среда, 30 октября 2019 г.

Technology how it impacts us Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Technology how it impacts us - Essay Example Internet has proven to be fruit full in every walk of life, whether it is education, politics or economics, all fields have benefited from internet. In this writing, the focus will be on the positive and the negative impacts of technology on society. Technology has positively and negatively impacted the way human beings used to communicate, it has altered the meaning and limitations of socialization and technology has become a major part in every individual’s circumference. Body Since the advent of mobile phones, people have experienced a complete change in the way they used to communicate with each other. A major part of using a mobile phone is text messaging or in slang it is recognized as texting. Texting is text messaging is a term used to refer to the act of sending small messages from one mobile phone to another. On the core, texting may seem to be of great advantage as it has assisted people in sending tiny and timely information from one end to another within a matter of seconds. But texting has negatively impacted the way people use language and has damage the real essence of English language. When teenagers text, they use abbreviations for several words just to make sure that they can send as much information as possible in a very limited amount of space. Examples of abbreviations used includes: (u for you), (k for okay) and (brb for be right back). On the surface, these abbreviation may seem trendy and cool but in reality these abbreviations are destroying how people used to converse. These abbreviations are even negatively impacting an individual’s learning of English language. Technological advancements have made communication and transactions faster and easier than they used to be. For example: the spread of social media networks, where millions of people come together and communicate and conduct transactions with each other within a very small period of time. Such technologies have assisted individuals in connecting with people acro ss the boundary of their regions, this has further assisted people in knowing and learning about other cultures and what is happening around the world. Similarly, computers which happen to be a part of almost every household and every business have evolved from being slow to being thousand times faster. These fast paced computers have increased productivity of businesses as no longer people need to manually maintain records and keep them safe. Now people no longer have to waste time to go to an outlet and purchase goods and services for themselves, introduction of online shopping facilities have allowed people to buy and sell goods while sitting and relaxing at their homes. Although technology has sped up the transaction and the communication process and has made these processes easier and simpler, but these technologies are ruining the society and especially negatively impacting the youth which happens to be the base of any nation’s success. Teenagers have started becoming a ddicts of technology; they experience similar issues that are experienced by drug abusers if they fail to abuse drugs. They feel that a major part of their life is lost and they believe that without technology such as mobile phones they cannot live at all. Now people spend hours and hours sitting at home talking to their friends over the cell phone instead of going out and meeting up with friends for a simple chat or for the sake of having breakfast.

понедельник, 28 октября 2019 г.

Reading Theories Essay Example for Free

Reading Theories Essay Reading theories Of the two approaches mentioned in reading research and literature, the bottom-up approach focuses on language elements such as grammar, vocabulary and cohesion, while the top-down approach includes a focus on background knowledge about content and organization, generally referred to as content and formal schemata respectively. A combination of these two approaches is generally known as the Interactive Model of Reading. The pedagogy in this study was based on the Schema Interactive Model of Reading (Simonsen and Singer, 1992). 7 able 1: Approaches and strategies Approaches Top Down Strategies # Generating questions from title Skimming questions Bottom Up for content, based generated# Skimming # on for writer’s thesis # Guessing meanings of words from context (vocabulary) use of modals, tenses Schema discourse) Interactive (text as # Concepts of cohesion and coherence and connections between paragraphs Text purpose and purpose at paragraph level # the # Understanding how language functions in context. E. g. Metaphorical models of reading Specific models of reading. Bottom-up models Top-down models Interactive models Interactive compensatory model( nature inner knowledge) if there’s lack u should compensate it Word recognition model Simple view of reading model Dual coding model (2languages) Psycholinguistic guessing game: activate prior knowledge .. student is giving an aim for reading Reading strategies : . specifying a purpose for reading ? Planning what to do and what steps to take ? Previewing the text ? Predicting the contentes of the text or section of text ? Reflecting on what has been learned from the text ? Checking prdictions ? Posing questions about the text ? Finding answers to posed questions ? Connecting test to background knowledge ? Summarizing infor ? Makin interferances ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Connecting one part of the text to another Paying attention to text structure Rereading Guessing the meaning of new word from the context Using discourse makers to see relationships Checking comprehension Identifying difficulties Taking steps to reapir faulty comprehension Critiquing the author Critiquing the text Judging how well purposes for reading were met (where you reached the aim of reading or not ) Reading is not decoding but building concepts Read is to acquire lge in order to know special notes In order to write u need positions + definitions Learning can happen without reading There is implicit relationship betwwen l1 and l2 It is natural to use L1 in L2 reading.. L1 IS The basis of L1 To accomplish this goal, instructors focus on the process of reading rather than on its product. ? ? ? They develop students awareness of the reading process and reading strategies by asking students to think and talk about how they read in their native language. They allow students to practice the full repertoire of reading strategies by using authentic reading tasks. They encourage students to read to learn (and have an authentic purpose for reading) by giving students some choice of reading material. When working with reading tasks in class, they show students the strategies that will work best for the reading purpose and the type of text. They explain how and why students should use the strategies. ? ? ? ? They have students practice reading strategies in class and ask them to practice outside of class in their reading assignments. They encourage students to be conscious of what theyre doing while they complete reading assignments. They encourage students to evaluate their comprehension and selfreport their use of strategies. They build comprehension checks into in-class and out-of-class reading assignments, and periodically review how and when to use particular strategies. They encourage the development of reading skills and the use of reading strategies by using the target language to convey instructions and course-related information in written form: office hours, homework assignments, test content. They do not assume that students will transfer strategy use from one task to another. They explicitly mention how a particular strategy can be used in a different type of reading task or with another skill. By raising students awareness of reading as a skill that requires active engagement, and by explicitly teaching reading strategies, instructors help their students develop both the ability and the confidence to handle communication situations they may encounter beyond the classroom. In this way they give their students the foundation for communicative competence in the new language. ‘ SLA: Second-language acquisition or second-language learning is the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition (often abbreviated to SLA) also refers to the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. Second language refers to any language learned in addition to a persons first language; although the concept is named second-language [1] acquisition, it can also incorporate the learning of third, fourth, or subsequent languages. Secondlanguage acquisition refers to what learners do; it does not refer to practices in language teaching. The academic discipline of second-language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics. It is broad-based and relatively new. As well as the various branches of linguistics, second-language acquisition is also closely related to psychology, cognitive psychology, and education Is to acquire lg without effort : classroom/real life.. in natural way L2 reading is a reading problem. is not letter decoding†¦when you read l2 text you activate your prior knowledge †¦l2 readers who are able to turn a txt into paragraph are better reader==) read faster/remember more There is no reading without : -phonological representation /guess meaning/ prior knwldge Implicit knowledge That we learn unconsciously Automatic knowledge The explcit will turn into implicit Output: what u speak input: what u read learn Explicit knowledge we can verbelize.

суббота, 26 октября 2019 г.

Comparison of how The Flea and To His Coy Mistress Present and Develop

The Flea and To His Coy Mistress are two poems written by poets living during the Renaissance Period. To His Coy Mistress was written by Andrew Marvell and The Flea was written by John Donne. Both of these poets were well-educated 'metaphysical poets', and these poems illustrate metaphysical concerns, highly abstract and theoretical ideas, that the poets would have been interested in. Both poems are based around the same idea of trying to reason with a 'mistress' as to why they should give up their virginity to the poet. There is a similar theme running through both of the poems, in which both mistresses are refusing to partake in sexual intercourse with both of the poets. The way in which both poets present their argument is quite different as Marvell is writing from a perspective from which he is depicting his mistress as being 'coy', and essentially, mean, in refusing him sex, and Donne is comparing the blood lost by a flea bite to the blood that would be united during sex. Marvell immediately makes clear his thoughts in the poem when he says, "Had we but world enough, and time/ This coyness, Lady were no crime", he is conveying the 'carpe diem' idea that there is not enough time for her to be 'coy' and refuse him sexual intercourse and he justifies this thought when he suggests when she is dead, in ?thy marble vault?, and ?worms shall try that long preserved virginity?. He is using the idea of worms crawling all over and in her corpse as a way of saying that the worms are going to take her virgin ity if she waits until death. Donne justifies his bid for her virginity in a much longer and more methodical way, he uses the idea of the flea taking her blood and mixing it with his, ?It suck?d me first, and now sucks thee?, and then... ...n The Flea) were viewed as extremely inventive and clever in the eyes of the people reading them during the Renaissance period. The poets integrated ?metaphysical conceits? as focal parts of these poems. Along with these, they used effective language as a basis for their convincing arguments, they included subjects of periodical importance (e.g. ?courtship? and ?religion?), and use very clever structures that are manipulated in order to make the poem read in the desired way. The very clear indication of the theme in question was strongly aided by the way in which the personas portrayed the emotions they felt and the way they showed their attitudes towards the subject. Considering all these factors, the poets made critical arguments to the mistresses in order to alter their views, thus changing their minds, on denying the poets the sex that they desired so strongly.

четверг, 24 октября 2019 г.

Career as a Forensic Specialist Essay

My future career as a Forensic Specialist Everest University Online Strategies for success My future career as a Forensic Specialist When I look into the future, after finishing college, I see myself as a Forensic Specialist. Why do I see myself as a Forensic Specialist you may ask? Well I will tell you why, Forensics has been something I have found astonishing and amazing since I was a kid because it can be fascinating on some of the things they find and inspect. The things a Forensic Specialist does is hard work but it is science so it is fun to learn, and I myself can’t wait to get my hands involved with some of the things they do. Another reason why I choose to go into Forensics is because it is good money, and I am able to help solve crimes and maybe hopefully one day put an end to some of the stuff that goes on in the world. In the next few paragraphs I will go on to explain some of these and much more. Due to the advances in scientific technology in examining, crime scenes have turned the Forensic Specialist/Forensic Science jobs into very high demand. One of the very vast growing career fields in the world today is Forensic Specialist/Science field. To add to its popularity, Forensic Specialist jobs also include TV shows like CSI, or Crime Scene Investigators. The Forensic Specialist job field also has many subcategories which consist of forensic science consultants, fingerprint technicians and examiners, evidence technicians and forensic investigators. When it comes to schooling, In order to become a Forensic Specialist, several factors come into play. So just because you or someone else you may know, have a 4 year bachelors degree doesn’t always get you the job. Other factors that come into the play of this matter are training programs one may have taken, and or certificates or other degrees that a person may have obtained. The schooling usually only takes 2 years for an associates degree and 4 years for a bachelors. The pay of all science technicians, forensic specialist/scientists currently earn the second highest annual salary. In 2002 that pay was about $19. 73 an hour or approximately $41,000 but that isn’t the highest nor the lowest pay of a specialist. Depending on your rank, you could make as much as $31. 49 an hour or $65,000 annually and as low as $12. 06 an hour and $25,100 annually. The pay of a Forensic Specialist is determined on factors like the type of specialist you are, the rank in which you uphold, years of experience and the type of employment and its location. In 2012 the pay for a Forensic Specialist field will increase its pay by 19% with 360 job positions opening up each year. In conclusion to my research of becoming a Forensic specialist, I have came to make a choice to be one myself. For one I love investigating crime scenes, the pay sounds very good, and being as how I won’t graduate until 2013 or 2014 the pay that is suppose in 2012 will be even more once I start looking for a job in the field. Schooling to become such an expert isn’t all that bad, I mean 2 to 4 years isn’t a bad time limit for taking classes to get the degree I need to become a Forensic Specialist and to me will be well worth the money. Being as how the demand is so high for Forensic Specialist/Scientist I am sure there will be so many job openings when it comes time for me to go to work.

