суббота, 28 декабря 2019 г.

History of Christmas Traditions in the 19th Century

The history of Christmas traditions kept evolving throughout  the 19th century, when most of the familiar components of the modern Christmas including St. Nicholas, Santa Claus, and Christmas trees, became popular. The changes in how Christmas was celebrated were so profound that its safe to say someone alive in 1800 would not even recognize the Christmas celebrations held in 1900. Christmas Traditions: Key Takeaways Our most common Christmas traditions developed during the 1800s:The character of Santa Claus was largely a creation of author Washington Irving and cartoonist Thomas Nast.Christmas trees were popularized by Queen Victoria and her German husband, Prince Albert.Author Charles Dickens helped establish a tradition of generosity at Christmas. Washington Irving and St. Nicholas Early Dutch settlers of New York considered St. Nicholas to be their patron saint and practiced a yearly ritual of hanging stockings to receive presents on St. Nicholas Eve, in early December. Washington Irving, in his fanciful History of New York, mentioned that St. Nicholas had a wagon he could ride â€Å"over the tops of trees† when he brought â€Å"his yearly presents to children.† The Dutch word â€Å"Sinterklaas† for St. Nicholas evolved into the English â€Å"Santa Claus,† thanks in part to a New York City printer, William Gilley, who published an anonymous poem referring to â€Å"Santeclaus† in a children’s book in 1821. The poem was also the first mention of a character based on St. Nicholas having a sleigh, in this case, pulled by a single reindeer. Clement Clarke Moore and The Night Before Christmas Perhaps the best-known poem in the English language is â€Å"A Visit from St. Nicholas,† or as it’s often called, â€Å"The Night Before Christmas.† Its author, Clement Clarke Moore, a professor who owned an estate on the west side of Manhattan, would have been quite familiar with the St. Nicholas traditions followed in early 19th century New York. The poem was first published, anonymously, in a newspaper in Troy, New York, on December 23, 1823. Reading the poem today, one might assume that Moore simply portrayed the common traditions. Yet he actually did something quite radical by changing some of the traditions while also describing features that were entirely new. For instance, the St. Nicholas gift giving would have taken place on December 5, the eve of St. Nicholas Day. Moore moved the events he describes to Christmas Eve. He also came up with the concept of â€Å"St. Nick† having eight reindeer, each of them with a distinctive name. Charles Dickens and A Christmas Carol The other great work of Christmas literature from the 19th century is A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens. In writing the tale of Ebenezer Scrooge, Dickens wanted to comment on greed in Victorian Britain. He also made Christmas a more prominent holiday and permanently associated himself with Christmas celebrations. Dickens was inspired to write his classic story after speaking to working people in the industrial city of Manchester, England, in early October 1843. He wrote A Christmas Carol quickly, and when it appeared in bookstores the week before Christmas 1843 it began to sell very well. The book crossed the Atlantic and began to sell in America in time for Christmas 1844, and became extremely popular. When Dickens made his second trip to America in 1867 crowds clamored to hear him read from A Christmas Carol.  His tale of Scrooge and the true meaning of Christmas had become an American favorite. The story has never been out of print, and Scrooge is one of the best-known characters in literature. Santa Claus Drawn by Thomas Nast The famed American cartoonist Thomas Nast is generally credited as having invented the modern depiction of Santa Claus. Nast, who had worked as a magazine illustrator and created campaign posters for Abraham Lincoln in 1860, was hired by Harper’s Weekly in 1862. For the Christmas season, he was assigned to draw the magazine’s cover, and legend has it that Lincoln himself requested a depiction of Santa Claus visiting Union troops. The resulting cover, from Harper’s Weekly dated January 3, 1863, was a hit. It shows Santa Claus on his sleigh, which has arrived at a U.S. Army camp festooned with a â€Å"Welcome Santa Claus† sign. Santa’s suit features the stars and stripes of the American flag, and he’s distributing Christmas packages to the soldiers. One soldier is holding up a new pair of socks, which might be a boring present today, but would have been a highly prized item in the Army of the Potomac. Beneath Nasts illustration was the caption, â€Å"Santa Claus In Camp.† Appearing not long after the carnage at Antietam and Fredericksburg, the magazine cover is an apparent attempt to boost morale in a dark time. The Santa Claus illustrations proved so popular that Thomas Nast kept drawing them every year for decades. He is also credited with creating the notion that Santa lived at the North Pole and kept a workshop manned by elves. The figure of Santa Claus endured, with the version drawn by Nast becoming the accepted standard version of the character. By the early 20th century the Nast-inspired version of Santa became a very common figure in advertising. Prince Albert and Queen Victoria Made Christmas Trees Fashionable The tradition of the Christmas tree came from Germany, and there are accounts of early 19th century Christmas trees in America, but the custom wasn’t widespread outside German communities. The Christmas tree first gained popularity in British and American society thanks to the husband of Queen Victoria, the German-born Prince Albert. He installed a decorated Christmas tree at Windsor Castle in 1841, and woodcut illustrations  of the Royal Family’s tree appeared in London magazines in 1848. Those illustrations, published in America a year later, created the fashionable impression of the Christmas tree in upper-class homes. By the late 1850s reports of Christmas trees were appearing in American newspapers. And in the years following the Civil War ordinary American households celebrated the season by decorating a Christmas tree. The first electric Christmas tree lights appeared in the 1880s, thanks to an associate of Thomas Edison, but were too costly for most households. Most people in the 1800s lit their Christmas trees with small candles. The First White House Christmas Tree The first Christmas tree in the White House was displayed in 1889, during the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. The Harrison family, including his young grandchildren, decorated the tree with toy soldiers and glass ornaments for their small family gathering. There are some reports of president Franklin Pierce displaying a Christmas tree in the early 1850s. But the stories of a Pierce tree are vague and there doesnt seem to be contemporaneous mentions in newspapers of the time. Christmas Tree and Family, 1848. Benjamin Harrisons Christmas cheer was closely documented in newspaper accounts. An article on the front page of the New York Times on Christmas Day 1889 detailed the lavish presents he was going to give his grandchildren. And though Harrison was generally regarded as a fairly serious person, he vigorously embraced the Christmas spirit.   Not all subsequent presidents continued the tradition of having a Christmas tree in the White House. By the middle of the 20th century, White House Christmas trees became established. And over the years  it has evolved into an elaborate and very public production. The first National Christmas Tree was placed on The Ellipse, an area just south of the White House, in 1923, and the lighting of it was presided over by President Calvin Coolidge. The lighting of the National Christmas Tree has become quite a large annual event, typically presided over by the current president and members of the First Family. Yes, Virginia, There Is a Santa Claus In 1897 an eight-year-old girl in New York City wrote to a newspaper, the New York Sun, asking if her friends, who doubted the existence of Santa Claus, were right. An editor at the newspaper, Francis Pharcellus Church, responded by publishing, on September 21, 1897, an unsigned editorial. The response to the little girl has become the most famous newspaper editorial ever printed. The second paragraph is often quoted: Yes, VIRGINIA, there is a Santa Claus. He exists as certainly as love and generosity and devotion exist, and you know that they abound and give to your life its highest beauty and joy. Alas! how dreary would be the world if there were no Santa Claus. It would be as dreary as if there were no VIRGINIAS. Church’s eloquent editorial asserting the existence of Santa Claus seemed a fitting conclusion to a century that began with modest observances of St. Nicholas and ended with the foundations of the modern Christmas season firmly intact. By the end of the 19th century, the essential components of a modern Christmas, from Santa to the story of Scrooge to strings of electric lights were firmly established in America.

