суббота, 28 декабря 2019 г.

History of Christmas Traditions in the 19th Century

The history of Christmas traditions kept evolving throughout  the 19th century, when most of the familiar components of the modern Christmas including St. Nicholas, Santa Claus, and Christmas trees, became popular. The changes in how Christmas was celebrated were so profound that its safe to say someone alive in 1800 would not even recognize the Christmas celebrations held in 1900. Christmas Traditions: Key Takeaways Our most common Christmas traditions developed during the 1800s:The character of Santa Claus was largely a creation of author Washington Irving and cartoonist Thomas Nast.Christmas trees were popularized by Queen Victoria and her German husband, Prince Albert.Author Charles Dickens helped establish a tradition of generosity at Christmas. Washington Irving and St. Nicholas Early Dutch settlers of New York considered St. Nicholas to be their patron saint and practiced a yearly ritual of hanging stockings to receive presents on St. Nicholas Eve, in early December. Washington Irving, in his fanciful History of New York, mentioned that St. Nicholas had a wagon he could ride â€Å"over the tops of trees† when he brought â€Å"his yearly presents to children.† The Dutch word â€Å"Sinterklaas† for St. Nicholas evolved into the English â€Å"Santa Claus,† thanks in part to a New York City printer, William Gilley, who published an anonymous poem referring to â€Å"Santeclaus† in a children’s book in 1821. The poem was also the first mention of a character based on St. Nicholas having a sleigh, in this case, pulled by a single reindeer. Clement Clarke Moore and The Night Before Christmas Perhaps the best-known poem in the English language is â€Å"A Visit from St. Nicholas,† or as it’s often called, â€Å"The Night Before Christmas.† Its author, Clement Clarke Moore, a professor who owned an estate on the west side of Manhattan, would have been quite familiar with the St. Nicholas traditions followed in early 19th century New York. The poem was first published, anonymously, in a newspaper in Troy, New York, on December 23, 1823. Reading the poem today, one might assume that Moore simply portrayed the common traditions. Yet he actually did something quite radical by changing some of the traditions while also describing features that were entirely new. For instance, the St. Nicholas gift giving would have taken place on December 5, the eve of St. Nicholas Day. Moore moved the events he describes to Christmas Eve. He also came up with the concept of â€Å"St. Nick† having eight reindeer, each of them with a distinctive name. Charles Dickens and A Christmas Carol The other great work of Christmas literature from the 19th century is A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens. In writing the tale of Ebenezer Scrooge, Dickens wanted to comment on greed in Victorian Britain. He also made Christmas a more prominent holiday and permanently associated himself with Christmas celebrations. Dickens was inspired to write his classic story after speaking to working people in the industrial city of Manchester, England, in early October 1843. He wrote A Christmas Carol quickly, and when it appeared in bookstores the week before Christmas 1843 it began to sell very well. The book crossed the Atlantic and began to sell in America in time for Christmas 1844, and became extremely popular. When Dickens made his second trip to America in 1867 crowds clamored to hear him read from A Christmas Carol.  His tale of Scrooge and the true meaning of Christmas had become an American favorite. The story has never been out of print, and Scrooge is one of the best-known characters in literature. Santa Claus Drawn by Thomas Nast The famed American cartoonist Thomas Nast is generally credited as having invented the modern depiction of Santa Claus. Nast, who had worked as a magazine illustrator and created campaign posters for Abraham Lincoln in 1860, was hired by Harper’s Weekly in 1862. For the Christmas season, he was assigned to draw the magazine’s cover, and legend has it that Lincoln himself requested a depiction of Santa Claus visiting Union troops. The resulting cover, from Harper’s Weekly dated January 3, 1863, was a hit. It shows Santa Claus on his sleigh, which has arrived at a U.S. Army camp festooned with a â€Å"Welcome Santa Claus† sign. Santa’s suit features the stars and stripes of the American flag, and he’s distributing Christmas packages to the soldiers. One soldier is holding up a new pair of socks, which might be a boring present today, but would have been a highly prized item in the Army of the Potomac. Beneath Nasts illustration was the caption, â€Å"Santa Claus In Camp.† Appearing not long after the carnage at Antietam and Fredericksburg, the magazine cover is an apparent attempt to boost morale in a dark time. The Santa Claus illustrations proved so popular that Thomas Nast kept drawing them every year for decades. He is also credited with creating the notion that Santa lived at the North Pole and kept a workshop manned by elves. The figure of Santa Claus endured, with the version drawn by Nast becoming the accepted standard version of the character. By the early 20th century the Nast-inspired version of Santa became a very common figure in advertising. Prince Albert and Queen Victoria Made Christmas Trees Fashionable The tradition of the Christmas tree came from Germany, and there are accounts of early 19th century Christmas trees in America, but the custom wasn’t widespread outside German communities. The Christmas tree first gained popularity in British and American society thanks to the husband of Queen Victoria, the German-born Prince Albert. He installed a decorated Christmas tree at Windsor Castle in 1841, and woodcut illustrations  of the Royal Family’s tree appeared in London magazines in 1848. Those illustrations, published in America a year later, created the fashionable impression of the Christmas tree in upper-class homes. By the late 1850s reports of Christmas trees were appearing in American newspapers. And in the years following the Civil War ordinary American households celebrated the season by decorating a Christmas tree. The first electric Christmas tree lights appeared in the 1880s, thanks to an associate of Thomas Edison, but were too costly for most households. Most people in the 1800s lit their Christmas trees with small candles. The First White House Christmas Tree The first Christmas tree in the White House was displayed in 1889, during the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. The Harrison family, including his young grandchildren, decorated the tree with toy soldiers and glass ornaments for their small family gathering. There are some reports of president Franklin Pierce displaying a Christmas tree in the early 1850s. But the stories of a Pierce tree are vague and there doesnt seem to be contemporaneous mentions in newspapers of the time. Christmas Tree and Family, 1848. Benjamin Harrisons Christmas cheer was closely documented in newspaper accounts. An article on the front page of the New York Times on Christmas Day 1889 detailed the lavish presents he was going to give his grandchildren. And though Harrison was generally regarded as a fairly serious person, he vigorously embraced the Christmas spirit.   Not all subsequent presidents continued the tradition of having a Christmas tree in the White House. By the middle of the 20th century, White House Christmas trees became established. And over the years  it has evolved into an elaborate and very public production. The first National Christmas Tree was placed on The Ellipse, an area just south of the White House, in 1923, and the lighting of it was presided over by President Calvin Coolidge. The lighting of the National Christmas Tree has become quite a large annual event, typically presided over by the current president and members of the First Family. Yes, Virginia, There Is a Santa Claus In 1897 an eight-year-old girl in New York City wrote to a newspaper, the New York Sun, asking if her friends, who doubted the existence of Santa Claus, were right. An editor at the newspaper, Francis Pharcellus Church, responded by publishing, on September 21, 1897, an unsigned editorial. The response to the little girl has become the most famous newspaper editorial ever printed. The second paragraph is often quoted: Yes, VIRGINIA, there is a Santa Claus. He exists as certainly as love and generosity and devotion exist, and you know that they abound and give to your life its highest beauty and joy. Alas! how dreary would be the world if there were no Santa Claus. It would be as dreary as if there were no VIRGINIAS. Church’s eloquent editorial asserting the existence of Santa Claus seemed a fitting conclusion to a century that began with modest observances of St. Nicholas and ended with the foundations of the modern Christmas season firmly intact. By the end of the 19th century, the essential components of a modern Christmas, from Santa to the story of Scrooge to strings of electric lights were firmly established in America.

пятница, 20 декабря 2019 г.