среда, 23 октября 2019 г.

Advantages of Homework

Almost every individual who underwent formal studying (traditional, distance learning, home schooling etc) experienced being assigned with a homework or assignment. A homework/assignment is a task delegated by a teacher to the student, a take-home chore that the student should accomplish at home and present/submit at the start of the following school day. Assignments and homework tasks inside school setting is, without a doubt, one of the oldest tools being used by teachers and academicians who believe that such tasks contribute to the learning of the student. The use of homework and assignment is largely observed in different parts of the world. Asian, American and European schools, as well as other learning institutions, use homework and assignment to impart lessons and to train students towards acquiring a habit of reading and writing. Furthermore, it develops other faculties of thinking and behavior to achieve the idea of â€Å"learning,† both academics-wise and the implication of this knowledge in more practical and real-life application. Homework, pop culture, socially-shared beliefs and the student stereotype Homework has been an integral part of the systematic, school-based learning process. Because the academic learning process is a significant aspect of the social life both for children (who are studying) and adults (who are parents or guardians of studying children), it should come as no surprise when student life, learning and the learning tools like homework and assignment was easily integrated in the social culture. The pop media portrays diligent and studious individuals as those who take time to work on their homework and assignment. While the accomplishment or failure to accomplish assignment and homework requirements are socially accepted cultural symbolisms for the lax, the academically-challenged or those who are not too serious about learning anything from school. Take for example, the case of the characters Hermione Granger and Ronald Weasly of the book and movie fame Harry Potter series. Hermione possesses the characteristic of being a bright and smart student, while her friend Ron was not as good in their academics while studying at Hogwarts. This is established with many different instances, including the several times Ron asked Hermione to help him with his assignment and homework. The times when Ron would grumble about lengthy homework and assignment, and the instances wherein Hermione would attribute her knowledge by studying well ahead and doing their homework and assignment as required by their teacher, implying that her knowledge was a result of many different things, and that includes homework and assignment. Mainstream media, like movies and television shows, portrays not just the stereotypes represented by their attitude towards assignment and homework. It also represents the different perspective of students towards homework and assignment, and the attitude the students take become role models or key influence-sources for other students for their attitude towards assignment and homework. â€Å"Students reported that they were distracted from schoolwork and homework by inappropriate role models on television. They complained that their parents did not sufficiently monitor the kinds of television programs they watch or how much time they spent watching television (Ogbu, 2003, p. 240). † In the movie American History X, the character played by Edward Furlong was summoned to the principal’s office because of a scandalous output in one of his history homework tasks. The principal made another assignment, and it was the accomplishment of this assignment that Furlong’s character managed to get a perspective of his life and how he is affected by the people around him and the society in general. The assignment/homework in the movie represents the many different touchstones for self realization, self assessment and a way to ventilate thoughts and feelings so that constructive knowledge can come in and help shape the person towards how the society expects one to be. This idea points to the fact that the state of homework and assignment culture reflects the students as much as it reflects the status of this particular tool in the society. If there are too many signs saying that the society condones dissatisfaction over the tasks involved in assignment and homework compliance, then the society should re-assess its position. It should take a very good look at the positive impact of homework and assignment in the learning process of a student before it allows the feeling of negativity towards this particular learning tool to go any further. In print and in television, fictional scenarios in books, television shows, comic strips, movies and other types of entertainment, tackle the issue of assignment and homework by featuring a dutiful mother or father encouraging their child to work on his/her assignment and homework. Amidst futile protests and childish grumblings, symbolizing the fact that homework and assignment is not particularly popular in some members of the student population. In real life, many students are not fond of assignments, and some of them may have very valid points in arguing for the abolition of the use of assignment and homework as a learning tool. In some cases, the inability of teachers and parents to use strategies for effective assignment and homework tasking removes whatever possible positive impact that assignment and homework posses. Most teachers see the value of assigning homework, but get bogged down in its management. Most parents see the value of homework (Mierzwik, 2005, p. 23). † But clearly, the above mentioned considerations are mere meager and insignificant compared to what students all in all are set to gain if the school systems are allowed to continue using homework and assignment to infuse the learning experience to the students. The reasons why assig nment and homework are educational tools advantageous to the learning of the students far outweigh the reasons why the academe should do without it. Problem Statement Despite the long use of assignment and homework inside the academic learning process, there are those who believe that homework and assignment is archaic, anachronistic and overall a waste of time. This is largely because they consider assignment and homework as futile and a waste of time for students and teachers since nothing advantageous is extracted from it. This paper will try to refute this idea and present proof that contrary to the belief of those batting for the abolition and removal of assignment and homework. The use of this particular tool inside schools and learning institutions in fact provide a very important contribution towards the overall growth and development of the knowledge and intelligence level of a student owed to a productive learning process maximized by the input of homework and assignment in the learning process. The root of the problem is the emergence of the belief that school systems and teaching styles is better off without the use of assignment and homework. Looking at the life cycle of assignments, it is easily noticeable how there are many different weak points in the homework and assignment accomplishment process that somehow contributes to the weakening of the desired effects of homework and assignment, and these factors cannot be easily remedied. The desired effect to students who accomplish the homework and assignment tasks given by the teacher is clearly jeopardized in many different instances, and because of this, some people believe that the system is better without such set of tasks. Proponents of those going against the idea of using assignment and homework believe that the use of such tool is pointless in many different instances which are constantly occurring and is not something alien to the way of life of students everywhere. Roots of the problem: Providing a hypothetical analysis to the reasons and the factors involved in the perceived failure and futility of the use of assignment and homework To be able to see the weak points where the essence of the advantages of homework and assignment seeps out even before it is used and maximized by the students, there should be an analysis of some of the common instances and factors that should be addressed before homework and assignment returns to its previously potent state. Why is assignment and homework not doing what it is supposed to do to students? The very first weak link in the armor is found in the participation of the students. But these are problems which can be remedied. These problems decreases the impact of assignment and homework but this alone does not make homework and assignment useless. The educational institution cannot just remove an age old learning tool just because it was more convenient to do so. The problem was there were factors that limit and adversely affect the impact of homework and assignment on the students. This does not mean that homework and assignment are useless and was useless from the start. The rest of the paper will elaborate on the perceived advantages of the use of assignment and homework, in the hope that these advantages are convincing enough for it to be the catalyst of change towards the manner by which homework and assignment is appraised, considered and utilized. The paper hopes to accomplish this through by proving key points about the issue by referencing some of the previously published works that support the overall claim and stand of the paper about homework and assignment. Literature Review To be able to establish the claim that the use of homework and assignment as part of the academic progress and learning process of the student is indeed useful and advantageous for the student, this research will rely on the input from several literary sources proving that the paper's claim stands on solid grounds. Proof of the advantages of Homework Artzt and Armour-Thomas (2001) explicitly stated in the book â€Å"Becoming a Reflective Mathematics Teacher† about the importance and significance of assignment and homework in student learning. Most teachers agree that homework is a critical part of the teaching-learning process (Artzt, Armour-Thomas, 2001, p. 130). † Artzt and Armour-Thomas believed that the role of homework and assignment is that this allows the student to demonstrate what he or she learned in school. Through this exercise, the lessons are retained more effectively in the consciousness of the student, therefore making assignments and homework integral in the learning process. This particular line of thought can be seen in different research and study efforts wherein researchers used real students and real learning experience to see the effect of providing assignment and homework and other learning tools and support structures to see if improvement is noticeable after exposure to such methods. Cooper and Valentine (2001) wrote in detail about these types of studies so that researchers can reference previous research and study results involving students and the effect of homework and assignment in their performance after long term and short term experimentation. Students with learning disabilities and average-achieving students with homework problems showed significantly improved rates of homework completion ad weekly quiz performance in response to â€Å"real-life† assignments, homework planners and graphing (Cooper, Valentine, 2001, p. 175). † The learning process, as Artzt and Armour-Thomas suggested, is not confined in the four corners of t he classroom but instead involves the family and the home. Since it is not always easy to consistently gauge if all of the students are learning, the outcome in of the assignments and homework which the student submit will allow the teacher an additional avenue which the teacher can use to have an insight in the academic development and learning progress of the student. Assignment and homework is an important support structure in learning because through assignment and homework, the information that the student needs to remember constantly to be able to learn and master is tackled during and after school. Yes, those who oppose assignment and have no faith in the positive effect of homework may argue that indeed, there are many other different learning tools which can be used to teach students and make their learning process a success. But what is more important is that while assignment and homework alone cannot provide the holistic academic and learning development a student needs. It is nonetheless a very integral and significant part that without which there will be a clear struggle to learn and retain information which was absorbed by the student while in school. With access to these various support structures, students' ability to successfully learn mathematics was enhanced. One student†¦ stated, ‘in algebra when I first started, I didn't understand something like writing equations, so I would go in after school. I got help everyday until I understood (Kitchen, Celedon-Pattichis, De Pree, 2006, p. 102). † Mierzwik (2005) was in total agreement about the proposition on the idea about the significance of the role of assignment and homework in student learning and the overall Learning Process. Everyone would agree that the more you practice a skill, the better you will be at performing that skill. Homework provides a valuable opportunity to ‘monitor student learning, practice of a skill or concept that has been taught, tie in school learning with real world experience, actively involve the family in the student's education and prepare for in-school activities (Mierzwik, 2005, p. 23). † Several books talk about how teachers, researchers and academicians study the impact of homework and assignment in different subjects, different age level and in different situations. There are results that lead to the conclusion that homework indeed helps students improve in their academics and be more susceptible to learning. Cooper and Valentine (2001) wrote in a book entitled â€Å"Homework† about a study involving students who were provided with homework. Before the use of homework, the researcher noted the academic performance and strength of all of the students involved, and the researcher noted that 50 percent of the students involved in the experiment showed improvement after being subjected to assignments. Rosenberg (1989) compared the effect of direct instruction plus supplemental homework on the math performances of six elementary students with learning disabilities. Homework improved the performance of three students while three showed inconsistent performances (Cooper, Valentine, 2001, p. 175). † Cooper and Valentine (2001) talked about studies focused on the role of homework and equal significance of their supporting learning tools. The completion of homework and the ability to make the most out of homework and assignment is harnessed among the target students, writing about how a group of researchers â€Å"trained parents of students who were both learning disabled and gifted to use homework compliance timetable (e. g. homework is to be done from 4:45 to 5:50 p. m. ) and noncoercive behavioral discipline techniques. From baseline to study end, students showed improved grades and behavior (Cooper, Valentine, 2001, p. 175). † Homework, active participation and the positive end result. Working on assignments and homework can bring out the best in the student especially for shy and timid students who would not