понедельник, 30 сентября 2019 г.
As the scenes of Ã¢â¬ËMacbethÃ¢â¬â¢, is slowly scene by scene revealed to the audience; Shakespeare wittily shows MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s personality as two different characters, the victim,to Lady Macbeth and the witches and as the villain, througout the play; but with both characters clearley portrayed so that one from the audience may say Macbeth is a victim to greater powers; Lady Macbeth, the witches and his own greed, wheras another may say Macbeth is a villain, who was happy of committing all the bad deeds doing so with his own free will, with various points to confirm their views. Initially, right from the start we hear of MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s goodness before we even meet him; Ã¢â¬Å"good and hardy soldierÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬ Brave cousinÃ¢â¬ all show how brave Macbeth is and how he is patriotic, which obviously a villain wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be, caring, loving or doing anything for their country; they would be caring for themselves and their needs, someone who loves their country will not try and kill the king of the country, especailly a king like Duncan; who was always thinking of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and views first. Secondly, the fact that Macbeth wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t so sure on the plan that Lady Macbeth suggested; because even though he had suggested killing Duncan, right before the murder he was thinking about how bad the deed is,he was very confused and he decided not to the deed but it was under the influence of Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s greed that he gave in and committed the inhuman act; Ã¢â¬ And live a coward in thine own esteem,Ã¢â¬ which attached MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s masculinity and so therefore Macbeth becomes so angry that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really do the deed with his own free will, anger drove him to do it. Furthermore the fact that he actually thinks and lists the positive and the negative sides of doing the deed or not shows unlike villains he does have a Ã¢â¬ËhumanÃ¢â¬â¢ side and that he does care and know about right and wrong; as he thinks to himself Ã¢â¬ HeÃ¢â¬â¢s here in double trust; First as I am his kinsman and his subject Strong both against the deed; then as his host Who should against his murder shut the door, Not bear the knife himself.Ã¢â¬ This shows that he feels guilty about this; and because of this, he decides that he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t kill Duncan, but Lady Macbeth persuades him, which further proves that he is a victim. Macbeth was also under the influence of the three witches; because they appeared so inhuman and magical, Ã¢â¬ Speak if you can What are you?Ã¢â¬ that when Macbeth heard the predictions he thought as the first prediction Ã¢â¬ All hail Macbeth, hail to thee Thane of Glamis.Ã¢â¬ , and the second prediction Ã¢â¬ All hail Macbeth, hail to thee Thane of Cawdor,Ã¢â¬ both seemed and came true, so Macbeth thought why wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t the third Ã¢â¬ All hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter!Ã¢â¬ come true? Did not the witches speak words of wisdom before with the other two predictions? DonÃ¢â¬â¢t they seem magical? So Macbeth was victim to the witches throughout the play, thinking about their encounter. If the witches and Macbeth hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t met, Macbeth wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have killed Duncan, Banquo and nor would he have committed all the bad deeds he did. The fact that Lady Macbeth, to add on to MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of manliness gives an example as to what she can do if sheÃ¢â¬â¢s promised to do something Ã¢â¬ Have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums, and dashed the brains out, had I so sworn as you have done to this.Ã¢â¬ She says this to make him angry and feel ashamed of lacking masculinity so therefore in order to prove he isnÃ¢â¬â¢t to himself and to Lady Macbeth he becomes determined and does the deed. Moreover at the end, when Macbeth dies you can see clearley he is a victim who has lost everything, power, family,life the fact that Macbeth is totally disheartened shows he is really upset and (to the audience) seems like a victim. On the other hand, Macbeth can also be thought of a villain, there are many points in the play as to how this is proven. When the three weird sisters are making their last prediction Ã¢â¬ All hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafterÃ¢â¬ his villainous mind quickly starts thinking of the possibilities of becoming king and how to reach this; he immediately suggests this plan to his wife, when she suggests the plans Macbeth immediately agrees to it also when she asks him to leave everything upto her Ã¢â¬ Leave all the rest to meÃ¢â¬ he agrees to it all. Furthermore if Macbeth wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a villain he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been persuaded so easily to kill Duncan; even though women in shakesperean time were supposed to be weak and lesser then men Macbeth chose to listen to his wife, which in Shakesperean time men wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do. Additionally, after Macbeth killed Duncan instead of learning from and not sinning anymore he carries on to think and plan about killing Banquo his close friend; because Banquo was starting to suspect Macbeth and the fact that BanquoÃ¢â¬â¢s sons would be kings. It is a villainous deed to kill or attempt to kill your best friend and his son. MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s courage becomes so great he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even inform his wife Lady Macbeth when planning to kill Banquo and his son Fleance. Mostly when Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ people have a special power or belonging they try to be satisfied with it and not to want more, especailly if the way to achieve it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t good, wheras Macbeth through his actions constantly shows that he wants more power and that his greed is unstoppably growing, therefore proving he is a villain. Macbeth constantly tries to fight and control fate; instead of leaving it, enjoying and appreciating what he already has he goes to the witches the second time himself instead of avoiding them, Ã¢â¬ I conjure you, by that which you profess, However you come to know it, answer meÃ¢â¬ here he is clearly due to his greed desperate for some sort of Ã¢â¬Ësign or miracleÃ¢â¬â¢ to happen from the witches so fate is on his side again. Similarly like a general villain, Macbeth instead of worrying for his wife, Lady Macbeth, when the doctor tells him that Lady Macbeth is in need of a priest, Macbeth doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t ask for details he changed the subject to Scotland being in need of help; to add on to the point when Seyton brings the news that Lady Macbeth has finally died, Macbeth says Ã¢â¬Å"She should have died hereafter, There would have been a time for such a wordÃ¢â¬ this is one of the most cruelest responses anyone can give to a friendÃ¢â¬â¢s death let alone a wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s, it just shows how like other villains Macbeth is cold hearted and he has also started to be carried away with his power and greed that he actually states she should have died later in a more appropriate time; which further proves he really has no feelings, which relates to him being a villain. Consequently, I think that overall Macbeth is both a victim and villain; as there are many points to prove both views but isnÃ¢â¬â¢t definitely one (a victim or a villain) but a mixture of both. The fact that at the end Macbeth is so sure of the witchesÃ¢â¬â¢ predictions show that he is a victim; and a villain for believing what three weird sisters have said, for no proof of what they are but only because theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve said something beneficial to him. Without one victimised deed he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have done a villainous deed and the same the other way round, Macbeth is both a victim and a villain just like some animals who can both be predator and prey.
воскресенье, 29 сентября 2019 г.
Ã¢â¬Å"A man doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t become a hero until he can see the root of his own downfallÃ¢â¬ Tragic heroÃ¢â¬â¢s who fit under AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s depiction are known as Ã¢â¬ËAristotelian Tragic HeroÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ and possess five specific characteristics; 1) A flaw or error of judgment (also known as Ã¢â¬ËhamartiaÃ¢â¬â¢ which is a fatal flaw leading to the downfall of a tragic hero or heroine) 2) A reversal of fortune due to the error of judgment (also known as Ã¢â¬ËperipeteiaÃ¢â¬â¢, which is a sudden reversal of fortune or change in circumstances) 3) The discovery or recognition that the reversal was brought about by the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s own actions (Referred to as Ã¢â¬ËanagnorisisÃ¢â¬â¢, which is a moment in a play when a character makes a critical discovery) 4) Excessive pride (hubris) 5) The characterÃ¢â¬â¢s fate must be greater than deservedÃ¢â¬â¢. In the beginning, the character must be seen as equal morally to normal people in order for the audience to identify with him/her. This identification allows the sentiment of Ã¢â¬ËpityÃ¢â¬â¢ which is crucial in a tragic play. The Aristotelian tragic hero inevitably suffers a tragic death, having fallen from great heights and made an irreversible mistake. The hero must courageously accept their death with honour. Other common traits of the Aristotelian tragic hero: a) Hero must suffer more than he deserves b) Hero must be doomed from the start, but bears no responsibility for possessing his flaw. c) Hero must be noble in nature, but be imperfect so that the audience can see themselves in him. d) Hero must have discovered his fate by his own actions, not by things happening to him. e) Hero must understand his doom, as well as the fact that his fate was discovered by his own actions. f) HeroÃ¢â¬â¢s story should arouse fear and empathy. g) Hero must be physically or spiritually wounded by his experiences, usually resulting in his death. h) The hero must be intelligent so that he may learn from his mistakes. i) The hero must have a weakness, usually, it is pride. j) He must be faced with a very serious decision that he must face. Aristotle identifies tragedy as the most refined version of poetry dealing with lofty matters and comedy as the most refined version of poetry dealing with base matters. He traces a brief and speculative history of tragedy as it evolved from dithyrambic hymns in praise of the god Dionysus. Dithyrambs were sung by a large choir, sometimes featuring a narrator. Aeschylus invented tragedy by bringing a second actor into dialogue with the narrator. Sophocles innovated further by introducing a third actor, and gradually tragedy shifted to its contemporary dramatic form. Aristotle defines tragedy according to seven characteristics: (1) it is mimetic, (2) it is serious, (3) it tells a full story of an appropriate length, (4) it contains rhythm and harmony, (5) rhythm and harmony occur in different combinations in different parts of the tragedy, (6) it is performed rather than narrated, and (7) it arouses feelings of pity and fear and then purges these feelings through catharsis. A tragedy c onsists of six component parts, which are listed here in order from most important to least important: plot, character, thought, diction, melody, and spectacle. A well-formed plot must have a beginning, which is not a necessary consequence of any previous action; a middle, which follows logically from the beginning; and an end, which follows logically from the middle and from which no further action necessarily follows. The plot should be unified, meaning that every element of the plot should tie in to the rest of the plot, leaving no loose ends. This kind of unity allows tragedy to express universal themes powerfully, which makes it superior to history, which can only talk about particular events. Episodic plots are bad because there is no necessity to the sequence of events. The best kind of plot contains surprises, but surprises that, in retrospect, fit logically into the sequence of events. The best kinds of surprises are brought about by peripeteia, or reversal of fortune, and anagnorisis, or discovery. A good plot progresses like a knot that is tied up with increasingly greater complexity until the moment of peripeteia, at which point the knot is gradually untied until it reaches a completely unknotted conclusion. For a tragedy to arouse pity and fear, we must observe a hero who is relatively noble going from happiness to misery as a result of error on the part of the hero. Our pity and fear is aroused most when it is family members who harm one another rather than enemies orÃ strangers. In the best kind of plot, one character narrowly avoids killing a family member unwittingly thanks to an anagnorisis that reveals the family connection. The hero must have good qualities appropriate to his or her station and should be portrayed realistically and consistently. Since both the character of the hero and the plot must have logical consistency, Aristotle concludes that the untying of the plot must follow as a necessary consequence of the plot and not from stage artifice, like a deus ex machina (a machine used in some plays, in which an actor playing one of the gods was lowered onto the stage at the end). Aristotle discusses thought and diction and then moves on to address epic poetry. Whereas tragedy consists of actions presented in a dramatic form, epic poetry consists of verse presented in a narrative form. Tragedy and epic poetry have many common qualities, most notably the unity of plot and similar subject matter. However, epic poetry can be longer than tragedy, and because it is not performed, it can deal with more fantastic action with a much wider scope. By contrast, tragedy can be more focused and takes advantage of the devices of music and spectacle. Epic poetry and tragedy are also written in different meters. After defending poetry against charges that it deals with improbable or impossible events, Aristotle concludes by weighing tragedy against epic poetry and determining that tragedy is on the whole superior. Aristotle takes a scientific approach to poetry, which bears as many disadvantages as advantages. He studies poetry as he would a natural phenomenon, observing and analyzing first, and only afterward making tentative hypotheses and recommendation s. The scientific approach works best at identifying