Ancient Civilizations During The Persian Empire - 920 Words

Powerful ancient civilizations, such as Rome and Persia, are known for their territorial conquest of vast amounts of land, and having the ability to govern and control these territories effectively. At its height, the Roman empire controlled nearly the entire Mediterranean shore, and controlled large parts of Europe. The Persian empire at its height controlled lands equaling 8,000,000 sq. km from Macedonia to the Indus Valley. The ability to govern and control these lands was achieved using different methods such as governmental, military, cultural, and religious. The governments of ancient empires with vast amounts of land needed to keep the peace between the lands, to accomplish this the governments used the military to prevent uprisings, and to prevent foreign invasion. Trade between different parts of these ancient empires helped to spread the culture and made foreign lands more like the original empire, an example being Greek Hellenism, and the spread of the Polis. A common trai t of empires that controlled large amounts of land was religious tolerance. Religious tolerance allowed for different religions other than the state religion, albeit other religions most likely still had to participate in state religious affairs. With the entire Mediterranean shore and large parts of Europe under their control, Ancient Rome is undoubtedly one of the most successful ancient empires. At the heart of the control of these vastly different territories was the military. A largeShow MoreRelatedThe Greek And Persian Empires1156 Words   |  5 PagesGreek and Persian Empires flourished. With that being said, from approximately 323-800 B.C.E., both the Greek and Persian Empire were experiencing periods of economic, political, and artistic growth. The Persians, like the Greeks, were Indo Europeans, and were located by the Mediterranean Sea, which consequently allowed Greeks and Persians to develop similarities. At this time, many emerging civilizations lacked communication with other societies. Consequently, this enabled many civilizations to establishedRead MoreComparing Ancient India And Persia1420 Words   |  6 PagesComparing and Analyzing the Architecture in Ancient India and Persia In ancient civilizations, architecture was fundamental to revealing certain aspects of a culture, such as its leaders and their communication with the citizens. Rulers that controlled society utilized temples and buildings to express their power and communicate with their subjects. Cultures were able to express their abilities through architecture, along with their beliefs and the functionality of their society. Architecture allowedRead MoreComparing The Achaemenid Empire And The Imperial Stability And Prosperity Were Cyrus And Darius1638 Words   |  7 PagesThroughout human civilization, it has been invariably true that the ideas and innovations belonging to particular societies have been adopted by both concurrent and later cultures. This has culminated in remarkably advanced societies, whose success can be attributed to that of their ancient counterparts. Much of the prosperity of modern civilization can certainly be accredited to the Achaemenid Empire, a pluralistic empire fou nded in 550 BCE. At its peak, it stretched from the Indus River ValleyRead MoreAncient Greece, Rome, And Persian Essay2093 Words   |  9 PagesCulture Comparison The civilizations that I decided to elaborate on are Greece, Rome, and Persian. The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast the similarities and differences of these civilizations. These civilizations will be analyzed in the area of their cultural, social, political, economic, diplomatic and military collating. Greece, Rome, and Persian are very distinctive and fascinating civilization. From the information I have learned through the semester will help me sharply juxtaposeRead MoreThe Hellenistic Age And Classical Age952 Words   |  4 PagesHellenistic civilization. Hellenism is the term typically to describe the spread of culture from the Greek civilization that developed after the reign of Alexander the Great. How does the Hellenistic Age differ from the Classical Age? The Classical Age, referred to as Hellenic Greek, was founded in 507 B.C.E. and concluded in 323 B.C.E. The Hellenistic Age was founded in 323 B.C.E. and concluded in 31 B.C.E. after the reign of Alexander the Great. The Classical Age was ruled by the Greek civilization in GreekRead MoreGreek Vs. 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The Muslim civiliz ation was unified under Islam, more stable than ever, and skilled in defense so they could easily take advantage of the weak and divided Europe. As the Muslim civilization acquired more land, they built an impressive empire, stretching from Spain to IndiaRead MoreRise Of The Roman And Persian Empire Essay1582 Words   |  7 Pagesand Persian Empire Throughout history many civilizations have risen and fallen without so much of a second thought from historians. However there have been civilizations that climbed to the top of the metaphorical food chain and stayed there and influenced not only their region but the world for countless millennium even after they were no longer a functioning empire. Two such empires were the Roman Empire and the Persian Empire. The first factor to consider when thinking of successful empires wouldRead MoreThe Formation of Achaemenid Essay1469 Words   |  6 Pagesthe third millennium, under Cyrus the great , it became one of the world greatest empires. Before the formation of Persia, the region was occupied by a group of people by the name Elam. The Elamite civilization first developed in the Susian plain, under the influence of nearby Sumeria and Mesopotamia ( ancient name for an area now known as Iraq ) . the Sumerians were the most advanced and complex civilization at that time. In 3100 B.C they invented a Semipictographic writing system whichRead MoreAlexander The Second Of Macedon Essay1530 Words   |  7 Pagesas Alexander the Great, was king of the Ancient Macedon a Greek kingdom upon his father s death in 336 BCE. Alexander was born the son of King Philip of Macedon in the Greek city of Pella in 356 BCE. He succeeded his father and took reins of Macedon at age twenty. Alexander spent a large majority of his ruling years on an military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa. By 326 BCE at the age of thirty he lead one of the largest empires of the ancient world, that stretched from Greece to northwestern

среда, 11 декабря 2019 г.

Participation In Finnish Child Care Centers-Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Participation In Finnish Child Care Centers? Answer: Introducation It is recommended that the Toddlers Warehouse should ensure that paediatricians and child counsellors are also recruited to ensure that the care of the children could be taken efficiently. Moreover, child counsellors are essential in order to ensure that the counsellor could counsel any issue faced by the children successfully. The Toddlers Warehouse, might consider expanding in the Asian countries as well. Since the cultures of the Asian countries are changing rapidly, and most of the parents of the children are working nowadays, hence the Asian marketing is a good scope of expansion for the Toddlers Warehouse. The changing culture increases the demand for such day care centres for the children (Lamb 2014). Thus, in order to cater to the needs of the Asian cultures, the expansion strategies could be considered. Another recommendation that could be made includes that the best quality food are served to the children according to the diet prescribed by paediatricians and dieticians (Ve nninen et al. 2014). This will attract more customers and parents to keep their children in the Toddlers Warehouse, as they would be assured of the health and safety of their children. This assurance will increase the customers, thus enhancing the business of the company (Lamb 2014). It is also recommended that the positioning of the Toddlers Warehouse be made near the office areas, such that the office going parents could drop and pick up the children while going to the office or coming back. These recommendations, if implemented in the company will ensure the enhancement in the business of Toddlers Warehouse. Conclusion This assignment highlights the marketing strategy and marketing management of a full service childcare/ development facility that cares for toddlers of the age three to five, named Toddlers Warehouse. The mission and vision of the company has been described in details along with highlighting the various services that are provided to the customers. The unique selling propositions of the company include treating the children with care, along with ensuring that they are engaged in positive extra-curriculum activities. The company also ensures that they children learn the basic numbers and alphabets, while in the day care centre. The market segmentation of the company is done based on demographics, full time working parents, as well as two-income working professionals. The target market has been identified appropriately, such that the company is able to reach their target management successfully. The positioning of the Toddlers Warehouse is good, and ensures high business of the company (Venninen et al. 2014). The competitive advantages of the Toddlers Warehouse include specialised training, innovative learning programs and facility tours. Thus, the company is able to gain advantage over the other similar childcare centres, thus ensuring effective business. Few recommendations have been suggested, that could be implemented in the Toddlers Warehouse, such that the enhancement in the business along with attracting more customers will be seen. Since childcare centres have a key role to play, in shaping the future of the children, hence it is important that the Toddlers Warehouse focus on the overall developing of the children, along with enhancement in their business.; References Lamb, M.E., 2014.Child care in context: Cross-cultural perspectives. Psychology Press. Venninen, T., Leinonen, J., Lipponen, L. and Ojala, M., 2014. Supporting childrens participation in financial child care centers.Early Childhood Education Journal,42(3), pp.211-218.

среда, 4 декабря 2019 г.

Reserch log free essay sample

What I thought that definition of identity Is who you are, the characteristics that define you and the way you think about yourself. According to English dictionary, Identity Is the Individual characteristics by which a person or thing Is recognized. Innocence means that I believe what we see In children. It Is Like saying that the words pure and white. The dictionary said, the quality or state of being innocent; freedom from sin or moral wrong. Experience is the knowledge a person acquire in life through learning and doing.Dictionary said which is direct personal participation or observation; actual knowledge or contact. 2. Definitions from dictionary. Com 1 . Latinity :the individual characteristics by which a person or thing is recognized 2: Innocence the quality or state of being innocent; freedom from sin or moral wrong. 3: Experience the observing, encountering, or undergoing of things generally as they occur In the course of time: direct personal participation or observation; actual knowledge or contact 3. We will write a custom essay sample on Reserch log or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Innocence comes in all shapes and sizes; from children to adult.One may come to America feeling extremely innocent. -How difference between South Korea and America 1. Schooling : Students study all the time in Hong Kong : Students in US do much then Just studying 2. Dietary habits : eat rice three times a day in Hong Kong : In US you have more options for sides. 3. Communications : Saying hello, good bye, smiling In US to anyone even If you do not know them. Lots of hugging, kissing, hello/goodbye. : Bow to older people/authority figure Hong Kong 4. Aleut Johnson, MS.

четверг, 28 ноября 2019 г.

Appealing to Tradition Fallacy

Appealing to Tradition Fallacy Fallacy Name: Appeal to AgeAlternative Names:argumentum ad antiquitatemAppeal to TraditionAppeal to CustomAppeal to Common PracticeCategory: Appeals to Emotion and Desire Explanation of the Appeal to Age Fallacy The Appeal to Age fallacy goes in the opposite direction from the Appeal to Novelty fallacy by arguing that when something is old, then this somehow enhances the value or truth of the proposition in question. The Latin for Appeal to Age is argumentum ad antiquitatem, and the most common form is: 1. It is old or long-used, so it must better than this new-fangled stuff. People have a strong tendency towards conservatism; that is to say, people have a tendency to preserve practices and habits which seem to work rather than replace them with new ideas. Sometimes this may be due to laziness, and sometimes it may simply be a matter of efficiency. In general, though, its probably a product of evolutionary success because habits which allowed for survival in the past wont be abandoned too quickly or easily in the present. Sticking with something that works isnt a problem; insisting on a certain way of doing things simply because its traditional or old is a problem and, in a logical argument, it is a fallacy. Examples of the Appeal to Age Fallacy One common use of an Appeal to Age fallacy is when trying to justify something which cant be defended on actual merits, like, for example, discrimination or bigotry: 2. Its standard practice to pay men more than women so well continue adhering to the same standards this company has always followed.3. Dog fighting is a sport thats been around for hundreds if not thousands of years. Our ancestors enjoyed it and it has become part of our heritage.4. My mother always put sage in the turkey stuffing so I do it too. While its true that the practices in question have been around for a long time, no reason for continuing these practices are given; instead, its simply assumed that old, traditional practices should be continued. There isnt even any attempt to explain and defend why these practices existed in the first place, and thats important because it might reveal that the circumstances which originally produced these practices have changed enough to warrant dropping those practices. There are quite a few people out there who are under the mistaken impression that the age of an item, and that alone, is indicative of its value and usefulness. Such an attitude is not entirely without warrant. Just as it is true that a new product can provide new benefits, it is also true that something older may have value because it has worked for a long time. It isnt true that we can assume, without further question, that an old object or practice is valuable simply because it is old. Perhaps it has been used a lot because no one has ever known or tried any better. Perhaps new and better replacements are absent because people have accepted a fallacious Appeal to Age. If there are sound, valid arguments in defense of some traditional practice, then they should be offered, and it should be demonstrated that it is, in fact, superior to newer alternatives. Appeal to Age and Religion Its also easy to find fallacious appeals to age in the context of religion. Indeed, it would probably be hard to find a religion which doesnt use the fallacy at least some of the time because its rare to find a religion which doesnt rely heavily on tradition as part of how it enforces various doctrines. Pope Paul VI wrote in 1976 in Response to the Letter of His Grace the Most Reverend Dr. F.D. Coggan, Archbishop of Canterbury, concerning the Ordination of Women to the Priesthood: 5. [The Catholic Church] holds that it is not admissible to ordain women to the priesthood for very fundamental reasons. These reasons include: the example recorded in the Sacred Scriptures of Christ choosing his Apostles only from among men; the constant practice of the Church, which has imitated Christ in choosing only men; and her living teaching authority which has consistently held that the exclusion of women from the priesthood is in accordance with Gods plan for his Church. Three arguments are offered by Pope Paul VI in defense of keeping women out of the priesthood. The first appeals to the Bible and isnt an Appeal to Age fallacy. The second and third are so explicit as fallacies that they could be cited in textbooks: we should keep doing this because its how the church has constantly done it and because what church authority has consistently decreed. Put more formally, his argument is: Premise 1: The constant practice of the Church has been to choose only men as priests.Premise 2: The teaching authority of the Church has consistently held that women should be excluded from the priesthood.Conclusion: Therefore, it is not admissible to ordain women to the priesthood. The argument may not use the words age or tradition, but the use of constant practice and consistently create the same fallacy.