recite or actively participate in class. This is because assignment are done inside the house, inside the student’s room where the student is not conscious with the approval and appraisal of his/her teacher/classmate with what he or she is doing. Because of this, the inhibition decreases and the student becomes more relaxed, allowing the student to be able to focus and bring out everything that he or she learned at school and apply it in the assignment. Mathematics, in particular, is one of the subjects which can be better learned if the learning set up and situation is like this, making it more conducive to learning. â€Å"Learning mathematics necessitates active involvement on the student’s part. Giving students problems to do on their own in the privacy of their homes affords them the opportunity to practice what they have learned, to discover what is they do not understand, and possibly to extend their learning through new applications (Artzt, Armour-Thomas, 2001, p. 30). † Rosenblum-Lowden (2000) explained the importance of assignment and homework in the teaching and learning cycle of the life of students and teachers by describing homework and assignment as something regularly and consistently seen. Teachers have a very crucial role in the preservation of the culture of assignment and homework inside the classroom because if the teachers give in to the demand for the â€Å"no-assignment† policy. Students would stop expecting it altogether, and that is a problem, not just in the behavior of students in learning-related tasks but as well as their outlook in assignment and homework after long stretches of not experiencing one. Because of this, there is a need for a consistent, regular and expected assignment and homework tasks. â€Å"It is a good idea to have a short daily homework assignment prepared from Day 1. They’ll groan, but don't be put off by it. They expect homework! I always put my assignments in the same spot on the board. When my students walk in my room, they automatically look at the upper left-hand corner of the board. It just makes for an easy routine, and homework becomes something they expect – and should get (Rosenblum-Lowden, 2000, p. 39). † Having provided sufficient input to prove that assignment and homework is an important part of a student’s life which enables the learning process to take its course in a way that is productive and effective, it is also important to point out that there are people and institutions that are still doing everything they can. They can better understand the nature of giving assignments and homework and how this particular tool helps (and can better help) the students, the teacher, the teaching style, the learning process and experience and the facilitation of retention of knowledge through repetitive action and exercise. Researchers constantly focus on the understanding of different factors affecting the effectiveness of homework and assignment and why it can also fail for some students. The effort to understand assignment and homework better always have in it the potential to be able to improve assignment and homework design in a way that it can allow students and teacher to use it better and expect more positive impact with the use of this tool. â€Å"We wanted to include factors such as student’s attitude to the subject and their relevant prior knowledge in relation to the task as it was likely to be relevant to their response to a particular homework assignment (Poulson, Wallace, 2003, p. 130). † Other implications of homework and assignment in student and learning process Aside from the role of assignment and homework in student learning per se, some professionals believe that there are other roles that homework and assignment takes on, roles which yield output that is still advantageous to the pursuit of learning of the student. â€Å"Earlier research had suggested that student’s engagement with homework may be related to their learning identity (Poulson, Wallace, 2003, p. 90). † The full impact of the role of homework and assignment, professionals believe, is yet to be discovered despite available information that already shows the significance of homework and assignment. Aware of such situation, some researchers are still putting effort towards finding out more about homework and its impact and effect in the student and in the student learning process. Researchers anticipate results that are inclined towards proving that homework and assignments are overall useful and advantageous to the student. â€Å"We wished to discover whether a particular homework assignment had increased any student's knowledge of the topic, provided the student with new skills or understanding, or helped her or him to make connections with out-of-school learning. Following Pollard and Filer, we were interested in looking at wider learning outcomes, such as whether the completion (or non completion) of a homework assignment had any impact on a student’s self esteem, attitude towards the subject or wider orientation towards learning (Poulson, Wallace, 2003, p90). † Some teachers and academicians believe so much in the power of homework and assignment in student learning that they even organize groups and school-based clubs designed specifically to maximize the use and impact of homework and assignment in the life of the students, using it to learn more and consistently. An additional means for supporting student learning was an afterschool homework club staffed with volunteer tutors from the community. One teacher†¦ explained, ‘the school†¦ offers a homework club that runs Monday through Friday. ’ Finally, most teachers were available everyday after school for additional support (Kitchen, Celedon-Pattichis, D e Pree, 2006, p. 102). † Literary support outside the educator’s readings for understanding homework and assignment problems and solutions. In the effort to understand the nature of the student’s reaction towards assignment and homework, academicians and teachers should also try exploring other fields and profession which utilizes homework and assignment. Through this, teachers and academicians can better appreciate and understand the impact of homework and assignment even outside academic life and in the process learn new things which it can integrate to the teaching paradigm involving the use of assignment. Take for example, the assessment of assignment and homework compliance and the attitude and the factors involved in this analysis. This aspect is important if the academic world wants to preserve the use of assignment and homework. But for them to do so, it is not enough to understand merely the positive impact of assignment and homework. It is also important that they have a very good perspective when it comes to analysing the probable chinks in the failure of the assignment and homework as a teaching strategy. The field of psychology maybe the best first stop in the effort to circumnavigate the different professions that are dependent on the use of assignment which are capable of understanding the nature of homework when it breaks down. When clients fail to do homework, respond in a neutral but curious manner and focus on identifying the problems that may have contributed to homework noncompliance. If the homework was not completed (or attempted) set aside the entire session to review why the homework was not done†¦ Did we make the homework too difficult? Were the homework instructions unclear? Did some u nanticipated problem arise (Koocher, Norcross, Hill, 2004, p. 323)? † This particular style in insight towards understanding assignment and homework and the factors that affect it may not just minimize the rise of negativity over assignment and homework all in all. But this may also lead to a more constructive appraisal and assessment of the problem and the possible solutions and adjustments so that assignments and homework can be used and improved. Recommendation The investigation of the paper about the different important aspects related to the establishment of the presence of advantage and gain in the use of homework and assignment also brought to light some important points of discussion. The perceived positive characteristics of assignment and homework are maximized by the student, teacher and the academic /educational institutions. As the presence of the good effect of assignment and homework is already seen and felt, it is nonetheless paramount that factors that deter the further development of assignment and homework as a learning tool are identified and necessary actions taken regarding such factors. There are less and less reasons for cynics and sceptics to doubt the potency of homework and assignment. Seek parent support in utilizing and maximizing the effect of assignment and homework – The active role of parents also is an important consideration if teachers and academicians want to take assignment and homework to another level and make the most of the effect of homework and assignment. This is something that researchers have already looked into in the past, and they have contributed several important insights in the importance of parent roles in the success and positive impact of assignments and homework. If parents think that they are not instrumental in the success of homework and assignment and the overall academic performance of their student-children, they are completely mislead by this belief. â€Å"The importance of parents’ supervision of homework was not lost on the students. For example, MAC scholars reported that parents’ supervision of their schoolwork and homework was an important reason for their academic success (Ogbu, 2003, p. 240). † Cooper and Valentine (2001) wrote about the positive impact of assignment when used alongside effective parenting in the learning and education process of a student. Cooper and Valentine (2001) discussed about a study featured the training of â€Å"parents of sixth and seventh grade at-risk youth to monitor and check homework, use materials provided, and role-play homework situations. Students were trained to (a) self monitor, (b) self record, (c) self-reinforce, and (d) self-instruct and set goals. Students whose parents implemented program strategies accurately and consistently showed increased homework completion, homework quality, and scores on a standardized math test than students who parents did not follow through (Cooper, Valentine, 2001, p. 175). † But parents should understand that the meaning of parent’s participation refers to the presence of encouragement and guidance in having the student accomplish the assignment or homework. Parent involvement in the homework does not mean that teachers should make very difficult assignments that the parents are forced to do it themselves. Homework is also a parent-teacher relationship too. The homework represents you. Make sure it isn't just busywork, or so difficult that you expect parents to play a major role in it (Rosenblum-Lowden, 2000, p. 39). † Take active role in the breaking down of culture and practices surrounding students today which enables them to escape the task of doing their assignment and hom ework Many parents, individuals and groups are talking about the possible decay of the educational institutions because of the worsening case of the ability of students to learn. But adults who are influential in the educational system of the society should also take a good look at their role as policy makers in the educational system. Instead, they should support the development and continued use of learning tools such as assignment and homework by doing their part in removing and blocking social trends that inhibit the undertaking and effectiveness of homework and assignment. Some may think that this issue should be addressed solely by the members of the educational institutions and parents. But there are those who believe that the change in educational system involves the entire society in itself. All of the aspects found here contribute greatly to how educational system and culture is shaped, and that includes the shaping of the attitude towards assignment and homework by students, parents, academicians and other members of the society, some of them indifferent to the problem itself. â€Å"We also needed to recognise that these specific contexts were in turn located within a range or wider social, political and cultural contexts. For example, as already mentioned, we would be carrying out our study in a time when there was considerable support and enthusiasm for homework from politicians and policymakers (Poulson, Wallace, 2003, p. 90). † There are also other significant inputs for this particular issue. For one, it is important that there is an effort to redesign, if necessary, assignment styles and structures in a way that it is more exciting and stimulating to do, moving away from the copy-and-paste approach that question and answer assignment types solicit from students who are answering their assignments in a robotic function. Believe it or not, your students understand that homework is a sign that a teacher cares about them. It is easier not to give homework, but we must give challenging assignments. Of equal importance is the manner in which the assignments are treated by the teacher (Rosenblum-Lowden, 2000, p. 39). † One of the possible reasons why assignments, over time and long exposure of students to it, becomes ineffective is the redundancy and the lack of exciting and stimulating challenge that students get from it. Learning is more easily achieved if the experience features excitement due to mental stimulation, powered by the fuel of genuine inquisitiveness and not forced by role-playing chores or by authoritarian pressure. It is important to remind the teachers and the academicians that as much as students are learning everyday, so should they. The focus of learning is how to move away from overused assignment and homework styles, try to move out of their comfort zone and study new ways and means to make assignment and homework more intellectually stimulating. If the students find homework and assignment as exciting as the other things that they do in their own accord and will, then the learning process that goes with it will be able to function. â€Å"In addition to thoughtfully assigning problems from the text, teachers should also try to assign interesting problems by consulting other sources and or using their own creativity (Artzt, Armour-Thomas, 2001, p. 130). † Conclusion One of the important points raised here, is that, despite the fact that there are already many different available information about homework and assignment and the role of this learning tool not just in learning but also in the overall development of a student as a person, there are still many individuals who are bent on knowing more about the impact of homework and assignment to a student. There are other important information about homework and assignment, which maybe usable in the near future for homework/assignment assessment and other related endeavor. The other information coming from the pursuit of knowing the advantages of homework and assignment to a student’s learning process also yields information that is interesting and quite useful for demographic breakdown on other assignment and homework-related problems (i. e. the ratio of the different types of students and how they respond to assignments and homework and the reason for such occurrence, etc). â€Å"There is evidence that female students do more homework than males (Poulson, Wallace, 2003, p. 90). †