the objective, lawlike behavior that underlies the phenomena being observed. To this end, Aristotle draws some important general conclusions about the nature of poetry and how it achieves its effects. However, in assuming that there are objective laws underlying poetry, Aristotle fails to appreciate the ways in which art often progresses precisely by overturning the assumed laws of a previous generation. If every play were written in strict accordance with a given set of laws for a long enough time, a revolutionary playwright would be able to achieve powerful effects by consciously violating these laws. In point of fact, Euripides, the last of the three great tragic poets of Ancient Greece, wrote many plays that violated the logical and structured principles ofÃ AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Poetics in a conscious effort to depict a world that he saw as neither logical nor structured. Aristotle himself gives mixed reviews to EuripidesÃ¢â¬â¢ troubling plays, but they are still performed two and a half millennia after they were written. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of mimesis helps him to explain what is distinctive about our experience of art. Poetry is mimetic, meaning that it invites us to imagine its subject matter as real while acknowledging that it is in fact fictional. When Aristotle contrasts poetry with philosophy, his point is not so much that poetry is mimetic because it portrays what is real while philosophy is nonmimetic because it portrays only ideas. Rather, the point is that the ideas discussed in philosophical texts are as real as any ideas ever are. When we see an actor playing Oedipus, this actor is clearly a substitute through which we can imagine what a real Oedipus might be like. When we read AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas on art, we are in direct contact with the ideas, and there is nothing more real to imagine. Art presents reality at one level of remove, allowing us a certain detachment. We do not call the police when we see Hamlet kill Polonius because we know that we are not seeing a real event but only two actors imitating real-world possibilities. Because we are conscious of the mimesis involved in art, we are detached enough that we can reflect on what we are experiencing and so learn from it. Witnessing a murder in real life is emotionally scarring. Witnessing a murder on stage gives us a chance to reflect on the nature and causes of human violence so that we can lead a more reflective and sensitive life. Aristotle identifies catharsis as the distinctive experience of art, though it is not clear whether he means that catharsis is the purpose of art or simply an effect. The Greek word katharsis originally means purging or purification and refers also to the induction of vomiting by a doctor to rid the body of impurities. Aristotle uses the term metaphorically to refer to the release of the emotions of pity and fear built up in a dramatic performance. Because dramatic performances end, whereas life goes on, we can let go of the tension that builds during a dramatic performance in a way that we often cannot let go of the tension that builds up over the course of our lives. Because we can let go of it, the emotional intensity of art deepens us, whereas emotional intensity in life often just hardens us. However, if this process of catharsis that allows us to experience powerful emotions and thenÃ let them go is the ultimate purpose of art, then art becomes the equivalent of therapy. If we define catharsis as the purpose of art, we have failed to define art in a way that explains why it is still necessary in an era of psychiatry. A more generous reading of Aristotle might interpret catharsis as a means to a less easily defined end, which involves a deeper capacity for feeling and compassion, a deeper awareness of what our humanity consists in. Aristotle insists on the primacy of plot because the plot is ultimately what we can learn from in a piece of art. The word we translate as Ã¢â¬Å"plotÃ¢â¬ is the Greek wordmuthos, which is the root for myth. Muthos is a more general term than plot, as it can apply to any art form, including music or sculpture. The muthos of a piece of art is its general structure and organization, the form according to which the themes and ideas in the piece of art make themselves apparent. The plot of a story, as the term is used in the Poetics, is not the sequence of events so much as the logical relationships that exist between events. For Aristotle, the tighter the logical relationships between events, the better the plot. Oedipus Rex is a powerful tragedy precisely because we can see the logical inevitability with which the events in the story fall together. The logical relationships between events in a story help us to perceive logical relationships between the events in our own lives. In essence, tragedy shows us patterns in human experience that we can then use to make sense of our own experience.
суббота, 28 сентября 2019 г.
