a Ã¢â¬Ëvital component in the execution of Western, colonial policies, especially in relation to extreme, exploitative and aggressive imperial desires that endorsed systems such as slavery, suppression of tribal peoples and national independence movements.Ã¢â¬â¢ Although in the more obvious cases such as British photography of African culture this approach may be valid, the view that Eurocentric hegemonic control is all-pervading is damaging to the artistic credibility of collections which seek only to further and sustain the culture that they represent. Understanding the phenomenon of collecting as a means of preserving and repatriating heritage can afford a more insightful perspective on the motivations of collections. In present cultures across the world the impulse to collect grows stronger in light of fading cultural distinctions and the spread of Westernised society. With a shrinking island of opportunity for indigenous cultures to reassert their position and maintain their existence in specific geographical areas or types of landscape, collections can become celebrations of originality and uniqueness that is consistently threatened by the universality and uniformity of Western ideals. Collecting becomes a near-desperate attempt to keep hold of livelihoods and traditional ways of life. A good example of a culture under threat is the Cree Indians of Moosonee, Canada, whose Ã¢â¬ËCree VillageÃ¢â¬â¢ reconstruction offers tourists the opportunity to see a history of 300 years of the fur trade history. However, such museums can o ften fall short of Western expectations, being overpriced or poorly organised. Kylie Message in her 2007 publication, New Museums and the Making of Culture, speaks of the term Ã¢â¬ËsurvivanceÃ¢â¬â¢; meaning Ã¢â¬Ëmore than survival [..] raising our social and political consciousness.Ã¢â¬â¢ As a way of defending against the threatening spread of Western living, a museum called the National Museum of the North American Indian in Washington, DC has exhibits which actively try to erase the stamp of Euro-centric Imperialism on its culture. Opened in 2004 the museum was developed collaboratively between architecture groups and Native American Indians, with the main exhibits integrating religious, mythical themes and a series of displays created by diverse communities. These include a welcome wall that spells the word Ã¢â¬ËwelcomeÃ¢â¬â¢ in hundreds of native languages, objects, stories; all put together with the universal goal of political advocacy and the need to pr omote cultural rights. In contrast to the socio-political aspirations of indigenous cultures, the therapeutic qualities of collecting or collections are noted by Lois Silverman to include significant benefits or positive changes for individuals or groups. Participating in programme activities at museums can offer the chance to Ã¢â¬ËexperienceÃ¢â¬â¢ the problems and demands of lifestyles over time, and can be related to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own difficulties. Being able to observe the shapes, forms, and meanings of certain arrangements of objects can offer revelatory experiences, and afford the psychological space to better endure oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own difficulties, while promoting positive change. This phenomenon although only recently qualified as such has long been a feature of the museum experience. For example, in his essay On Experience, Michel de Montaigne (1533Ã¢â¬â1592) reflects: For in my opinion, the most ordinary things, the most common and familiar, if we could see them in their true light, woul d turn out to be the grandest miracles of nature and the most marvellous examples, especially as regards the subject of the action of men. The role of memory in the understanding of cultural heritage is also closely linked to the therapeutic aspect of museum experience. Programmed events or tours are designed to dispel feelings of disassociation and to help the viewer engage with what they see rather than view it as a relic or something that bears little relation to themselves or their understanding of the world. Such an experience can precipitate remembrance of past events in the viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s own life that can help them to come to terms or better cope with life-threatening illnesses and behavioural health issues. In conclusion, the notion of collecting is a diverse concept, our understanding of which is often historically informed. Contemporary understandings of collections and collecting involve forays into the therapeutic and psychological effects of collections which can be experienced by the viewer. Caution must be exercised in the study of Western representations and interpretations of foreign cultures: although, arguably, it is already too late, as Imperialist ideals are entrenched in the Western methods of design, portrayal and interpretation of Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢ cultures. It is a stirring thought that Eurocentric ideology has had such a damaging effect on the welfare and existence of other cultures. As Sealy so keenly expressed Ã¢â¬Ëthe greater AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s exposure through the lens of European anthropologists, the greater was AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural erasure.