вторник, 22 октября 2019 г.

Booker T. Washington W.E.B. Du Bois political differences

Booker T. Washington W.E.B. Du Bois political differences Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois dealt with black poverty and discrimination in different ways, through different methods of education and public movements.Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois differed on how blacks should be educated. Washington believed that education should incorporate both academics and a trade. He believed that slavery led to racism, and racism would end once African Americans acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society (Doc D). However W.E.B. Du Bois alleged that racism was the cause of slavery, and that the only way to achieve economic success was to obtain political rights. Du Bois was quoted, "What must we do then . . . complain . . . ceaseless agitation, unfailing exposure of dishonesty and wrong- this is the ancient, unerring way to liberty..." (Doc F). Hence his idea on the "Talented Tenth." Which is where the best and the brightest of the black race must receive the higher education they need.Portrait of Dr. W.E.B. D u Bois (1946 July 18)Both men also criticized each other's public movements. Booker T.'s Atlanta Exposition address called for a gradual approach to racial equality. He suggested, "it is at the bottom of life we must begin, and not at the top." However, Du Bois degraded this view, and later named it the "Atlanta Compromise." In 1905, he founded the Niagara Movement, which in 1910 became the NAACP, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.At the end of the nineteenth century and in the beginning of the twentieth century, black poverty and discrimination were both alive and well. But two great African American leaders, Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois, put forth their ideas on how to rid society of this evil. From their own ideas on how to bring education to the black race and raise...

понедельник, 21 октября 2019 г.

Billy Budd Essays - Billy Budd, Billy Kessler, Pale Yellow Skin

Billy Budd Essays - Billy Budd, Billy Kessler, Pale Yellow Skin Billy Budd There is much to be said about innocence. If one is with innocence than one can do no wrong. But that is not all to be said. Innocence is not always a good thing. It could make one naive or blind to certain evils. Like in the case of Billy Budd. Billy was innocent from evil and therefore could not see the evil of John Claggart approaching him, out to destroy him. It is known Billy's innocence was his down fall by hiding the true evil from his eyes. But why was John Claggart out to destroy Billy?. There are several reasons why John Claggart attempts to destroy Billy Budd. John Claggart wants to destroy Billy because he is extremely wary of Billy's intentions. He has come to believe that Billy is planning a mutiny and wants to take over the ship. Claggart reports this to captain Vere saying," During today's chase and possible encounter I had seen enough to convince him that at least one sailor aboard was dangerous." Meaning that he felt Billy was against them. Claggart felt that Billy's big plan was to get in favor of all the men on the ship and then turn them against the captain. Captain Vere responds by having Billy and Claggart meet in private where Claggart can openly accuse Billy of this crime. Fortunately, Claggarts attempt to destroy Billy for mutiny fails because he is struck down by Billy in one blow, ending the matter, but opening a much more serious one. Claggart is also seen as attempting to destroy Billy due to his evil nature in general. Nothing depicts Claggart's evil nature better than the way he looks. His cleanly chiseled chin and cunning violet eyes that can cut lesser sailors with an evil glare. His pale yellow skin and jet black curly hair; they all contrast his character. He is out to destroy Billy because of the conezt struggle of good and evil. Billy is innocent and cannot comprehend evil therefore making him good. People calling Billy "baby budd, and handsome sailor" just seem to contrast the good in him even more. Claggart was born evil and therefore is evil. Claggart would naturally be out to destroy Billy because he is what he is against. Just good vs. evil in a battle for control. That is why Claggart is naturally out to bring the downfall of Billy Budd. It is very true that jealousy is another reason why John Claggart wanted the destruction of Billy Budd. Claggart was never well liked by the crew he was watching over. This would not have been a problem except that Billy Budd was so very liked by the crew. Every time he saw the love of Billy he was reminded of the dislike of himself. One old sailor on the ship noticed this too and warned Billy by saying, "Jimmy Leggs is down on you". Jimmy Leggs referring to Claggart. One inezce which occured in the kitchen just made matters worse when Billy spilled the soup he was making and it ran down the corridor just as Claggart was walking by. Claggart did not openly get angry at Billy for the accident, but inside felt he had done it on purpose. As the soup ran down the corridor it seemed to symbolize an actual line drawn between the two. The resentment Claggart felt for Billy made him look him too critically. That is a good reason why Claggart could have thought Billy was planning a mutiny and would want him destroyed. He was just jealous of Billy's popularity. There are several reasons why John Claggart attempts to destroy Billy Budd. One might ask why and come up with the obvious and not so obvious answer, even though we know the real reason for his downfall. That was his innocence. Yes, Billy Budd was innocent of evil, but that innocence is what made him unable to see the evil out to destroy him in Claggart. Too much innocence is not always a good thing, but a little helps from doing wrong. There is quite a bit to be said about innocence.

воскресенье, 20 октября 2019 г.