воскресенье, 24 ноября 2019 г.

Physical Theatre Essays

Physical Theatre Essays Physical Theatre Essay Physical Theatre Essay Physical Theatre History: * Physical theatre is a catch-all term to describe any performance that pursues storytelling through primary physical means * The term â€Å"physical theatre† has been applied to performances consisting mainly of: 1. Mime 2. Contemporary dance 3. Theatrical clowning and other physical comedy 4. Some forms of puppetry 5. Theatrical acrobatics * Modern physical theatre has grown from a variety of origins.Mime and theatrical clowning schools such as L’Ecole Jacques Lecoq Paris, have had a big influence on many modern expressions of Physical Theatre. * Another tradition started with the very famous French master  Etienne Decroux  (father of  corporeal mime). Decrouxs aim was to create a theatre based on the physicality of the actor allowing the creation of a more  metaphorical theatre. This tradition has grown and corporeal mime is now taught in many major theatrical schools. Legacy: Physical theatre had become such a big phenomenon today, being shown in movie such as â€Å"Stomp the Yard† and â€Å"Step Up† as well as huge worldwide productions such as â€Å"Wicked†, â€Å"Cirque de Solei† and â€Å"Hairspray† * We are the building block of the movement of physical theatre.Techniques: * Important theatre directions such as Vsevolod Meyerhold,  Jerzy Grotowski,  Eugenio Barba,  Ariane Mnouchkine  and  Tadashi Suzuki  all explored and developed a variety of intense training techniques for their actors, that were intended to liberate actors and audiences from boring and unstimulating performances. They argued that a performing body should be an instrument of expression that has unique rhythms and patterns that must be amplified, developed and mastered before a performance can be viewed as effective. * They also advocated a variety of training regimes and exercises to develop what they believed were important connections between the communication of physical and emotional tr uth in actors and many of their suggestions have been taken up by acting schools in a number of countries.

четверг, 21 ноября 2019 г.

Project Management Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Project Management - Case Study Example The project is to be completed within one month and has a budget of 50,000 dollars. The marketing team at Nigel Longford would be responsible for the marketing and launch of the website across various mediums so as to expand the reach of the website. The marketing team would consist of a team of 10 people. The project scope does not include designing and programming the website, which has already been conducted by the companys design and development team. The domain name has also been bought. In this phase, the project contract is developed. This contains the scope of the project, the Gantt chart, selection of team, risk planning and identifying deliverables. The scope of the project is to market and launch the website of Nigel Longford and to reach the maximum number of customers. The team would be based on 10 people. One of these people would be the team leader or the manager of the project. Three of the team members would work on the testing of the website. This includes checking and proofreading content, testing website and its link, user testing and also launching the website on the given date. This team would work closely with the design and development team. The other team, consisting of 6 people, would be responsible for marketing the website. A creative designer and an art director would be responsible for designing the marketing campaign. Two team members would be responsible for overseeing print and outdoor advertisement while the remaining two would be responsible for submitting and marketing the website across search engines, social networking websites and business directories (Barbara, n.d.) In the end, the team would be responsible for a workable website that should be launched on the given date. Also a marketing campaign, both print and digital , should be delivered as a project outcome. In this stage, the team would work in mostly pairs to achieve their objectives. Daily meetings would be conducted where all team members would be required to

среда, 20 ноября 2019 г.

The personality of Adolf Hitler Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The personality of Adolf Hitler - Research Paper Example Adolf Hitler, one of the world’s most talented yet ferocious leaders was born in the town of Braunau-am-Inn in Austria on 20 April 1889. This town is located close to the border between Germany and Austria.Hitler’s father, Alois, used to check the goods crossing the border in the capacity of a customs officer. Ida and Gustav were two children born to Hitler’s mother, Klara and Alois before Hitler, but none of the two had managed to survive the infancy. Hitler was six years of age when he started to go to school. The family spent time in several villages in Linz towards the east of Braunau. Klara and Alois gave birth to Edmund. Edmund was Hitler’s younger brother who did not live after six years of age. Finally, Hitler’s younger sister Paula was born in 1896, who lived even longer than Hitler did. Adolf Hitler was very weak in studies. He had no interest whatsoever in studies and thus, maintained a very poor record in school. His tuition was not comp leted when he left the school to fulfill his desire of becoming an artist. When Hitler turned thirteen, Alois passed away. Klara was left with Hitler and Paula and had to take care of the two children on her own. As a teenager, Hitler neither studied nor worked. Instead, he cultivated interest in the fields of history and politics. Meanwhile, Hitler made an attempt to study in the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and applied for it, but the application went atrophy. In 1908, Klara could not survive cancer and passed away. From the age of nineteen onwards, Hitler and Paula were left all alone. Although Hitler did have uncles and aunts from his mother’s and father’s families, yet they were not keen on supporting the children. Hitler resolved to travel to Vienna in 1909 with a view to earning money. For almost a year or perhaps more, Hitler had no food or shelter. He was homeless and had his meals in the charity soup-kitchens. He never continued a job for long. Instead, he wou ld do occasional menial jobs. He also persuaded people that would show the slightest interest in Hitler’s paintings into buying them. This was how Hitler spent his life from his mother’s death till 1913. The penniless vagabond, Adolf Hitler traveled to the southern part of Germany in 1913 and reached Munich. In 1914, when the World War I commenced, Hitler applied to join in the German Army. He was fortunate enough to be selected for the 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment. This was the turning point in the life of Adolf Hitler. He became a soldier from a penniless drifter. Hitler participated in the World War I from the side of Germany and fought very bravely. Owing to the display of immense courage and bravery in the war, Hitler was promoted to Corporal. He was also granted the awards of First Class and the Iron Cross Second Class. Hitler kept wearing the former throughout his life until the day of his death. An attack of British gas had blinded Hitler temporarily and he was hospitalized on the day, on which the armistice was announced in 1918. By the end of 1918, Hitler rejoined his regiment in Munich. In the four months from December 1918 till March of the following year, Hitler served in Traunstein at a camp of prisoner-of-war. After that, he moved back to Munich and saw that the local Communists had initiated a takeover bid. The Communists had snatched the authority before the army could expel them. Hitler was offered an opportunity to join a local army organization that aimed at convincing the returning soldiers to stay away from pacifism or communism. The training Hitler received in it and the duties that followed helped him improve his oratory skills. One of his duties was to spy on some political groups. At one gathering of the German Worker’s Party, Hitler became extremely angry to hear a speech and berated the speaker. Anion Drexler, who was that party’s founder was extremely overwhelmed with the overt expression of c ourage made by Hitler and thus, invited Hitler to

воскресенье, 17 ноября 2019 г.