пятница, 20 декабря 2019 г.

Ancient Civilizations During The Persian Empire - 920 Words

Powerful ancient civilizations, such as Rome and Persia, are known for their territorial conquest of vast amounts of land, and having the ability to govern and control these territories effectively. At its height, the Roman empire controlled nearly the entire Mediterranean shore, and controlled large parts of Europe. The Persian empire at its height controlled lands equaling 8,000,000 sq. km from Macedonia to the Indus Valley. The ability to govern and control these lands was achieved using different methods such as governmental, military, cultural, and religious. The governments of ancient empires with vast amounts of land needed to keep the peace between the lands, to accomplish this the governments used the military to prevent uprisings, and to prevent foreign invasion. Trade between different parts of these ancient empires helped to spread the culture and made foreign lands more like the original empire, an example being Greek Hellenism, and the spread of the Polis. A common trai t of empires that controlled large amounts of land was religious tolerance. Religious tolerance allowed for different religions other than the state religion, albeit other religions most likely still had to participate in state religious affairs. With the entire Mediterranean shore and large parts of Europe under their control, Ancient Rome is undoubtedly one of the most successful ancient empires. At the heart of the control of these vastly different territories was the military. A largeShow MoreRelatedThe Greek And Persian Empires1156 Words   |  5 PagesGreek and Persian Empires flourished. With that being said, from approximately 323-800 B.C.E., both the Greek and Persian Empire were experiencing periods of economic, political, and artistic growth. The Persians, like the Greeks, were Indo Europeans, and were located by the Mediterranean Sea, which consequently allowed Greeks and Persians to develop similarities. 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Architecture allowedRead MoreComparing The Achaemenid Empire And The Imperial Stability And Prosperity Were Cyrus And Darius1638 Words   |  7 PagesThroughout human civilization, it has been invariably true that the ideas and innovations belonging to particular societies have been adopted by both concurrent and later cultures. This has culminated in remarkably advanced societies, whose success can be attributed to that of their ancient counterparts. Much of the prosperity of modern civilization can certainly be accredited to the Achaemenid Empire, a pluralistic empire fou nded in 550 BCE. At its peak, it stretched from the Indus River ValleyRead MoreAncient Greece, Rome, And Persian Essay2093 Words   |  9 PagesCulture Comparison The civilizations that I decided to elaborate on are Greece, Rome, and Persian. The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast the similarities and differences of these civilizations. 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Alexander spent a large majority of his ruling years on an military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa. By 326 BCE at the age of thirty he lead one of the largest empires of the ancient world, that stretched from Greece to northwestern

среда, 11 декабря 2019 г.