The Basic Guide to Integers on SAT Math

The Basic Guide to Integers on SAT Math SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Many SAT math questions involve the use of integers, especially in the early and middle ranges of each math section. This means that integers are a foundational element to SAT math and you should have a solid understanding of what integers are and how they work if you want to do well on the SAT math section. This guide will cover the basics of integers- what they are, how they relate to one another, and how you’ll see them on the test. For the more advanced integer concepts (including prime numbers, absolute values, exponents, and roots), check out our advanced guide to SAT integers. What is an Integer? An integer is a whole number. This means an integer is any number that is NOT expressed via a decimal or a fraction. Integers include all negative whole numbers, all positive whole numbers, and zero. Examples of Integers: -55, -2, 0, 14, 10,699 NOT integers: $Ï€$, $2/3$, 0.787 Think of integers as something you cannot split. For example, you cannot have half a marble in a box (unless you are either very strong or very careless). Positive and Negative Integers A number line is used to demonstrate how numbers relate to each other and to zero. All numbers to the right of zero are positive numbers. All numbers to the left of zero are negative numbers. Positive numbers get larger the farther they are from zero For example, 154 is larger than 12 because 154 is farther away from zero along the number line in a positive direction (to the right). Negative numbers get smaller the farther away they are from zero For example, -154 is smaller than -12 because -154 is a farther away from zero along the number line in a negative direction (to the left). A positive number is always larger than any negative number. For example, 1 is larger than -1,109. Typical Integer Questions on SAT Math Most SAT integer questions are a combination of word problem and equation problem. The test makers will tell you that the problem involves integers by explicitly using the word "integer" in the passage. You will then be asked to solve a given equation or identify whether or not certain equations are true. You must know that an integer means a whole number (and that integers include negative numbers and zero) to solve these problems. We will go through the rules of how integers behave with one another in order to make sense of these kinds of questions. Sometimes you’ll have to answer more abstract questions about how integers relate to one another when you add, subtract, multiply and divide them. You do not need to find a numerical answer for these types of questions, but you must instead identify whether certain equations will be even or odd, positive or negative. If $a$ is an odd integer and $b$ is an even integer, which of the following is an odd integer? A) $3b$B) $a+3$C) $2(a+b)$D) $a+2b$E) $2a+b$ There are two ways to go about solving these kinds of questions- you can either memorize how integers interact, or you can plug in your own sample numbers. For example, in the charts below, you'll see that: $\a\positive\number * \a\positive\number$ will always result in a positive number. If you forget this rule, you can always try it by saying $2 * 3 = 6$. Because you can always find these results by plugging in your own numbers, these rules are categorized as "good to know," not "necessary to know." negative * negative = positive $-2 * -3 = 6$ positive * positive = positive $2 * 3 = 6$ negative * positive = negative $-2 * 3 = -6$ Another way to think of this is, "When multiplying numbers, the result is always positive unless you’re multiplying a positive number and a negative number." odd * odd = odd $3 * 5 = 15$ even * even = even $2 * 4 = 8$ odd * even = even $3 * 4 = 12$ Another way to think of this is, "When multiplying numbers, the result is always even unless multiplying an odd number and an odd number." odd +/- odd = even $5 + 7 = 12$ even +/- even = even $10 - 6 = 4$ odd +/- even = odd $5 + 6 = 11$ Another way to think of this is, "When adding or subtracting numbers, the result is always even unless adding or subtracting an odd number and an even number." By understanding these rules (and/or by testing them out using your own numbers), you will be able to answer more complicated theoretical questions. Why is six afraid of seven? Because 7, 8, 9! Hardy-har-har. If we revisit the question above, knowing what we do now about number relationships, we can go through our answer choices to find the correct answer: If $a$ is an odd integer and $b$ is an even integer, which of the following is an odd integer? A) $3b$B) $a+3$C) $2(a+b)$D) $a+2b$E) $2a+b$ Choice A is incorrect, because $b$is an even integer. And we know that an even number * an odd number = an even number. Choice B is incorrect because $a$is an odd integer. And we know that an odd number + an odd number = an even number. Choice C is incorrect because $a$is an odd integer and $b$is an even integer. An even number + an odd number = an odd number. And an odd number * an even number (in this case 2) = an even number. Choice D is correct. Twice $b$ will be even, because an even number * an even number = an even number. And the final result will be odd because an odd number ($a$) + an even number ($2b$) = an odd number. Choice E is incorrect. Twice an odd number ($a$) will be an even number, because an even number * an odd number = an even number. And an even number + an even number = an even number. So your final answer is D, $a + 2b$. You can see how you could also solve this by double-checking these rules by using your own numbers. If you assign an odd number to $a$ and an even number to $b$, you can test out each option in about the same amount of time it would take you to go through your rules like this. So for this question, you could have said $a$ was 3 and $b$ was 4. Then option D would have looked like this: $3 + 2(4) = 11$ Again, because you can figure out these kinds of questions using real numbers, these rules are classified as "good to know," not "necessary to know." So let's look at how to put all the clues together to solve integer questions. Steps to Solving an SAT Math Integer Problem #1: Identify if the problem is, in fact, an integer problem. The SAT will always explicitly use the word "integer" to let you know if your answer must be in integers or if you can only use integers while solving the problem. For any problem that doesn’t specify that the variables (or the solution) are "integers," your answer or example numbers can be in decimals or fractions. Because the problem specifically uses the word "integer," we know we must only work with whole numbers. #2: If the problem asks you to identify equations that are always true, test out multiple different kinds of integers. If the question asks you to identify whether certain equations or inequalities are true for ALL integers, the equation must work equally with 10 as with 0 and -5. A good rule of thumb is to try -1, 0, and 1 with variable questions like these. These numbers often have special properties that make or break conditions. I'll explain what that means with a practice example. If $x$is an integer, which of the following equations MUST be true? I. $x^3 ≠¥ (-x)^3$ II. $x^3/x ≠¥ x^2/x$ III. $x(x + 1) ≠¤ -x + x^3$ A) I onlyB) II onlyC) III onlyD) I and III onlyE) I, II, and III For questions like these, we should test out our sample numbers, as it can get confusing to use our rules of integer behaviors with complex problems such as these. So for option I, let use our test numbers of -1, 0, and 1. $-1^3 = (-1)(-1)(-1) = -1$ $(1)^3$ = $1^3 = (1)(1)(1) = 1$ -1 is NOT greater than +1. This automatically eliminates option I. And by eliminating option I, we can eliminate answer choices A, D, and E right away. Now let's look at choice II with our same test numbers. ${(-1)^3}/{-1} = {(-1)(-1)(-1)}/{-1} = {-1}/{-1} = 1$ ${(-1)^2}/{-1} = {(-1)(-1)}/{-1} = {1}/{-1} = -1$ 1 -1. This means that option II works so far when we use a negative number. So let's try it with our positive number, 1. $1^3/1 = {(1)(1)(1)}/1 = 1/1 = 1$ $1^2/1 = {(1)(1)}/ 1 = 1/1 = 1$ 1 = 1. So option II still works. Lastly, we should test if the equation still works with 0. $0^3/0 = 0$ $0^2/0 = 0$ Option II works for all answer choices, so our final answer is B, II only. Because we know that option I does not work, we have eliminated all other answer choices. But if you want to make absolutely sure you did not make a mistake somewhere, you can test out option III as well. $-1(-1 + 1) = 0$ $-(-1) + (-1)^3 = 1 + (-1)(-1)(-1) = 1 + -1 = 0$ $0 = 0$ The two are equal, which means that option III works so far. Now let's try it with 1. $1(1 + 1) = 2$ $-1 + 1^3 = -1 + (1)(1)(1) = -1 + 1 = 0$ $2 0$ When we used a positive number, the equation was incorrect. This means that answer choice C is eliminated and our choice of B has been confirmed to be the only correct answer. #3: If the problem asks you to find the answer to long calculations, use your rules that you learned above or test it out with smaller numbers. $a, b, c, d, e, f$ are odd integers such that $a b c d e f$. Which statement(s) must be true? I. $abcdef$ is odd II. $a + b + c + d + e + f$ is odd III. $a(b + c + d + e + f)$ is odd A. I only B. II only C. III only D. I and III only E. I, II, and III Now you can approach this problem in one of two ways: by using your number rules or by using your own numbers. First, let's use our number rules to test option I. We know that each letter represents an odd integer and that the product of an odd number and another odd number is an odd number. Because an odd * an odd will always be odd, we know that option I is true. This means we can also eliminate answer choices B and C. Now let's look at option II. We know that an odd number + an odd number = an even number. We also know that an even number + an even number = an even number. So if we split $a + b + c + d + e + f$ into pairs of numbers, we'll have $(a + b) + (c + d) + (e + f)$. We know that each pair of numbers will have an even sum, so we're left with: an even number + an even number + an even number, which will give us an even final result. So option II is incorrect. This means we can eliminate answer choice E. Finally, let's look at option III. As we saw before, when we have six odd numbers (in other words, an even number of odd numbers), the sum will be even. Now, our parenthesis holds five (an odd number) of odd numbers, and an even number + an odd number = an odd number. So we know the number in the parenthesis will be odd. We also know that an odd number ($a$) * an odd number (the sum of $b, c, d, e, f$) = an odd number. So option III is correct. This means that our final answer is D, I and III only. The other way you could solve this problem would be to test out these rules with small numbers and extrapolate to find the larger answer. In other words, use small numbers in place of the variables. So for option I, if you didn't know an odd * an odd = an odd, you could replace $a$and $b$with the numbers 5 and 3. $5 * 3 = 15$, so you know that an odd * an odd = an odd number, no matter how many times you multiply it. So option I is correct. For option II, again test it out with smaller numbers. $7 + 5 = 12$, and $7 + 5 + 3 = 15$. So you know that adding odd numbers an even number of times gets you an even answer and adding odd numbers an odd number of times gets you an odd answer. There are six odd numbers, so the final answer must be even. Option II is incorrect. Taking what you learned by testing option II, you know that adding odd numbers an even number of times gets you an odd answer. And, taking what you learned from testing option I, you know that an odd number * an odd number = an odd number. This means your final answer must be odd, so option III is correct. This means the final answer is D, I and III only. Always remember that there are several ways to solve integer problems. So use real numbers and don't give up if it looks too complicated. The Take-Aways Simply by understanding what an integer is, you will be able to solve many SAT questions. Integer questions are often fairly straightforward if you know what numbers are included in the definition of an "integer" and which are not. If you remember to experiment with your own numbers when presented with the more abstract SAT questions and pay attention to when you must use integers and when you’re free to use any number, you will be able to solve most of the basic SAT integer questions. For the more advanced integer concepts- absolute values, exponents, etc.- be sure to check out our advanced guide to SAT integers. What's Next? Now that you’ve learned about what integers are, you may want to check out the advanced guide to SAT integers where we will go through absolute values, prime numbers, and exponents (among other concepts). Make sure that you also have a solid understanding of all the SAT math formulas you're both given and not given. Running out of time on SAT math? Check out our article on how to buy yourself those extra precious seconds and minutes and complete your SAT math problems before time’s up. Feeling overwhelmed? Start by figuring out your ideal score and check out how to improve a low SAT math score. Already have pretty good scores and looking to get a perfect 800? Check out our article on how to get a perfect score written by a perfect SAT-scorer. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Math strategy guide, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:

суббота, 19 октября 2019 г.

Human Rights Violations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Human Rights Violations - Essay Example This paper shall not address all violations related to sexual orientation or gender identity due to the depth of discussion involved in such areas. However, it shall focus on critical human rights concerns among LGBTs. LGBTs flee their home countries due to serious violations of their fundamental human rights. Violations include executions and other severe violent attacks from state and non-state actors. This paper predominantly focuses on the human rights violations of persons based on their sexual orientation or gender identity. Under these conditions, it would be possible to better understand the reasons why host countries must provide adequate surrogate protection to LGBTs who have fled gross living conditions from their home nations. Homophobic and trans-phobic violence has been recorded in many regions. Such violence may be physical, through acts like murder, beatings, kidnappings, rape and sexual assaults or they may be psychological, and may include threats, coercion, and arb itrary deprivations of liberty. These attacks constitute a form of gender-based violence, mostly driven by a desire to punish those who may be perceived as violators of gender norms. Egregious human rights violations have compelled some lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people to seek refuge in countries with better human rights protection. It is important to assess the current situation relating to human rights violations which have left these individuals unprotected and vulnerable. It is also crucial to evaluate the reason why many of them risk their lives to seek protection elsewhere, where they still run the risk of being subjected to further abuse. Some states in recognition of these violations have afforded protection to these oppressed sexual minority groups. Before proceeding to the procedural hurdles that LGBTs face in host countries, it is important to shed light to the human rights of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender persons and the countries which criminalize homosexuality. It is widely recognised that every individual has the right to their preferred sexuality, the Yogyakarta principles illustrates similar the protection of such rights. Today, there are seventy-six countries in the world which have criminalized same-sex sexual acts between consenting adults. In seven of these countries, homosexual acts are punishable with the death penalty. These countries include Mauritania, Sudan, Northern states of Nigeria, Southern parts of Somalia, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Yemen1. These countries typically prohibit either certain types of sexual activity including any intimacy or any sexual activity between persons of the same sex. What these laws have in common is that they are often used to harass and prosecute individuals based on their actual, perceived sexuality, or gender identity2. Penalties range from short-term to life imprisonment, and even the death penalty. People living with their sexuality under a veil are constantly threatened, blackm ailed, and persecuted. There is a need to free these people from the misery of fear and persecution. Ignoring their fate and denying their right to pursue a happy life and to fulfill their sexuality is a disgraceful practice. What is terrifying about the current situa

пятница, 18 октября 2019 г.