THE GRAPHIC ART Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

THE GRAPHIC ART - Essay Example Riggle (2012: 255) describes street art as â€Å"artworks whose use of the street is essential to their meanings.† In this, Riggle implies that street art is necessary and applicable only in streets where they display their significance to several passers-by. There are several street arts that are available in various holographs in today’s museums and other photo and pictures sources such as archives. This essay will succinctly verify or back up Riggle’s description of street art using two popular and early drawing artists; England based graffiti artist, Banksy and South African artist, Robin Rhode. The two are renowned street artists whose artworks have been posted on various websites. The essay will mainly handle the role or the necessity of street artworks, as well as their impacts to the immediate society. To begin with, Banksy did several artworks which are mainly considered street art with hidden meanings that are necessary to teach certain lessons to the s ociety. Since he was also a painter, political activist and film director, he came up with attractive street art graffiti and inherent dark humor that was excellently done in distinctive and special inherent stenciling technique. Most of his artistic works have been featured in public areas such as walls, streets and bridges. Historically, his work was born out of artist-musician collaboration popularly referred to as Bristol underground scene. One of his street artworks was a stenciled graffiti that appeared on Thames Water tower. It was located in Holland park roundabout. The image consisted of a child clutching and doing painting work on the tag titled â€Å"Take this society†. Councilor Greg Smith (London and Fulham spokesman) considered the photo vandalistic and made an order for its instant removal from the location. The removal was carried out by the then H&F Council workmen within three consecutive days. The graffiti had a lot of significance to the then European soci ety, in terms of its political situations. Analytically, the artwork was meant to show that Europe was under control by a particular group of its leaders who controlled every life sector in the continent beginning from economy, social lives, as well as the politics. The idea of the boy painting the tag is sarcastic in the making as he advises or informs some people in the society to take control and own the society personally. The child symbolizes the common man in Europe who is unhappy with some of totalitarian practices exhibited by the leaders in the way they govern their subjects. This is typically in line with Banksy’s political activist nature or characteristic. The second street artwork of Banksy is LDN6 which appeared in May 2006. Iit appeared at the back of something that looked like a permanent street stall for selling bags and T-shirts on the Tottenham Court road, next to its junction with the Store Street. The art photo did not stay long at the stall. It was remov ed by the end of June with the permission from the stall owner, Sam Khan, a sixty year old man who had no idea about Banksy and his artwork (Bull, 2011: 311). In fact, the stall owner did not have any idea about the meaning or rather the interpretation of the artwork. The photo was then sold to someone at a reported price of 1000 Euros in cash. The stall owner got annoyed when he saw the same photo being sold at a minimum price of 230,000 Euros and much better prices in New York. From the picture, it can be seen that the painter had written, â€Å"What?† in purple color on a grey wall with other non formulated black drawings and writings. Interpreted, Branky’s main reason for the work is to show what the unclear dark drawings had not clearly revealed

пятница, 15 ноября 2019 г.