Participation In Finnish Child Care Centers-Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Participation In Finnish Child Care Centers? Answer: Introducation It is recommended that the Toddlers Warehouse should ensure that paediatricians and child counsellors are also recruited to ensure that the care of the children could be taken efficiently. Moreover, child counsellors are essential in order to ensure that the counsellor could counsel any issue faced by the children successfully. The Toddlers Warehouse, might consider expanding in the Asian countries as well. Since the cultures of the Asian countries are changing rapidly, and most of the parents of the children are working nowadays, hence the Asian marketing is a good scope of expansion for the Toddlers Warehouse. The changing culture increases the demand for such day care centres for the children (Lamb 2014). Thus, in order to cater to the needs of the Asian cultures, the expansion strategies could be considered. Another recommendation that could be made includes that the best quality food are served to the children according to the diet prescribed by paediatricians and dieticians (Ve nninen et al. 2014). This will attract more customers and parents to keep their children in the Toddlers Warehouse, as they would be assured of the health and safety of their children. This assurance will increase the customers, thus enhancing the business of the company (Lamb 2014). It is also recommended that the positioning of the Toddlers Warehouse be made near the office areas, such that the office going parents could drop and pick up the children while going to the office or coming back. These recommendations, if implemented in the company will ensure the enhancement in the business of Toddlers Warehouse. Conclusion This assignment highlights the marketing strategy and marketing management of a full service childcare/ development facility that cares for toddlers of the age three to five, named Toddlers Warehouse. The mission and vision of the company has been described in details along with highlighting the various services that are provided to the customers. The unique selling propositions of the company include treating the children with care, along with ensuring that they are engaged in positive extra-curriculum activities. The company also ensures that they children learn the basic numbers and alphabets, while in the day care centre. The market segmentation of the company is done based on demographics, full time working parents, as well as two-income working professionals. The target market has been identified appropriately, such that the company is able to reach their target management successfully. The positioning of the Toddlers Warehouse is good, and ensures high business of the company (Venninen et al. 2014). The competitive advantages of the Toddlers Warehouse include specialised training, innovative learning programs and facility tours. Thus, the company is able to gain advantage over the other similar childcare centres, thus ensuring effective business. Few recommendations have been suggested, that could be implemented in the Toddlers Warehouse, such that the enhancement in the business along with attracting more customers will be seen. Since childcare centres have a key role to play, in shaping the future of the children, hence it is important that the Toddlers Warehouse focus on the overall developing of the children, along with enhancement in their business.; References Lamb, M.E., 2014.Child care in context: Cross-cultural perspectives. Psychology Press. Venninen, T., Leinonen, J., Lipponen, L. and Ojala, M., 2014. Supporting childrens participation in financial child care centers.Early Childhood Education Journal,42(3), pp.211-218.

среда, 4 декабря 2019 г.

Reserch log free essay sample

What I thought that definition of identity Is who you are, the characteristics that define you and the way you think about yourself. According to English dictionary, Identity Is the Individual characteristics by which a person or thing Is recognized. Innocence means that I believe what we see In children. It Is Like saying that the words pure and white. The dictionary said, the quality or state of being innocent; freedom from sin or moral wrong. Experience is the knowledge a person acquire in life through learning and doing.Dictionary said which is direct personal participation or observation; actual knowledge or contact. 2. Definitions from dictionary. Com 1 . Latinity :the individual characteristics by which a person or thing is recognized 2: Innocence the quality or state of being innocent; freedom from sin or moral wrong. 3: Experience the observing, encountering, or undergoing of things generally as they occur In the course of time: direct personal participation or observation; actual knowledge or contact 3. We will write a custom essay sample on Reserch log or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Innocence comes in all shapes and sizes; from children to adult.One may come to America feeling extremely innocent. -How difference between South Korea and America 1. Schooling : Students study all the time in Hong Kong : Students in US do much then Just studying 2. Dietary habits : eat rice three times a day in Hong Kong : In US you have more options for sides. 3. Communications : Saying hello, good bye, smiling In US to anyone even If you do not know them. Lots of hugging, kissing, hello/goodbye. : Bow to older people/authority figure Hong Kong 4. Aleut Johnson, MS.