World war II technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

World war II technology - Essay Example Hence World War II is characterized by the introduction of modern warfare. It was the peak of the activities, such as industrial development and scientific introduction into machine industry and military field that enabled advancements. The build up to the usage of heavy military machinery and technology was in action and practice way earlier than the World War II set into action. For example, the traces can be seen in late 1920s and mid 1930s where the Germans resolved to expand their military strength by enhancing their military, naval, and air force strength. For example, the usage of nuclear technology and nuclear physics enabled the use of atomic bomb which was an unprecedented event and a single bomb resulted in destruction of the entire city. During the war, the capturing of the iron ore rich areas in Norway and Denmark was similar moves, which were based on the concept of capitalizing on the areas of strength and capturing them before the enemy, so that the military needs cou ld be fulfilled in terms of the heavy machinery needs. (Parker 25) It was rightly said by Churchill that never in the history the battle field had so many owed so much to so few. Referring to the outstanding performance of the Great Britain’s air force, the battle of Britain which lasted over 2 months, resulting in destruction of over 700 fighters of British forces and over 1300 of German forces, speaks of the kind of technology that was adopted and introduced at that time. This technology enabled the battle that lasted for over two months to complete and all through the courtesy of science and technology incorporated into military field and defense purposes. Despite the global recession and days of Depression all over, Germany had focused on establishing military strength and large arsenal that would be used in a few years time against the enemy. Hence, technically it would be wrong to say that the technology and advancements crept in only during the course of the Second Wor ld War, rather it was in force and action for number of years. The German military and air force might which was known as Luftwaffe (Pimlott 141) was famous for its smart and timely work and was nicknamed as lightening fast, since it enabled to reach the targets in no time and over powering them. Aircrafts, counter machines and weapons, such as anti air craft missiles, radar systems, interceptors, use of chemical weapons, atomic bombs, all were the gifts of the Second World War. The presence of large amount of arsenal manufacturing industries in different parts of the axis region was focused and motivated by the sole reason of usage on large scale during the Second World War. Use of tanks was exhibited for the first time in the history of battle fields. The tanks were richly supported to allow moving through the canals, and other marshy areas which were not accessible at earlier times, and in absence of such ability the tanks would become a liability. However, this was not the case in this particular war and owing to the advancements in the military and scientific field, tanks had become a very necessary tool to overcome the enemy and thereby each side invested heavy in this domain. V2 and U2 (Bishop ,323) bombers were another feat that were achieved and gifted through the Second World War expedition. While the First World War was more of static in nature, and relied heavily on the naval strength, since Britain being part of the Allies group had strength on naval front, the convention was changed and both the allies and Axis, resorted to new means and tactics, and thereby expanded their strength in ground and air domain, as a result pressing the pedal over inventions and introduction

Leadership and Responsibility Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Leadership and Responsibility - Essay Example This paper illustrates that the article strives to demonstrate the relationship between historical leadership style and the leadership proposal of Smith, Montagno, and Kuzmenko and highlighting the support offered by the historical record for the proposal of Smith et al. also forms a part of this article. In an order to represent the important concepts like transformational leadership and servant leadership, the author has chosen to use two historical leaders in his article- Xenophon, who was a transformational leader and Chief Joseph, who was a servant leader. The research contained in this article may be considered valuable considering the efficacy offered by adding a historical approach for understanding such intricate leadership constructs as transformational leadership, which is considered to be more appropriate by the author when a definite organizational change is desired. The author stresses on the fact that the importance of contextual factors has increased in the recent yea rs and that they really play an important role in determining the effectiveness of certain leadership constructs. As Smith et al.’s proposal also stressed on using contextual factors for validating transformational and servant leadership, the research work in this article aims at presenting a historical approach for investigating the contextual complications, which is a strategy that never did appear in any management and leadership article before. According to the author, transformational leadership comes into practice when the interests of each individual become united for the overall interest of an organization. A transformational leader should be able to maintain his/her charisma and should provide a unique vision to his/her followers. The author tries to identify in the article that servant leadership style has some definite deficiencies compared to transformational leadership style because its topmost priority is based on serving others and then considering the step to lead others constructively.

четверг, 17 октября 2019 г.

Delegation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Delegation - Research Paper Example Proven through the example of three rural hospitals that are administrated through one person, effective delegation is essential in creating a strong organization. As well, innovative techniques can provide models from which an administrator can develop a good organization. This literature review will synthesis the information provided by five resources in order to demonstrate why delegation is vital to the health care industry. Creating solid leadership means leading the employees, rather than doing all and then becoming stressed and incapable of creating a meaningful sense of task and goal orientation. Through looking at five pieces of relevant literature, a sense of the importance of delegation in this goal can be observed. This review will expose the way that confidence and trust are key to successful team building. In creating teams that are able to perform tasks that can be delegated and distributed, an organization can build a solid foundation for successful operation. way they think it should be done, rather than utilize the skills of an employee who may not do the task the way the managers things it should be done. According to Nefer (Dec. 2008), one of the biggest mistakes a manager will make is to not delegate authority and take on too much work, thus lowering the efficiency of the department (p. 19). The manager or supervisor must remember that part of their job is to make sure that employees are delegated a sufficient number of tasks in order to create a well run department. In order to look at the way in which a manager or supervisor approaches delegation, several questions must be asked in regards to the way in which the work is being distributed. Nefer (Dec. 2008), asks the manager to examine their own performance and decide if they are delegation-phobic. The delegation phobic manager will exhibit a

Technical report on hydrogen experiment Assignment Essay

Technical report on hydrogen experiment Assignment - Essay Example figures Figure 1 preparation of the electrolyzer module 6 Figure 2 Filling the syringe with distilled water 7 Figure 3 Placing inner containers 7 Figure 4 Connecting tubes 8 Figure 5 Using fuel cells and solar panel 8 Figure 6 Inserting batteries 10 Figure 7 Assembling electrical fans 10 Figure 8 Connecting the motor to reversible fuel cell 11 Figure 9 Using solar panel 11 Introduction Hydrogen derived from renewable sources such as wind and solar is clean, self-sufficient and a permanent energy solution for sustainable development. A kilogram of hydrogen is roughly equivalent to a gallon of gasoline in energy content. (Johanna L, 2007) This makes hydrogen a technology of the future in reducing reliance on imported fuel and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen could be produced from fossil fuels using steam reforming, which emits CO2 and expensive ways such as catalytic cracking without CO2 emissions. This pathway is more cost-effective. Water electrolysis is an efficient and expensive way because of its high electricity requirement. For instance, a study (Khan M.J., Iqbal M.T., 2005) stated that assuming an electricity cost of $0.05/kwh, nearly nowadays price of wind produced electricity; hydrogen made from water electrolysis costs more than $2.84/kg based on higher heating value. Hydrogen produced from photovoltaic is also expensive because of high PV electricity cost.( Sherif S.A. et al, 2005) Wind produced electricity, on the other hand, is becoming more competitive nowadays. Therefore, it can produce less expensive hydrogen. Electrolysis: The general principle in electrolysis is that water is supplied to an electrochemical cell, and hydrogen evolves at the anode while oxygen evolves at the cathode when the supplied energy is greater than the zero current cell potential. Alkaline electrolysis is commercially available technology. It takes place at a temperature around 800C and pressure of 1-30bar.( US department of energy, 2010) Fuel cells: Fuel cells are ele ctrochemical devices that convert chemical energy in fuel to electrical energy with high efficiency and low environmental impact. Because combustion is avoided, they produce power with minimum pollution. They contain electrodes anode and cathode separated by an electrolyte. Fuels such as hydrogen or hydrogen rich synthesis gas, are supplied to the anodes while the oxidant is fed to the cathodes. The most common oxidant is oxygen from air. Electrochemical reaction occurs in the electrolyte producing current while deriving external load.( Fuel cell Handbook, 2010) Materials and Methods Preparation of the Electrolyzer Module and Solar Powered Hydrogen Production 1. Insert the reversible fuel cell, terminals on top, into the slot on the base. Cut 2 x 4cm length pieces of rubber tube and insert a black pin into the end of one tube. Place the tube with the black pin into the top pin on the hydrogen side (with black terminal). Place the other tube firmly onto the top input nozzle on the ox ygen side. Figure 1 preparation of the electrolyzer module 2. Fill

среда, 16 октября 2019 г.

Delegation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Delegation - Research Paper Example Proven through the example of three rural hospitals that are administrated through one person, effective delegation is essential in creating a strong organization. As well, innovative techniques can provide models from which an administrator can develop a good organization. This literature review will synthesis the information provided by five resources in order to demonstrate why delegation is vital to the health care industry. Creating solid leadership means leading the employees, rather than doing all and then becoming stressed and incapable of creating a meaningful sense of task and goal orientation. Through looking at five pieces of relevant literature, a sense of the importance of delegation in this goal can be observed. This review will expose the way that confidence and trust are key to successful team building. In creating teams that are able to perform tasks that can be delegated and distributed, an organization can build a solid foundation for successful operation. way they think it should be done, rather than utilize the skills of an employee who may not do the task the way the managers things it should be done. According to Nefer (Dec. 2008), one of the biggest mistakes a manager will make is to not delegate authority and take on too much work, thus lowering the efficiency of the department (p. 19). The manager or supervisor must remember that part of their job is to make sure that employees are delegated a sufficient number of tasks in order to create a well run department. In order to look at the way in which a manager or supervisor approaches delegation, several questions must be asked in regards to the way in which the work is being distributed. Nefer (Dec. 2008), asks the manager to examine their own performance and decide if they are delegation-phobic. The delegation phobic manager will exhibit a

вторник, 15 октября 2019 г.