Tensile Strength Test Of Concrete Engineering Essay

Tensile Strength Test Of Concrete Engineering Essay Concrete is a widely used construction material in the world. It is one of the most versatile, durable and environmental friendly material. Most importantly concrete is good at compression and is completely non-combustible, which makes it popular in this industry. But concrete has low tensile strength causing concrete to behave in brittle manner. This nature in concrete has lead to numerous test and research in order to increase the tensile properties of concrete. History of concrete dates back several thousand years to the day of the ancient Egyptians, the Greeks and the Romans. These early concrete compositions were based on lime although the Romans are known for their development of pozzolanic cement and lightweight concrete based on pumice. The credit for the introduction of steel as reinforcement is variously attributed to Lambot in 1855 for ferrocement boats, to Monier in 1867 and to Hennebique in 1897 who built the first reinforced concrete frame building. But the Notable steps forward in this century have been the introduction of pre-stressed concrete by Freyssinet in the 1940s and the motorway-building boom of the 1960s involving concrete pavements and bridges. Although the vast majority of concrete structures have performed satisfactorily for many years such progress has not been made without its problems. 1.1 HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE High strength is a concrete which has a cylinder compressive strength greater than 6000psi or 42 MPa. Generally, for building high rise structures, concrete with cylinder compressive strength over 140 MPa is used. In some laboratories in United States and Europe, a concrete with strength over 315 MPa has been produced, however, the problem with such strength is that it reduces the ductility of structure. Higher strength concretes leads to cost effective structural systems. Using such concrete, overall weight of the systems on the foundation reduces, resulting in size reduction, increase in available occupancy space, and thus cost of components. Many factors are taken into account for making a high strength concrete. Generally, such a concrete contains a higher Portland cement, strong aggregates, and a low water/cement ratio. Now-a-days, addition of super plasticizers, blast furnace slag, polymers, water reducing admixtures or silica fume are common 1.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE In last half decade, the compressive strength of commercial concrete has tripled approximately from 5,000 psi to 14,000 psi. In 1950s, a ready mixed concrete of design strength of 5000 psi was called as high strength. A decade later, Washington state highway department specified 6000 psi strength concrete for prestressed girders. High strength concrete made constructions such as 311 South Walker Drive concrete building; East Huntington, W.V., and other long span cable stayed bridges. Increased use of mineral admixtures and chemicals in 1960s lead to an increase in attainable strength. In 1973, Japan national railway built three high strength concrete bridges and they were found to meet all expectation by serving for over 20 years. Chicago city played a very important role in the evolution of commercial high strength concrete. The inventors of micro-silica concrete (MSC) realised that Chicago inner city development would be quite beneficial , which indeed was, and hence, with appointing high strength concrete pioneer, William Schmidt, they targeted an increase upto 6000 psi for a new 40 story tall Outer Drive East Condominium Project, using normal weight concrete. In 1072, the first 7500 psi concrete was used for a 52 story tall Mid-continental Plaza. Later, in 1974, 9000 psi concrete was supplied to 74 stories tall Water Tower Place, which was the tallest building at that time. In late 1980s, very high strength concrete as being successfully developed in many parts of North America. One of the best examples is Two Union Square in Seattle which is a 220 m tall, 58 story building. The original concrete specified for them was 14000 psi at 28 days, however, to incorporate a static modulus of elasticity of 50 Gpa, the concrete was upgraded to a compressive strength around 19000 psi. A test conducted after 4 years found that the compressive strength and modulas of elasticity were 19900 psi and 5.6 Gpa, respectively. Now-a-days, 14000 psi at 56 days is commonly used in many metropolitan cities. 1.3 MOTIVE FOR DEVELOPMENT of High strength concrete Modern methods have improved the quality of concrete by many folds. Aspects such as, long term failure studies, development of effective and powerful instrumentation, molecular structure of material, increased need of materials better for larger structures and increased ductility, and decrease of cost effectiveness of traditional material have redefined concrete. These days, concrete structural systems build from 15000-20000 psi concretes can be found quite easily. However, factors such as newer components or admixtures, microstructural studies, better material selection proportioning, long term performance, blended cement compositions, placement techniques and others; provide an ample scope of improvement. For e.g., use of slags and pozzolans as cementitious replacements contribute to energy conservation and disposal of industrial by-products, besides higher strength. Improved cements such as densified cements (DSP) and macrodefect free cements (MDF) and composite advancements, for e.g., slurry infilterated fiber concrete (SIFCON), have allowed the builders to achieve concrete with strengths up to 300 MPa. A very nice example of such concrete use is the undersea tunnel connecting British Isles and France. 1.4. APPLICATIONS OF HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE The use of high strength concrete has been increasing considerably high in construction world because of both technical and economical advantage. The use of HSC provides more economical construction due to reduced member cross-section and dimensions. HSC has been extensively used in high rise building and highway bridges. Major area of use has been high rise buildings. Tall construction feature whose construction would have been not possible in terms of durability and long term performance have been successfully constructed using HSC. The use of HSC helps in the reduction in structural member size, reinforcement percentage increasing floor space and decreasing dead weight. One of the examples of high rise building is the Mercantile Exchange building in Chicago which used 9000psi concrete. The other application of HSC is in prestressed Bridge girders. The use of HSC would allow using greater spans for a given number of girders as compared to NSC. Again for a given span, use of HSC provides economical cost by reduction in labour cost in the production of girders, transportation cost, erection cost and overhead expenses. Japanese I-shaped, box and rectangular section bridge girders have been constructed using 8500psi concrete where the spans are between 100 to 280 ft. One of the examples is Bennett Bay Bridge, Idaho which has which 1730ft segmental girder with two centre spans of 520ft and end span of 320ft. 1.5 DISADVANTAGES OF HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE HSC has brought about a lot of construction possibilities which would not have been possible with NSC. However HSC comes with some disadvantages too mainly because of lack of research and information about its behaviour in real construction field. As HSC is composed of mineral and chemical admixture, increased quality control is required. In codes minimum thickness and cover have been specified preventing realization of full benefit of using HSC. It can be difficult to cure adequately due to self-desiccation of low water/cement ratio mixes. HSC possess increased permeability which makes curing difficult as it prevents applied curing water from compensating any initial moisture loss. These are the disadvantages relating the use of HSC in real construction filed. 1.6 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The main objective of this research is to determine the true uniaxial tensile strength of concrete by carrying out a series of cylinder splitting test, modulus of rupture test and cylinder compression test. The research aims to utilise the simple correction factors proposed by Raoof and Lin (1999) which aims to overcome the shortcomings associated with the closed form formula used in the Brazilian concrete splitting test. Many experimental tests on various concrete mixes had been already carried out for the verification of the proposed correction factor. The criteria for this research were based on 3 days compressive and tensile strength of high strength concrete with total of 16 batches using two types of coarse aggregate. Also few batches testing were done for normal strength and self compacting concrete. In this research effect of constituent materials will also be studied. The purpose of this research is to compare and contrast the use of correction factors with the results the results obtained from previous experiments. 1.7 RESEARCH SCOPE The scope of this research included computation of splitting tensile strength, compressive strength and modulus of rupture on normal, high and self compacting concrete. The mineral admixtures, which have been used for this research project, were compromised of silica fume, fly ash. The superplasticiser and viscosity modifying admixture that was used in this research were Sika ViscoCrete10 and structure 480respectively. All the admixtures used in this research are used in real life applications. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW High strength concrete has been classified as one of the advanced construction materials. High strength concrete has both economical as well as durability benefits. It helps in the reduction in formwork area and cost with the accompanying reduction in shoring and stripping time due to high early age gain in strength. The composition of high strength concrete constitutes of mineral admixtures which provides a base for the use of waste products. 2.1 PREVIOUS RESEARCH WORK ON HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE High strength concrete uses various mineral admixtures such as silica fume, fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag and superplasticiser which increase the strength of High strength concrete. Most applications of high-strength concrete have used the strength property of the material. However, high strength concrete may carry various other characteristics that can be of great advantage for construction industry. Various researches have been carried out on high strength concrete in order to study other characteristics of HSC. Some research work that had been carried out on high strength concrete has been summarised below: M. Mazloom A.A. Ramezanianpour, J.J. Brooks(2004): carried out in joint collaboration between UK and Iranian university presented experimental work on short- and long-term mechanical properties of high-strength concrete containing different levels of silica fume. In this research the cement was replaced by silica fume with 0%,6%,10% and 15%. The researchers found that as the proportion of silica fume is increased the workability of concrete decreased but its short-term mechanical properties such as 28-day compressive strength and secant modulus improved. The mix portion sued in this research is shown in the table below. For each mix, the following specimens were made: 24 samples of 100 mm cubes for compressive strength; eight 80 x 270 (diameter x length) mm cylinders for creep; four 80x270mm and four 150x300mm cylinders for shrinkage; two 80270 mm and two 150x300mm cylinders for swelling. From the test carried it was also established that the percentages of silica fume replacement did not have a noticeable effect on total shrinkage. Moreover the compressive strength of the concrete mixes containing silica fume did not increase after the age of 90days. K. Lahlou, P.-C. Aitcin O. Chaallal (1992): This research presents the behaviour of High-strength concrete under confined stress. The investigation was carried out on three 28 day strength levels: 50, 80 and 115 MPa where the actual mixes used resulted in strength of 47, 78 and 115MPa.The study showed that improved confinement provides increased compressive strength. As a result a new ultrahigh-strength concrete of strength 250MPa was produced. Other outcome of the research was that the confinement efficiency increased with the increase in the compressive strength of the concrete. Zhen-jun He, Yu-pu Song (2010): this is one of the most recent researches carried out in china to study the failure criterion and triaxial strength of HSC before and after high temperature. HSC is susceptible to spalling, or even explosive spalling when subjected to rapid temperature rise as in the case of a fire. Though high strength concrete has been greatly used but very little research has been carried about the effect of high temperature on the concrete structure Triaxial tests were performed at all kinds of stress ratios after exposure to normal and high temperatures of 20,200, 300, 400, 500, and 600  °C, using a large static-dynamic true triaxial machine. The study showed that no explosive spalling was observed during the high temperature temperatures ranging from 200  °C to 600  °C. Also there was no change in the failure modes with the increase in the temperature where the failures under uniaxial tension were tension failure. The uniaxial compressive strength of plain HSHPC was not decreased after 200 and 300  °C. The brittleness-stiffness of HSHPC specimens between 200  °C and 300  °C is higher than that above 400  °C. The temperature around 400  °C is critical to the ultimate strength that decreases rapidly. The increasing extent of the triaxial to uniaxial compressive strength depends on the stress states, the stress ratios, and the brittleness-stiffness of HSHPC after different temperatures. M.I. Khan, C.J. Lynsdale (2002): the corrosion of steel reinforcement is a common cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete. The use of blended cements or supplementary cementing materials decreases the permeability, thereby increasing the resistance of concrete to deterioration by aggressive chemicals. The investigation carried out by Khan and Lynsdale (2002) aimed at developing HSC and carryout investigation into the optimisation of blended cementitious system for the development of HSC. PFA at 0%, 20%, 30% and 40% (by weight) was incorporated as partial cement replacement. To these blends, 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% SF replacement levels were incorporated to make various binary and ternary cementitious combinations. Cube compressive strength and cylinder splitting strength test was carried out and the oxygen permeability was measured using the given equation: From the experimental results it was noticed that as curing age increases, the reduction in strength with increasing PFA content becomes less apparent, especially for PFA contents J.J.Brooks, M.A. Megat Johari, M. Mazloo (2000): Chemical admixtures play a vital role in the production of High-strength concrete. Metakaolin (MK) is one of the new admixture commercially introduced. It is very important to know the setting characteristics of concrete as it helps in the scheduling of concrete construction operations. In this research the effect of chemical admixtures and shrinkage reducing admixtures (SRA) on the setting time of HSC was investigated using the penetration resistance method (ASTM C 403). The penetration resistance (P) of all the different concrete mixes was expressed as P=aebt i.e. P was expressed as the exponential function of time. The general effect of the admixture retarded the setting times of HSC while the SRA had significant retarding effect when used in combination with superplasticiser. As a whole the conclusive statement is that increasing the levels of SF, FA provides greater retardation in the setting time of HSC. 2.2 PREVIOUS WORK ON TENSILE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE Tensile strength of concrete is one of the basic and very important properties of concrete. The knowledge of tensile strength is very important in designing concrete structure. Various tests have been carried out in order to determine the tensile strength of concrete. Traditional direct tensile strength test are not commonly acceptable as it suffers many drawbacks. In these tests there is huge stress concentration near the grips and non uniform distribution within the sample. Researches have shown that results from such experiment are low and coefficient of variation is low. Hence more research has been carried out in order to find the true uniaxial tensile strength of concrete. Zhuhai lin and Laurence Wood (2003): After the proposal of correction factor by Raoof and Lin (1999), further research into the correction factor was carried out by Lin and Wood in 2003. In this research assuming uniaxial tensile strength and properties of the concrete, the Brazilian cylinder splitting test was analyzed by the isoparametric nonlinear finite strip element. The result from the research showed that at the onset of cylinder failure the tensile strength along the vertical diameter of cylinder was smaller than the assumed uniaxial tensile strength which means the splitting test underestimates the uniaxial tensile strength of concrete. The study also showed the effect of width of packing strip together with the ratio of (ft/fc) for the compressive strength constant at 30 N/mm2 and showed a linear relationship. According to Lin and Wood the range of correction factor for 30N/mm2 is about 1.09 to 1.40 for packing strip of 12mm, 1.10 to 1.44 for 13mm width, 1.09 to 1.41 for 14 mm and 1.09 to 1.39 for 15mm packing strip width V. Ramakrishnan, Y. Ananthanayayana, K. C. Gopal : As we already mentioned that different test have shown different values of tensile strength for the same concrete mix. V. Ramakrishnan and his associated carried out a research to compare the results in the various tests and to study the uniformity of the results. In this research over 600 specimens were tested for 28 days target strength. A comparative analysis of tensile strength test was carried out and the results were compared against cube compressive strength as shown in the plot above. After laboratory work it was found that modulus of rupture does not give the true tensile strength but only gives the highest value of tensile strength and lies between 1.3 to 2 times the cylinders splitting strength. The cylindrical splitting test was taken satisfactory as it gave more uniform and consistent results than other tensile strength tests. M.F.M. Zain et al: computation of correction factor for the determination of true tensile strength of HSC depends upon the compressive strength of HSC. It is very important to show the relationship between tensile splitting test and compressive strength of HSC. Zain and associates carried out a research in 2002 in order to determine the relation of splitting tensile strength of concrete with compressive strength, water/binder (W/B) ratio and concrete age. After the investigation a relationship between tensile strength, compressive strength and concrete by age was proposed which is . Plot for this relation is given below. The relation given above for the prediction of tensile strength of concrete was compared with French code, ACI code and CEB/FIP code and found to be very close. Hence this equation can be helpful in estimating the Splitting tensile strength of HSC. S Bhanja, B Sengupta(2005): Our research aims to use silica fume as one of the mineral admixture on HSC mixes. Many researches have been carried out to investigate the mechanical effect of silica fume on HSC but very few are carried out in order to analyse the effect of silica fume on tensile strength of concrete. S. Bhanja (2005) carried out research to develop a better understanding on the isolated contribution of silica fume on the tensile strength of concrete. In this experiment 32 mixes with silica fume binder ratio from 0.0 to 0.3 were tested for 28 days strength. From the research it was found out that the use of silica fume improves the tensile strength of concrete and depends upon the water cementitious material ratio of mix. Flexural strength showed greater development than splitting tensile strength. Two expressions were developed to establish the relationship between flexural strength, split tensile strength and compressive strength of silica fume concrete. It was also established that increase in tensile strength beyond 15% of silica replacement was almost irrelevant. 2.3. TENSILE STRENGTH TESTING OF HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE Although concrete is not normally designed to resist direct tension, the knowledge of tensile strength is of value in estimating the load under which the crack will develop. One of the most well known mechanical properties of concrete is that the tensile strength is 8 to 10 times less than compressive strength. Because of such a low tensile strength, the crack can be seen on the surface of concrete structure. Tension failure is still one of the most important issues because it influences the serviceability significantly. Tensile strength is one of the most important parameters used to evaluate tensile failure of a concrete. Tension tests are needed for concrete as complement to standard compression test in order to obtain a better assessment of structural performance. According to various research and literature review carried out it has been revealed that direct tension test are unsuitable as the results from such tests suffer from inconsistencies due to several uncontrolled variables. It is difficult in this test to avoid stress concentration near the grips and non-uniform stress distribution within the sample. Evans and Wright confirm that the results obtained in the direct tension test of concrete are low and the coefficient of variation is great. Hence this type of test is no longer accepted as reliable. The splitting test is rather simple to perform, does not require other equipment than that needed for the compression test, and gives an approximately similar value of the true tensile strength of concrete (Neville, 1971). According to investigation of splitting tensile strength carried out by O,Neil (2002) , the addition of silica fume, high-range water reducing admixtures and special curing conditions the tensile strength of the concrete wa s higher than that of conventional concrete. The tensile tests that are commonly used and that has been used in this project are detailed in full below: 2.3.1. MODULUS OF RUPTURE OR FLEXURE TEST A direct application of a pure tension force, free from eccentricity is difficult, and is further complicated by secondary stresses induced by the grips or by embedded studs. Because of these difficulties, it is preferable to measure the tensile strength of concrete by subjecting a plain concrete beam to flexure. This is in fact one of the two standard tension tests. The theoretical maximum tensile stress reached in the bottom fibre of the test beam is known as the modulus of rupture. The value of modulus of rupture depends on the dimensions of the beam and, above all, on the arrangement of loading. Two systems are used: a central point load, which gives a triangular bending moment; and symmetrical two-point loading, which produces a constant bending moment between the load points. Since concrete consists of elements of varying strength, it is to be expected that two-point loading will yield a lower value of the modulus of rupture than when one point load is applied. The centre- poin t loading has been discontinued both in United Kingdom and the U.S. Figure 4 Two point flexure test BS 1881: Part 4:1970 prescribes third-point loading on 150 by 150 by 750mm beams supported over a span of 600mm but when the maximum size of aggregate is not more than 25mm, 100 by 100 by 500mm beams with a span of 400 mm may be used. There are four possible reasons why the modulus of rupture test yields a higher value of strength than a direct tensile test made on the same concrete. The first one is related to the assumption of the shape of the shape of the stress block. The second one is that accidental eccentricity in a direct tensile test results in a lower apparent strength of the concrete. The third is offered by an argument similar to that justifying the influence of the loading arrangement on the value of the modulus of rupture. Fourthly, in the flexure test, the maximum fibre stress reached may be higher than direct tension because the propagation of a crack is blocked by less stressed material nearer to the neutral axis. Thus the energy available is below that necessary for the formation of new crack surfaces. The requirement for ASTM Standard C 78 75 are similar to those of BS 1881: part 4: 1970. If fracture occurs within the central one-third of the beam the modulus of rupture is calculated on the basis of ordinary elastic theory, and is therefore equal to PL/ (bd2). Where P= the maximum total load on the beam L=span b= width of the beam d= depth of the beam. If however fracture occurs outside the load points, e.g. at a distance a from the near support, a being measured along the centre line of the tension surface of the beam, then the modulus of rupture is given by 3pL/(bd2). This means that the maximum stress at the critical section, and not the maximum stress on the beam, is considered in the calculations. 2.3.2. CYLINDER SPLITTING TEST The splitting tensile test is used worldwide to measure the tensile strength of concrete. In splitting test a cylindrical or prismatic specimen is compressed along two diametrically opposed generators as shown in the in Figure 5 to prevent multiple cracking and crushing at the points of loading, the load is distributed through two bearing strips whose width differs in the various standards. If the material behaviour is linear-elastic, this geometry leads to nearly uniform tensile stress alone the plane of loading, and the expected rupture mode is the splitting of the specimen in two halves across that plane. In the case of concentrated loads, the maximum tensile stress on this plane can be calculated by à Ã†â€™ max = Where à Ã†â€™ max is the maximum tensile stress in the specimen when the applied load is P, D and B are the specimen depth and thickness respectively. Figure 5 Specimen positioned in a testing machine for determination of splitting tensile strength. Following the standards the maximum tensile stress at failure is a material property called splitting tensile strength. If the load-bearing strips are narrow enough to consider the loading concentrated, and the material behaviour is linearly-elastic -brittle is close to the tensile strength determined by ideal uniaxial tensile test. The tensile strength is evaluated in the standards by fst = Where Pu is the maximum load recorded during the test. The splitting tensile strength is then calculated on the assumption of a hypothetical load bearing strip of zero width. One of the main advantages of the splitting test is that only external compressive loads are required. A cylindrical or prismatic specimen is compressed along two diametrically opposed generators so that a neatly uniform tensile stress is induced in the loading plane. To avoid local failure in compression at the loading generators, two thin strips, usually made of plywood, are placed between the loading platens and the specimen to distribute the load. The specimen fails by splitting because of the induced tensile stress state. The maximum value of the tensile stress, computed at failure from the theory of elasticity, is the splitting tensile strength, ordinarily assumed in the standards to be a material property. The splitting test is simple to perform and gives more uniform results than other tension tests. The strength determined in the splitting test is believed to be closer to the true tensile strength of concrete than the modulus of rupture the splitting strength is 5 to 12 percent higher than the direct tensile strength. It has been suggested, however, that in the case of mortar and lightweight aggregate concrete, the splitting test yields too low a result. With normal aggregate, the presence of large particles near the surface to which the load is applied may influence the behaviour. According to Minders et al, 2003 as the age and strength increase the ratio of tensile to compressive strength decreases (figure ..) Probably due to the effect of drying shrinkage cracks air curing when compared with moist curing reduces the tensile strength more than the compressive strength.