Ã¢â¬â¢ Since the eighteenth century understandings of the collector have changed from the image of the dusty anti quarian, to the more diverse and culturally aware motivation to collect that places socio-political aspirations at the forefront of collections. These understandings of collecting continue to be discussed by scholars today, and continue to develop according to changing social and academic trends. Bibliography Anderson, M.L., 1999, Ã¢â¬ËMuseums of the Future: The Impact of Technology on Museum Practices.Ã¢â¬â¢ Daedalus. Vol 128. Issue: 3. 129. American Academy of Arts and Sciences Benedict, B.M., 2001, A Cultural History of Early Modern Enquiry. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press Bennett,T. 1995 The Birth of the Museum :History,Theory,Politics . Ch 2 The Evolutionary Complex Dean, D., 1996, Museum Exhibition: Theory and Practice. London: Routledge Gosden, C., and Knowles, C., 2001, Collecting Colonialism: Material Culture and Colonial Change. New York: Berg Hooper-Greenhill, E., 1995, Museum, Media Message. New York: Routledge Jameson, F., 1991, Postmodernism, Or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham:: Duke University Press Koeppe, W. Collecting for the Kunstkammer . In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. Available from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kuns/hd_kuns.htmÃ [Accessed 31/10/08] Krauss,R., 2004, Ã¢â¬ËThe Cultural Logic of the Late Capitalist Museum,Ã¢â¬â¢ reprinted in D.Preziosi and C.Farago eds Grasping the World, pp. 600-611 Message, K., 2007, New Museums and the Making of Culture. Berg Publishers. Miles, R., and Zavala, L. (eds), 1994, Towards the Museum of the Future: New European Perspectives. New York: Routledge Millgate, M., 2004, Thomas Hardy: A Biography Revisited. New York: Oxford University Press Pearce, S., Ã¢â¬â¢Studying Museum Material and Collections,Ã¢â¬â¢ International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol 1, Issue 1, (1994), pp.30-39 Salloum, H., Ã¢â¬ËAmong the Cree Indians of Canada.Ã¢â¬â¢ COntemporayr Review, (Jan, 1998). [online]. Available from:Ã BNET http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2242/is_n1584_v272/ai_20539966/pg_4Ã [Accessed 31/10/08] Sealy, M., 2007, Ã¢â¬ËWhite Noise Photography and Visual Power.Ã¢â¬â¢ [online[. Available from:Ã http://thedemocraticimage.opendemocracy.net/participate-blog-for-us/Ã [Accessed 31/10/08] Sherman, D., and Rogoff, I., 1994, Museum Culture: Histories, Discourses, Spectacles. London Routledge Silverman, LH., Ã¢â¬ËThe Therapeutic Potential of Museums as Pathways to Inclusion.Ã¢â¬â¢ In Sandall, R., 2002, Museums, Society, Inequality. London: Routledge Todd, D., 2002, Ã¢â¬ËCuriosity: A Cultural History of Early Modern Inquiry.Ã¢â¬â¢ Criticism. Vol 44. 2. P. 189+. Wayne State University Press Witcomb, A., 2003, Re-Imagining the Museum: Beyond the Mausoleum. New York: Routledge 1 Footnotes  Gosden, C., and Knowles, C., 2001, Collecting Colonialism: Material Culture and Colonial Change. New York: Berg, p.49.  Ibid.  Pearce, S., Ã¢â¬â¢Studying Museum Material and Collections,Ã¢â¬â¢ International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol 1, Issue 1, (1994), pp.30-39  Benedict, B.M., 2001, A Cultural History of Early Modern Enquiry. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, p.1.  Ibid.  Todd, D., 2002, Ã¢â¬ËCuriosity: A Cultural History of Early Modern Inquiry.Ã¢â¬â¢ Criticism, Vol. 44, p.189.  Koeppe, W., Collecting for the Kunstkammer . In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. Available from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kuns/hd_kuns.htm [Accessed 31/10/08]  Ibid.  Gosden, C., and Knowles, C., 2001, Collecting Colonialism: Material Culture and Colonial Change. New York: Berg, p.49.  See Michael Millgate, 2004, Thomas Hardy: A Biography Revisited. New York: Oxford University Press, p.227.  Todd, 2002, p.189.  Ibid.  Sealy, M., 2007, Ã¢â¬ËWhite Noise Photography and Visual Power.Ã¢â¬â¢ [online[. Available from:http://thedemocraticimage.opendemocracy.net/participate-blog-for-us/[Accessed 31/10/08]  Ibid.  See SalloumÃ¢â¬â¢s article Ã¢â¬ËAmong the Cree Indians of Canada.Ã¢â¬â¢ Contemporary Review, (Jan, 1998). [online]. Available from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2242/is_n1584_v272/ai_20539966/pg_4[Accessed 31/10/08].  Message, K., 2007, New Museums and the Making of Culture. Berg Publishers.  Ibid.  Silverman, LH., Ã¢â¬ËThe Therapeutic Potential of Museums as Pathways to Inclusion.Ã¢â¬â¢ In Sandall, R., 2002, Museums, Society, Inequality. London: Routledge, pp.69-78.  Cited in Koeppe, 2000.  Sealy, M., 2007, Ã¢â¬ËWhite Noise Photography and Visual Power.Ã¢â¬â¢ [online[. Available from:http://thedemocraticimage.opendemocracy.net/participate-blog-for-us/[Accessed 31/10/08].