Financial Reporting and Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Financial Reporting and Analysis - Essay Example The LIFO reserve calculation in inflationary environment where the value of FIFO is higher than the value of LIFO inventory is LIFO Reserve=valuation by FIFO –valuation by LIFO. In a deflationary environment, LIFO Reserve has a possibility of having a negative balance caused by LIFO inventory valuation being higher than its FIFO valuation. LIFO reserve indicates the value which a business entity taxable income as a result of using LIFO method has subsequently been deferred. The balance on LIFO reserve account in 2008 is $524.4 c) If LIFO reserve account was added to the inventory at LIFO, the resulting inventory at the end of 2008 would be $1,346.8. I would consider inventory under LIFO to be more realistic. d) Use of LIFO or FIFO during price increase results to an inflated amount of income. During price decreases, it results to lower income. During constant prices, a normal income results when FIFO or LIFO is used. e) Use of LIFO or FIFO results to inflated cash flows during price increase, a lower cash flow during price decreases and a normal cash flows during normal costs assuming no increase or decrease in inventory quantity. This is a similar case in both pre-tax and after-tax cash flows. g) LIFO layer is an excess of the inventory at base of the current period and the inventory base of previous period LIFO liquidation occurs when the purchase are less than the sales that the inventory costs which are older are utilized in determining the costs of the goods sold. During the periods of rising and LIFO valuation is used, LIFO liquidation that occurs will result to a relatively low COGAS and an amount of income that is inflated. Case 6-4 Diversified Technology. (a)1)Day sales receivables =net sales/365 In 2007 $24,462/365 = $67.019 In 2008 $25,269/365 = $69.23 2) Accounts Receivable turnover = credit sales (net)/average accounts receivables Average account receivables= {($3195+$85) + ($3362+$75)}/2 = $3358.50 Receivable turnover =25269/3358.50 = 7.524 3) Day sales in inventory = number of days in a year (365)/inventory turnover ratio In 2008: 365/8.3867=43.521 In 2007: 365/8.577=42.555 4) Inventory turnover ratio=sales/inventory 2008: $25269/ 3013 =8.3867 2007: $24462/2852 =8.577 5) Working capital = current assets - current liabilities In 2008: $9598- $5,839 = $3759 1n 2007: $9838 - $5,362 = $4476 6) Current ratio = current assets/current liabilities In 2008 = $9598/$5839= 1.644 In 2007 $ 9,838 /$5362 = 1.835 7) Acid test ratio = (current assets – inventory)/current liabilities In 2008: ($9598-$3013)/$5839 = 1.179 In 2007 : (9838-$2852)/$5362 = 1.303 b) Comment on each ratio Day sales receivables indicate the total average number of days taken in collection of all the accounts receivable. It takes around 67 and 69 days in both years. Accounts Receivable turnover is seven as per the calculations. A lower the turnover means a longer the receivables are being held thus the company have an average turnover rate. Day sales in inventory are 43.5 and 42.5 in 2008 and 2007 respectively. It shows number of days in average to sell average inventory in a specified period that is obviously one year. The company is in a position to meet its current obligations within the two years because it had a positive working capital and this shows the company in short term, is healthy. The current ratio of 2:1 can be regarded as acceptable. The company current ratio is acceptable since it can be approximated to 2:1 in the two years. Acid test ratio indicates that the firm already has short term assets that are enough to cover the liabilities that are immediate because it is more than one in both years. c) Comment on liquidity: the current

понедельник, 14 октября 2019 г.

Gap Year After Graduation Essay Example for Free

Gap Year After Graduation Essay Nowadays, students leaving high school regularly travel, do voluntary work or a job in a gap year before going on to higher education. Undoubtedly, students occupy various benefits from experiments in gap year. It is apparent that after rigorous terms, a gap year which students possibly travel, volunteer society or do temporary work before deciding to join in higher education stimulates positively their practical and adaptive capability. Initially, those dynamic activities possibly enhance empirical ability of youngsters who passively acquire knowledge during high school. In evidence, learners feasibly comprehend miracles of foreign languages when they practice experimentally via travelling or voluntary work in abroad. More significantly, not only can a gap year improves practical ability but also enhances communication skill through youngster’s real factual experiences. Only by adapting to a changeable and flexible environment can students expend their personal skill and learn how to communicate effectively. Accordingly, a period time which students perform them after high school period effects advantageously to their practical and soft skill. That the young experience in gap year is not only a principal platforms which help them choose higher education form but also a chance to become more mature. A gap year with profound considerations cumulated by real experiments justifies what kind of higher education they are advisedly appropriate for. The young who are able to apply into universities and passionate studying advanced knowledge identify accurately their choice. Nevertheless, others who are appropriate for practicing in actual life also ascertain that their selection is vocation. Additionally, facing to challenge of real life leads them to be awareness profoundly of the changing world. Hardly can the young be mature when they always are protected carefully by parents and are not responsible for themselves. Briefly, a gap year is precious chances which support the young identify what they real want. Therefore, challenge in real life which students pass in a gap year is also valuable experiments for developing in the future.

воскресенье, 13 октября 2019 г.