вторник, 12 ноября 2019 г.

Antigone Essay -- English Literature

Antigone Essay In any story or piece of literature, there will always be the main characters to fill the pages with incessant adventure. The characters whose names appear on almost every page and the characters whose actions the story revolves around. However, a story will also always have its minor characters. These are the characters that contribute heavily to the plot, yet aren't mentioned quite as often and are underestimated regarding their importance in the story. In the Greek masterpiece, Antigone, the author Sophocles construed a myriad of minor characters that contributed to the story in numerous ways. Ismene, one of Oedipus' daughters, was created to foil the main character, Antigone. Haemon, the son of Creon, took the role of adding controversy and showing his father revenge for all the trouble he caused Thebes. And finally, Tiresias, an elderly blind prophet, was constructed to diminish Creon's hubris. Firstly, Ismene's character was created primarily to foil that of Antigone's. When Antigone initially discussed her plans to contest the King's orders, Ismene was against it and tried to argue with her sister, hoping to dispel the plan from her mind. In lines 71-74, Ismene states during her argument, "think what a death we'll die, the worst of all if we violate the laws and override the fixed decree of the throne, it's power- we must be sensible." During the entire story the two characters have obvious opposing views and personalities. Ismene is discerned as rational, cautious, and dutiful, while Antigone is conveyed as intractable, brave, and disobedient. Another example of the discrepancy between the characters is the way that they are physically represented. Sophocles generated Ismene w... ...ty fits together like a puzzle. For example, without those blank sky pieces that fit at the top of a puzzle, it can never be completed. Same rule applies to any story, without the minor characters to reveal hidden information or to simple add drama, then a story can never be completed. In the Greek tragedy, Antigone, the author, Sophocles, presents the minor characters in his story with important functions and responsibilities. Ismene, Antigone's sister, had the purpose of foiling Antigone in order to create undeclared confliction between the characters. Haemon, Antigone's fiancÃÆ'Â ©e, was meant to bring justification to the string of deaths at the end of the story. And lastly, Tiresias, the respected prophet, was carefully produced as the character who pushed Creon's conscious over the edge and influenced him the most to withdraw his punishment for Antigone.

воскресенье, 10 ноября 2019 г.

Disadvantages of the studying abroad Essay

The studying abroad is the problem of youth of Kazakhstan The most difficult for a young person is looking for profitable occupation.  «Do you speak English?  » – a question that can be heard at any companies even they are not foreign ones in our country. And if you confidently answer  «Yes, I do!  », you will be supplied with the high-salaried job. It will be good chance for you to take a place in a prestigious company and develop yourself. English language is the most important language in the world, because it is so widely spoken, it has often been referred to as a â€Å"world language†. As English is an world language, it is the very first problem to know English to make a good carrier. It is expected to know it. They think if they are taught abroad, they will be chosen without any difficulties for this or that position. This necessity leads them to abroad to study. Is it right? However, do you need to study abroad to make a brilliant carrier? Cannot we gain it studying at home? â€Å"Bolashak† is the president’s program for youth of Kazakhstan. It gives a good chance to study abroad for everyone. Even the president of our country supports the study abroad. During the 20 years, there were studied thousands of students and most of them work at the state influential companies. However, do not forget about disadvantages. For 20 -year history of the program 333 people could not complete training – mainly because of their own poor progress while getting knowledge, and 47 students of Bolashak did not return to Kazakhstan. About 300 graduates could not find work at home. Does the president want this? â€Å"Tens of millions of dollars we spend on overseas training, and thus, of course support the foreign universities. Let’s maintain ours† President of Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev President of the Center of International Program â€Å"Bolashak† Sayasat Nurbek reported about unemployment of youth of our country. According to him, about 300 graduate students â€Å"Bolashak† program could not find work at home, despite the excellent education abroad. One reason is the factor of â€Å"high expectations†. â€Å"Students come to the country and believe to take a leadership position with a big salary and an official car. Alas, the real economy demands tough enough. We need employment experience and  understanding of the industry and the specifics of this particular production in Kazakhstan. For example, college graduate comes to us, and I have not been putting his department director since he took the necessary steps to understand the specifics of the industry well even he has an excellent education.† President of the Center for International Programs † Bolashak † Sayasat Nurbek Recall, at the 9th of February, deputy of Majilis Saginbek Tursunov offered to employ graduates of † Bolashak † at the public authorities. Parliamentarian doubted â€Å"whether it is necessary to continue this program and further† as part of the students cannot find work at home. Nowadays, many people continue their studies outside of their country. They think that educations in other countries is better than in their own country. In the world, many students are continuing their studies overseas. For example; Australia, Malaysia, Singapore, China and USA are the most favorite countries to study. It is believed that the studying abroad is the most significant way to improve your world view. Also the studying abroad gives many students a kind of prestige in their home country. There are some students who want to study abroad because of the pure pleasure and excitement it brings. But living in a foreign country might be difficult at times. As I mentioned before studying abroad has advantages, however it has some disadvantages on students. Some of the disadvantages are being away from your country, spending too much money. The first disadvantage is spending too much money. As Calvin (2007) mentioned â€Å"For students who want the opportunity to study overseas during their time in college, the cost of doing so can seem daunting. According to the Education Abroad Center, studying abroad in China costs $8000. Italy? $10, 000. Paris? Up to $15,000 â€Å". Also as my friend Dosan Nursultan, student of SEGI University in Malaysia, said â€Å"The single ticket for a flight from Malaysia to Almaty costs 90 000 tenge. Return ticket is 180 000 tenge. So, not all can take liberties.† But also many students say that studying abroad is not expensive. They think, it is normal to spend that much money for studying in a foreign country. In my opinion, there is no doubt that it takes money to  study abroad. It all depends on a person, because even if person goes to a foreign country it does not guarantee that this person will have successful future in life. If person has a goal of getting education, he will do whatever it takes to achieve this goal and it does not matter whether he is studying in his homeland or abroad. On the other hand, you can travel in the world with that much money and you could have more world outlook than you would have studying. The second disadvantage of studying in a foreign country is being away from your family. From my perspective, living in a foreign country, even if it is with a host family, means you might be doing things you may not have done in your home country. These include cooking, cleaning, grocery shopping, washing clothes, figuring out transportation, making living arrangements, setting up accounts for cell phones and utilities, etc. those are just some of examples of disadvantage of being away from your family. There are many opinions, which shows being away from family is a wonderful experience for everyone and it could be a wonderful opportunity to be independent. Also, there are a lot of sit uations when teenagers where so overwhelmed with living on their own, without parent control, so they started bad habits. It is third disadvantage. For example, skipping classes, constant pub visit. â€Å"We send bachelors, but they do not suit us, because the low level of training due to the fact that English is learned in the pub, that they were not the best specialists. â€Å"Bolashakers† are different, so we basically take smart, but they are not so much, â€Å"- said Talgat Musabaev at a cabinet meeting on Tuesday. I think he wanted to say about the â€Å"independent† of our students in other countries. The next disadvantage is culture shock. The trauma you experience when you move into a culture different from your home culture. A communication problem that involves the frustrations that come with the lack of understanding; the verbal and nonverbal communication of the new culture, it’s customs and it’s value systems are only a few of the problems. The differences that people may experience include lack of food, unacceptable standards of cleanliness, different bathroom facilities and fear of p ersonal safety. In addition, you will probably have times when you miss your family, friends, food, and everything familiar. Almost everyone goes through some culture shock. When you realize that it is impossible to be at home any time you want, you will understand how difficult being away from your family is. It is a time for  learning and experimentation, and it’s also a time to build your responsibility and sense of self-direction. Overall, it’s a time of discovery and that’s why it’s easy to follow â€Å"influences†. Keep in mind that they grow up in another culture, and I am afraid they will forget their own nation, own Kazakh culture. Teenagers are easily influenced by others. The influences may adversely affect their view of the world as no parents giving them advice. Ambitious young people without life experience can join extremist communities. It is hard to resist â€Å"influences† of all sorts. Most of them are not related to violence. For example in Germany, they use Neo-Nazis music to attract young people or foreign students to join into extremist groups. That is why the parent should control their children, because you do not know what awaits you on border out of the country. The last is studying in a second language. Many people think that studying your major in another language is wonderful for everyone. There are many students who want to go to other countries to learn another language. That is not true for me because you can learn the language in your country. Also many people think that they just need to live in another country and they will learn the local language, but this is not completely true. You still need to pay attention and study. There are people who live in foreign countries for many years without knowing the language well. You have to learn some information about language when you are in high school. On the other hand, studying university is the most difficult part of education. Many people are not able to study at a university even if they study in their native language. For international student it is really hard to study at a university in a foreign country. Because of the difficulties in learning, they can keep up with the program and can complete their education. If I do not trust my ability to communicate, I would prefer to study in my country. In my opinion, the educational system in our country is improving from year to year. In conclusion, everything has two sides: advantages and disadvantages. Each of us should accept that studying abroad has good sides as well as bad one. For sure many students would get over all those disadvantages but how about others who might not be able to handle all of them. It might not be good choice to study abroad for all students. They have to figure it out before they leave their country. Otherwise, those issues would affect all your life with failure. Studying abroad is a good  opportunity to chose, but the advantages and disadvantages must be weighed very carefully before a student leaves the country.

пятница, 8 ноября 2019 г.

Pablo Picasso Essays - Pablo Picasso, Art Movements, Modern Art

Pablo Picasso Essays - Pablo Picasso, Art Movements, Modern Art Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso Picasso, Pablo Ruiz y (1881-1973), Spanish painter and sculptor, is considered one of the greatest artist of the 20th century. He was a inventor of forms, innovator of styles and techniques, a master of various media, and one of the most prolific artists in history. He created more than 20,000 works. Training and Early Work Picasso was Born in Mlaga on October 25, 1881, he was the son of Jos Ruiz Blasco, an art teacher, and Mara Picasso y Lopez. Until 1898 he always used his father's name, Ruiz, and his mother's maiden name, Picasso, to sign his pictures. After about 1901 he dropped Ruiz and used his mother's maiden name to sign his pictures. At the age of 10 he made his first paintings, and at 15 he performed brilliantly on the entrance examinations to Barcelona's School of Fine Arts. His large academic canvas Science and Charity (1897, Picasso Museum, Barcelona), depicting a doctor, a nun, and a child at a sick woman's bedside, won a gold medal. Blue Period Between 1900 and 1902, Picasso made three trips to Paris, finally settling there in 1904. He found the city's bohemian street life fascinating, and his pictures of people in dance halls and cafs show how he learned the postimpressionism of the French painter Paul Gauguin and the symbolist painters called the Nabis. The themes of the French painters Edgar Degas and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, as well as the style of the latter, exerted the strongest influence. Picasso's Blue Room (1901, Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.) reflects the work of both these painters and, at the same time, shows his evolution toward the Blue Period, so called because various shades of blue dominated his work for the next few years. Expressing human misery, the paintings portray blind figures, beggars, alcoholics, and prostitutes, their somewhat elongated bodies reminiscent of works by the Spanish artist El Greco. Rose Period Shortly after settling in Paris in a shabby building known as the Bateau-Lavoir (laundry barge, which it resembled), Picasso met Fernande Olivier, the first of many companions to influence the theme, style, and mood of his work. With this happy relationship, Picasso changed his palette to pinks and reds; the years 1904 and 1905 are thus called the Rose Period. Many of his subjects were drawn from the circus, which he visited several times a week; one such painting is Family of Saltimbanques (1905, National Gallery, Washington, D.C.). In the figure of the harlequin, Picasso represented his alter ego, a practice he repeated in later works as well. Dating from his first decade in Paris are friendships with the poet Max Jacob, the writer Guillaume Apollinaire, the art dealers Ambroise Vollard and Daniel Henry Kahnweiler, and the American expatriate writers Gertrude Stein and her brother Leo, who were his first important patrons; Picasso did portraits of them all. Protocubism In the summer of 1906, during Picasso's stay in Gsol, Spain, his work entered a new phase, marked by the influence of Greek, Iberian, and African art. His celebrated portrait of Gertrude Stein (1905-1906, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City) reveals a masklike treatment of her face. The key work of this early period, however, is Les demoiselles d'Avignon (1907, Museum of Modern Art, New York City), so radical in styleits picture surface resembling fractured glassthat it was not even understood by contemporary avant-garde painters and critics. Destroyed were spatial depth and the ideal form of the female nude, which Picasso restructured into harsh, angular planes. CubismAnalytic and Synthetic Inspired by the volumetric treatment of form by the French postimpressionist artist Paul Czanne, Picasso and the French artist Georges Braque painted landscapes in 1908 in a style later described by a critic as being made of little cubes, thus leading to the term cubism. Some of their paintings are so similar that it is difficult to tell them apart. Working together between 1908 and 1911, they were concerned with breaking down and analyzing form, and together they developed the first phase of cubism, known as analytic cubism. Monochromatic color schemes were favored in their depictions of radically fragmented motifs, whose several sides were shown simultaneously. Picasso's favorite subjects were musical instruments, still-life objects, and his friends; one famous

среда, 6 ноября 2019 г.