German Expressionism in Film: A History

German Expressionism in Film: A History THE RISE AND FALL  OF  GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM RAVISHANKAR.N INTRODUCTION German Expressionism refers to a number of related creative movements in Germany before the First World War during the 1920s. These developments in Germany were part of a larger Expressionist movement in north and central European art. German Expressionism as a movement spanned many media, including theatre, architecture, music, painting and sculpture. It is an important but sadly overlooked field in the history of art in the twentieth century. It was very complex, different, off-beat and probably the most depressive and emotion exploiting of all art forms. German Expressionism was not just in movies, but also overall generally in drama, stage, theatre, paintings, dance, and many other artistic movements. Popular themes of these include were madness, betrayal, insanity, and other â€Å"intellectual† topics (as opposed to standard action-adventure and romantic films), as they appealed to an intellectual fan base. RISE AND BRIEF HISTORY During the period of recovery following World War I, the German film industry was booming. However, because of the hard economic times, filmmakers found it difficult to create movies that could compare with the extravagant features coming from Hollywood. The filmmakers of the German Universum Film AG studio, better known as the UFA developed their own style by using symbolism and mise en scà ¨ne to add mood and deeper meaning to a movie. The first Expressionist films made up for their low budgets by using set designs with wildly non-realistic, geometrically absurd sets, along with designs painted on walls and floors to represent lights, shadows, and objects. In the beginning the term â€Å"Expressionism† was used to show that their interpretation of Art was different from other peoples. But eventually the phrase would eventually start to be given to anyone showing a disturbing point of view or showing some mental illnesses in their work according to critics. Basically anythin g that was different from other movies started to be called Expressionism. Eventually by the 1920s, German film industry had become very popular in Europe and encouraged film movements across the world to start experimenting with different ideals and emotional states. In fact, the influence crossed the oceans over into America when Hitler came into power, because all the Expressionist actors, directors, producers, went to America. So this was a very influential movement as well. But the artists involved in Expressionism never concerned themselves with what the term might mean, which is why it continued to evolve and take upon different new meanings until it effectively became an umbrella term. The main idea was always artistic expression. In fact, many expressionists had voluntarily joined the First World War in the hope that it would inspire them and their art and create social change as well. By the end of the Second World War, there were three main schools in Expressionism. INFLUENCE It is no question that German cinema from 1910 to 1940 was far ahead of American cinema and other cinemas in Europe and worldwide. Along with German expressionist films, it was the number of German immigrants to America as well as to other countries, who helped develop film techniques and provide more intellectual strength to film movements. Some of the more influential films of the movement was Cabinet of Dr.Caligari (1920). That film set the tone for many of the features of the movement. That included evil characters in the plot who usually had madness and obsessions, with the story told from very subjective angles. And instead of high and mighty buildings and artificial lifestyles, it showed dark and gritty urban underworld and lifestyles of people. Areas were structures with angled archways, staircases, windows, connected together in strange ways to create different atmospheres – with shadows being used often. Other famous films include Nosferatu (1922) which created the horror genre, and Metropolis (1927) which created the science fiction genre. Also, today most films have unconventional plot lines, heroes, and a lot of other things that one can attribute to the German Expressionist movement. Horror film and film noir were two genres that were especially influenced by Expressionism. Carl Laemmle and Universal Studios had made a name for themselves by producing such famous horror films of the silent era as Lon Chaneys The Phantom of the Opera. German filmmakers such as Karl Freund (the cinematographer for Dracula in 1931) set the style and mood of the Universal monster movies of the 1930s with their dark and artistically designed sets, providing a model for later generations of horror films. Directors such as Fritz Lang, Billy Wilder, Otto Preminger, Alfred Hitchcock, and Michael Curtiz  introduced the Expressionist style to crime dramas of the 1940s, expanding Expressionisms influence on modern film making. DOWNFALL It was before the Second World War when the downfall of German Expressionism began. When Hitler came in power, he preferred old Greek and Roman style art which showed racial superiority. Expressionists were deemed anti-German and a threat to German culture and racial superiority, and many fled to America where they continued to further develop their art. By this point, Expressionism had went from personal to social to political themes and was now a very diverse genre that would influence Film Noir and New Hollywood in the future. After the end of inflation in 1924, Weimar reality stabilized and films sought to be realistic, objective, documentary (in accordance with the cool, sober â€Å"New Objectivity† in painting, photography, and literature). Also, the introduction of sound after 1928 forced the films to become more â€Å"realistic†. But there are a few exceptions including Murnau’s Faust and Fritz Lang’s Metropolis (both 1926) were the last major Expressionist films, both excessive in their production values. REASONS FOR DOWNFALL Though the ideas still stand the test of time due to their universal appeal to people of all generations and times, the extreme non-realism of Expressionism was short-lived, fading away after only a few years. However, the themes of Expressionism were integrated into later films of the 1920s and 1930s, resulting in an artistic control over the placement of scenery, light, etc. to enhance the mood of a film. It could be said that the specific movement of German Expressionism died mostly due to politics. Hitler and his Nazi party deemed the expressionists as immoral, people who had destroyed art and culture. They were considered unpatriotic people, and the fact that most Expressionists were Jews made the matters worse. The ideas of the Expressionists as a result started to spread out farther and farther to other areas instead of Germany during Hitler’s regime and the tone became more and more political in nature. Some of the potential was not fulfilled because of the limitations of technology at the time. If you compare Science Fiction and Horror of today to German Expressionism you see both the big influence, but also the limitations of German Expressionists. The ideas were great but were just not ready for mass consumption at the time. But from a purely artistic and creative perspective they are timeless just for the same reasons. With limited things they still managed to stretch limits of human imagination with their works. LEGACY Notable filmmakers (Lubitsch, Murnau), actors (Jannings, Veidt, Dietrich), cameramen (Karl Freund), were lured to Hollywood. This type of film making was brought to America when the Nazis gained power and a number of German filmmakers emigrated to Hollywood. These German directors found American movie studios willing to embrace their ideas, and several German directors and cameramen flourished there, producing a repertoire of Hollywood films, which had a big impact on film as a whole. British Alfred Hitchcock was influenced by the Expressionist movement, using their techniques and direct homages in several of his films as well as acknowledging the influence in interviews. Hitchcock’s film making in turn influenced far more film makers and shows the Expressionists overall reach in terms of film influence. Tim Burton’s dark characteristics in his films are also influenced by German Expressionism. Stylistic elements from German Expressionist films are very common regardless, being seen in everything from Batman movies to films like Shutter Island. Trees: A Sign Of Life | Analysis Trees: A Sign Of Life | Analysis Have you heard of a car running without a fuel? No. Similarly, for survival of every living being requires some sort of fuel. Oxygen serves as the life line for us. Trees and plants generate oxygen by photosynthesis by utilizing the sunlight. It is simply impossible of thinking life without trees. Besides providing oxygen trees provide us with food, furniture, fuel and shelter. Moreover, trees are the friends of humanity. They have marvelous feature, colors of their lives are simply breath taking. Ralph Waldo Emerson said The wonder is that we can see these trees and not wonder more Ralph Waldo Emerson. Trees are true friends of humanity. The trees are oxygen providers and are called the lungs of planet. They not only absorb carbon dioxide which is injurious to us but also produces oxygen which is a source of life on our planet earth. With the industrial development and excessive use of fuel like petrol and gas, produces a huge amount of carbon dioxide. Trees are air purifiers they filter polluted air by absorbing the carbon contents. Thus trees decrease the air pollution which keep the environment clean and provide pure air to breath. Trees also play role in lessening the sound pollution. According to United States Department of Agriculture, a properly designed buffer of trees and shrubs reduces the sound pollution by 10 decibels or about 50% as received by human ear. Evaporation from the leaves brings about the formation of clouds; these clouds cause rain and irrigate the land which increases the crop production. Moreover, they also keep the temperature milder. Trees help in incre asing the fertility of soil. Roots of trees keep the soil intact and decrease the soil erosion. Trees provide us with beauty and peace of mind. They fill our heart with unexplainable happiness. Green color of trees symbolizes self-respect and well being. They are the essential part of nature. Martin Luther says For in the nature of things, if we rightly consider, every green tree is far more glorious than if it were made of gold and silver. Trees have a significant role in our daily life. Despite its complex chemical nature, wood has excellent properties which lend themselves to human use. Mostly trees are use to manufacture furniture. Different species of trees are use to make different types of furniture. They vary in softness, hardness and flexibility. The wood we get from trees is used in the production of home and office furniture. Furniture industry is the source of employ for thousands of people all around the globe. Many countries export their marvelous designed furniture and earn a huge amount of foreign exchange. In other words trees helps in the flourishing of an economy of country. Now plastic furniture is also used alongside .Many types of sports equipment are made of wood. For example, cricket bats are made of white willow. The baseball bats are usually made of hickory and now days they are mostly manufacture of maple wood. The cellulose of trees is used in the manufacturing of papers. All around the world trees wood is use in construction of buildings. Wood is oldest material used by humans for constructional purposes, after stone. Even where other building materials are preferred, wood remains a major component in roofing, flooring, doors and windows and their frames, as external cladding and in furniture and fittings. Also for tool handles and cutlery, such as chopsticks, twigs (miswaks), toothpicks, and other utensils, like the wooden spoon. Wood is mostly preferred to make cooking utensils because of its non-conducting properties. Woods also provide shelter and safety for living beings. Shelter is essential for birds. Birds feel safe and secure the shelter provided by trees. A garden with adequate shelter attracts a wider range of birds. A good shelter also save the birds from harsh weather .the shelter provided by trees protects the birds from extreme coldness and shade during summer season. During summers trees provide a shelter and shadow to the animals likes cows, cattle etc. Forest around the world is home for about 90% of the worlds terrestrial biodiversity. Moreover, human beings mostly in summer also enjoy a nap under the cool shady trees .Trees wood are also use to build houses which not only provide a decent look but also economical. Abundant tree reduces the flood water flow. A farmer in the Khairpur Mirs, Pakistan has suffered financial loss of 4million rupees ($44,000) as his cotton crop has ruined. But now he has planted mango, date and neem trees and when again the flood hits Khairpur, he repair ed water channels, buy new cotton seeds and pesticides from the income he earned from trees.(Saleem sheikh and Sughra Tunio are climate change and development reporters based in Karachi,Pakistan.This story is a part of series supported by the climate and development knowledge network.(www.trust.org). Trees are the source of sustenance of life as they provide food and medicine. Food from tree not only fulfills human appetite, but also provides fodder for animals. Food obtain from trees have a nutritional value. They are the cheap source of providing essential vitamins and minerals. Trees mostly provide fruits like mangoes, oranges etc and coffee beans. More importantly, trees are important in areas which are affected by flood and famines. They provide food when all the crops are destroyed due to excessive water or drought. A healthy environment ensures an excessive greenery and fodder for animals. According to FAO (food and agriculture organization of UN) a reliable supply of fodder is critical to the 30 to 40 million pastoralists world-wide. If an adequate supply of food is available to animals then it directly increases the livestock availability, by providing more milk and extra meet for people. The increase in production of milk and meet will make them easily available and low er the prices of these items. From early days trees and herbs are used to cure many diseases. Since May 1978 the World Health Organization has been making a study of medicinal plants. This study prompted the initial identification of 20000 species of medicinal plants and a more detailed investigation of a short list of 200(http://www.fao.org/documents/en/detail/1997). Many trees are used due to their medicinal properties. The medicine prepared from these trees helps in the fight against infections. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), as many as 80% of the worlds people depend on traditional medicine for their primary health care need. Not only in developing countries but also in developed countries medicines contains materials from higher plants. Wood is one of the oldest sources of energy. According to FAO more than 10 billion people utilize wood for cooking and heating purposes. Wood energy is important of all renewable energy resources. They also provide us electricity by running the turbines. Using wood for fuel is the cheaper way of generating energy. Wood is use for keeping the houses warm during winter. Wood also provides fire in outdoor camping and bonfires. In early days wood is the major source of generating energy. With the industrial development people new sources of energy has been discovered. Natural oil resources are directly or indirectly obtained from trees. Fuel is Thought to be produced from the dead trees and animals which were present inside the earth ,the high pressure and temperature convert them into fuel. Trees that were burnt inside the earth not only provide oil but also coal and natural gas. source oilpalm_deforestation_indonesia_sumatra_edwards50595_352459.jpg Trees are decreasing all around the world. Man has been utilizing them since the old days. Besides providing oxygen, man use trees for many purposes. Our life directly or indirectly depends on trees. But with the increase in population of mankind, the increase population put a burden on trees growth. People started to cut more and more trees to fulfill their needs. For providing shelter to people new housing schemes has been started. For the construction of these colonies trees are cut at large level. When trees are cut rapidly there function as an environmental cleaner is reduced. This also disturbs the natural ecosystem.Many birds and animals are forced to leave their habitats which affect their lives at greater extent. Trees are harvested mainly for furniture and as a source of food. In developing countries, trees are cut down as a source of fuel. Trees decrease not only due to human activities but also due to natural disasters like floods, volcanic eruption and forest fires. Acco rding to FAO 13 million hectares-of worlds population are cut and converted to other land uses every year. For biofuel a great number of trees are cut down for meeting the power resources. The rapid decrease in trees has very negative aspects on every creature of earth. Over 8000 tree species, 10% of the worlds total trees are threatened with extinction (UNEP). In cities trees are cut down due to which a clean and pure environment is not available. Forests are shrinking and cities are expanding. People living in cities prefer to spend their free time in recreation parks and gardens available with trees of many kinds. The forest degradation and industrial revolution results into increase in environmental pollutants and global warming. It is also due to the mismanagement of government. It is the case mostly in developing countries ,where government has little technical staff to manage and monitor thousands of hectors of forest resources. Moreover, general public also do not take their responsibility and show very non serious attitude towards the threat faced by trees. Source : Forest and Agricultural department Forests cover roughly 30% of the worlds land area. Three percentage of the earths forest cover was lost between 1990 and 2005 and there has been no significant decrease in the rate of deforestation over the past 20 years. Some 96% of deforestation occurs in tropical regions (FAO). Major challenge is to recognize the strategic importance of trees. Environmental conditions are getting worse. All types of pollution have very serious effects on all the life existing on earth. Government should take urgent steps to play its role in developing a healthy and pure environment. It should allocate an appropriate amount of funds and appoint technical and experienced staff and use the most advance technology. That staff should make policies which can easily be implemented and have very fruitful outcome. Government should make laws and put a ban on cutting of endanger species of trees. Different teams under the supervision of Government should go to school and collages to persuade students to pla nt more and more trees, books can also be published and documentaries related to trees importance can be shown on television. Small story books related to trees for children to make children environmental conscious at an early age. Public should also take the responsibility and help government in planting trees. Private sector especially the honors of different firms and industries can play a vital role. They help in providing seeds for plantation and an appropriate place helpful in the growth of trees. Public awareness programs especially in villages to convince people in understanding that trees not only provide food to them and their animals but also a source of earning livelihood and in this way they can improve their standard of living. The point here is that we should not only plant trees once, but also take care of them. A part from purifying the environment ,trees are helpful in our life in variety of ways, it is need of hour that as trees take care of our needs we should al so take care of them and provide them with a suitable environment for their growth and reproduction. Trees are the largest and longest living organism on earth. Trees are the marvelous chemical factory. Man is utilizing trees since the old days. Although world has progressed a lot, we are still dependent on these trees. The existence of man is very much dependent upon them. Trees are not only beneficial to mankind, but also to all organisms living on the earth. With increase in population trees are cut down much faster than their growth. The increase in pollution and decrease in the number of trees become the cause of global warming. It is our Moral duty to plant as much of trees as we can. We should not only plant them but also provide them suitable environment for growth. The health of our planet is base on the health of our ecosystem and survival of life.