Conflict Management Case Study Essay Essays

Conflict Management Case Study Essay Essays Conflict Management Case Study Essay Essay Conflict Management Case Study Essay Essay What forms of interpersonal power are apparent in the instance and why? All five signifiers of interpersonal power appear in assorted parts of the instance survey. Coercive power is represented in the instance survey when John Lasseter began working for the Disney life studio and came to recognize that the powers that be expected nil but coercion from their employees. Peoples were expected to follow with the manner things have ever been done. New thoughts were neither encouraged nor supported. In add-on. top directors sought no input from employees. taking to do all determinations themselves. When Lasseter started working for Pixar. he experienced reward power. The work he completed for them was heralded and recognized by executives for his invention. His attitude revealed that he places less importance on pecuniary wages and more significance on the intrinsic wages of making a good occupation. Legitimate power is exemplified when Disney and Pixar merged. and as the standing top originative executive at Pixar Lasseter took on the duty for resuscitating life at Disney. His function as the originative manager gave him the legitimate power to do determinations sing a broad scope of subjects in his section. With the rubric of originative manager. he had the formal right to do demands and anticipate conformity from others in the section. Merely after Lasseter’s move to Pixar did he see referent power. This came after he gained executives’ and coworkers’ esteem for his life work. The progresss he brought to the company besides earned the regard and esteem of many. ensuing in an addition in referent power. In his old place at Disney. Lasseter had no referent power. Similar to the instance of the referent power. Lasseter gained adept power with his work at Pixar. The cognition. invention. and skill that Lasseter brought with him to Pixar immediately earned him this expert power. He was viewed as a cardinal participant in accomplishing invention because of his expertness in the country of life. In what ways do the two faces of power appear in the instance? The two faces of power. normally classified as organisational and personal. are apparent in a few different countries of Lasseter’s history with Disney and Pixar. The leading manner at his first place at Disney reflected the self-aggrandising personal face of power. chiefly perceived as holding a negative intension. The mute norm at Disney was that lower degree employees were to bow down to their higher-ups and obey their desires. Input signal from employees was non encouraged in any manner. The power that came with a higher place was frequently used for personal addition. In contrast. operations at Pixar demonstrated the organisational. positive face of power. This face of power is categorized as working for the greater good of the full organisation. wanting to function others. and working together to further productiveness ( Clements. 2014 ) . The squad at Pixar pooled their cognition and expertness to make groundbreaking computer-generated sketch life. From so on. Pixar saw many successes because of their ability to hone the organisational face of power. Alternatively of detering input and invention from employees at all degrees. Pixar urged this invention from employees. As shown with the instance of Lasseter at Pixar. they supported the promotion of his open uping thoughts for the benefit it would convey the full organisation. Their consideration was non in respect to personal addition. but instead additions for the organisation in entireness. Does the fire of John Lasseter from Disney Studios and the events taking to his firing show the ethical usage of power? John Lasseter’s expiration from Disney represented an unethical usage of power. The expiration was unjust and ungrounded ; it represented an unethical usage of power. This unethical usage of power began in anterior times taking up to his fire. when he was reprimanded for prosecuting new signifiers of computing machine life. The leading did non happen Lasseter’s proposals to be acceptable. mentioning the ground as the cost of production being excessively high. This claim was besides baseless. as Lasseter. himself. explained to executives that the cost was no higher than the current alive characteristics. However. executives at Disney shot down his thoughts and perceived his actions as being damaging to the organisation. Immediately after showing his thoughts. he was terminated from Disney. No grounds were cited for the expiration. there was no chance for dialogue. and conflict declaration was non attempted. The sequence of these events illustrate that Disney executives’ evidences for expiration were unethical. Their lone purpose was with respect to money. non back up of employees or invention of life. Make the fire of John Lasseter indicate the being of political behaviour in the Disney organisation? This instance is a great illustration of political behaviour within an organisation. The Disney organisation was structured in a manner that merely top leaders had decision-making authorization. In add-on. it is obvious that power battles were in drama throughout the organisation and money was a top consideration. Political behaviour is described absolutely in the instance survey when Lasseter explains that he was told. â€Å"You put in your clip for 20 old ages and make what you’re told. and so you can be in charge. † This type of behaviour in an organisation indicates that employees are expected to obey their higher-ups. that there is no credence of individuality. and that input is non to be given unless you are at the highest degree of direction. Describe a state of affairs. from your experience. where political behaviour in an organisation contributed to profit or detriment you or person else. In a old occupation. I worked in an environment where three other adult females had worked together already for many old ages. I felt as though political behaviour was in topographic point in that they had a preconceived thought of what the individual in my place would necessitate to conform to in order to win in the company. I proved to non suit this cast. From the beginning. I wanted to better undertakings so that they were done more expeditiously. save clip. and go more productive. The little alterations I made to procedures were non received good by these other adult females. They wanted to maintain everything the manner it already was. even if a more efficient method was available. Other people within the company welcomed the alterations. as it freed up clip that I could pass making other undertakings that would. in bend. salvage them clip. This was non the instance with my immediate director and her coworkers. Over clip. the tone in the office became more hostile and I felt like I could non delight them. One twenty-four hours. as I was acquiring ready for work. I received a phone call stating to non come in. that I was being terminated. There were no grounds for the expiration. and no other events taking to the expiration explained it except for the political behaviour in the office. Mentions Changing Minds. ( 2013 ) . Gallic and Raven’s signifiers of power. Retrieved fromhypertext transfer protocol: //changingminds. org/explanations/power/french_and_raven. htm Clements. C. A ; Washbush. J. ( 2014 ) . The two faces of leading. Techsis Investors. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. healthcarequities. com/pages/managment/2facesleader. hypertext markup language

воскресенье, 3 ноября 2019 г.

HUM310_LU2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

HUM310_LU2 - Essay Example iest way is to make our government entirely consistent with itself, and give to every loyal citizen the elective franchise, - a right and power which will be ever present, and will form a wall of fire for his protection’. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, racial discrimination was rampant and the whites maintained a racial divide within the society through deliberate use of powerful lobby of the whites and financial advantages that they enjoyed over their less privileged counterparts. Racial differences were very apparent in southern American states whereas the northern American colonies had considerably moved forward in terms of black population enjoying more rights and privileges. The slavery was motivated by the human selfishness and vested interests. So despite bill of civil rights and constitutional promulgation of abolition of slavery, the ground reality remained bleak for the blacks till the rebellion which forced the government to introduce more efficient and effective tools so that equal rights could be enjoyed by ever American citizen. The rebellion brought out the blacks in the forefront of American polity. It made Congress notice the continued oppression of the blacks and take appropriate action through legislative rights. The article is very succinct in claiming that ‘If with the negro was success in war, and without him failure, so in peace it will be found that the nation must fall or flourish with the negro’. The reconstruction of society that provides equality and basic human dignity of life has become vital for peaceful co-existence. The elected government must ensure the same. Indeed, the values have tremendously changed. The blacks are no more looked down by the hitherto privileged class. Equal opportunity has provided the masses with education and employment, considerably raising the living status of the blacks and the minority. Indeed, as the article asserts that ‘They want a reconstruction such as will protect loyal men,

пятница, 1 ноября 2019 г.

The Mexican-American War (1846-1848) Research Paper

The Mexican-American War (1846-1848) - Research Paper Example The Mexican-American war was declared by America on May 13, 1846. The war was generated by the United States’ annexation of Texas whose border was a matter of dispute between the two nations. By the time the war ended on February 2, 1848, the United states owned 500,000 square miles of Mexican territory . From the start, the subject of acquiring land being the main motive behind the war was a cause of dispute among many political parties of the United States and this caused political divisions in the nation. The Democratic Party members strongly supported the war as they were in favour of rapid territorial expansion beyond the borders of America. The northern parties did not favour such rapid expansion and they strongly opposed the war. These parties were concerned over how much Texan land to acquire because slavery was in practice in southern Mexico and this portion of the land was inhabited by a large number of Mexican population. The Whigs political party opposed the war be cause they were against such agenda of acquisition of more land; they favored slow territorial expansion and wanted to limit the encouragement of the practice of slavery. They also did not favor Mexicans as part of the United States population. Berhardt in his article focused on the press coverage of such difference of opinions among the political parties and how they shaped the war. J.G. Bennett’s New York Herald supported the views of the Southern Democrats of capturing the entire land of Mexico as it would raise the practice of slavery

среда, 30 октября 2019 г.

Technology how it impacts us Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Technology how it impacts us - Essay Example Internet has proven to be fruit full in every walk of life, whether it is education, politics or economics, all fields have benefited from internet. In this writing, the focus will be on the positive and the negative impacts of technology on society. Technology has positively and negatively impacted the way human beings used to communicate, it has altered the meaning and limitations of socialization and technology has become a major part in every individual’s circumference. Body Since the advent of mobile phones, people have experienced a complete change in the way they used to communicate with each other. A major part of using a mobile phone is text messaging or in slang it is recognized as texting. Texting is text messaging is a term used to refer to the act of sending small messages from one mobile phone to another. On the core, texting may seem to be of great advantage as it has assisted people in sending tiny and timely information from one end to another within a matter of seconds. But texting has negatively impacted the way people use language and has damage the real essence of English language. When teenagers text, they use abbreviations for several words just to make sure that they can send as much information as possible in a very limited amount of space. Examples of abbreviations used includes: (u for you), (k for okay) and (brb for be right back). On the surface, these abbreviation may seem trendy and cool but in reality these abbreviations are destroying how people used to converse. These abbreviations are even negatively impacting an individual’s learning of English language. Technological advancements have made communication and transactions faster and easier than they used to be. For example: the spread of social media networks, where millions of people come together and communicate and conduct transactions with each other within a very small period of time. Such technologies have assisted individuals in connecting with people acro ss the boundary of their regions, this has further assisted people in knowing and learning about other cultures and what is happening around the world. Similarly, computers which happen to be a part of almost every household and every business have evolved from being slow to being thousand times faster. These fast paced computers have increased productivity of businesses as no longer people need to manually maintain records and keep them safe. Now people no longer have to waste time to go to an outlet and purchase goods and services for themselves, introduction of online shopping facilities have allowed people to buy and sell goods while sitting and relaxing at their homes. Although technology has sped up the transaction and the communication process and has made these processes easier and simpler, but these technologies are ruining the society and especially negatively impacting the youth which happens to be the base of any nation’s success. Teenagers have started becoming a ddicts of technology; they experience similar issues that are experienced by drug abusers if they fail to abuse drugs. They feel that a major part of their life is lost and they believe that without technology such as mobile phones they cannot live at all. Now people spend hours and hours sitting at home talking to their friends over the cell phone instead of going out and meeting up with friends for a simple chat or for the sake of having breakfast.