Introduction In English 92 professional football clubs are registered in 4 divisions. There are 20 clubs in the Premiership League, which is the first division league, below Premiership League, there is a League called Championship League, which is the second division league and there are 24 teams, the third division league is called League One even though it is not the first division and there are also 24 clubs, and the bottom league is called League Two and 24 teams are registered. Today, it is said that the English Premiership League is the wealthiest league in the world. If you are football lover Roman Abramovich is the name you would certainly know, who is one of the most famous owners in England or even in the world. He was named Person of the Year in 2003, and now he is ninth richest person in Russia and fifty-third richest in the world. He is estimated to have had invested in Chelsea Football Club more than 440 million pounds since he took over in June 2003 until January 2006. Moreover, Abramovich spent 50 million pounds for a record British transfer fee on Spanish footballer Fernando Torres in January this year. There was also big takeover of the club ownership in August 2008. Manchester City Football Club was purchased by Abu Dhabi United Group who is a United Arab equity company owned by Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan, member of the Abu Dhabi Royal Family and Minister of Presidential Affairs for the UAE. After the takeover they immediately signed high profile players such as Robinho for a British record of 32. 5 million pounds at that time. Following year Manchester City spent more than 100 million pounds on players. For one of the most famous football club Manchester United Football Club, they are ranked the third richest football club in the world. English football is not all about money. Of course the quality of football is undoubtedly at the top level but what is making English football more exciting is football fans in England. It is said that the football fans are very passionate and fanatical. On the other hand, their excessive passion towards their local football club sometimes make things very dangerous. Their excessive acts eventually lead to hooliganism. 1985, there was a controversial incident in Brussels when Liverpool Football Club played against Italian team Juventus in Champions League, and 39 people were killed and 400 people were injured in this tragedy. In this case study, we will look deep into the economy of major football clubs such as Chelsea and Manchester United as well as Manchester City. We will also look into history of hooliganism. Introduction of Professional English Football As it is briefly explained in Introduction, Professional English Football League is formed with ninety-two clubs divided in four leagues. There are twenty teams in the top league, English Premiership, the Premiership clubs are as follow: Arsenal Football Club, Aston Villa Football Club, Blackburn Rovers Football Club, Bolton Wanderers Football Club, Chelsea Football Club, Everton Football Club, Fulham Football Club, Liverpool Football Club, Manchester City Football Club, Manchester United Football Club, Newcastle United Football Club, Norwich City Football Club, QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s Park Rangers Football Club, Stoke City Football Club, Sunderland Association Football Club, Swansea City Football Club, Tottenham Hotspur Football Club, West Bromwich Albion Football Club, Wigan Athletic Football Club, and Wolverhampton Wanderers Manchester United won the league in 10-11 season. On the other hand, there was an intense relegation battle in Premiership League. In Premiership League regulation, three teams automatically go down to the league below, which is Championship League. Bottom three of season 10-11 were West Ham United Football Club, Blackpool Football Club, and Birmingham City Football Club For the Championship League, there are twenty-four teams, the teams who belong to Championship League season 11-12 are: Barnsley Football Club, Birmingham City Football Club, Black Pool Football Club, Brighton & Hove Albion Football Club, Bristol City Football Club, Burnley Football Club, Cardiff City Football Club, Coventry City Football Club, Crystal Palace Football Club, Derby County Football Club, Doncaster Rovers Football Club, Hull City Football Club, Ipswich Town Football Club, Leeds United Football Club, Leicester City Football Club, Middlesbrough Football Club, Millwall Football Club, Nottingham Forest Football Club, Peterborough United Football Club, Portsmouth Football Club, Reading Football Club, Southampton Football Club, Watford Football Club, and West Ham United Football Club For the League 1, there are also twenty-four teams, the teams in League 1 are: Association Football Club Bournemouth, Brentford Football Club, Bury Football Club, Carlisle United Football Club, Charlton Athletic Football Club, Chesterfield Football Club, Colchester United Football Club, Exeter City Football Club, Hartlepool United Football Club, Huddersfield Town Football Club, Leyton Orient Football Club, Milton Keynes Dons Football Club, Notts County Football Club, Oldham Athletic Association Football Club, Preston North End Football Club, Rochdale Association Football Club, Scunthorpe United Football Club, Sheffield United Football Club, Sheffield Wednesday Football Club, Stevenage Football Club, Tranmere Rovers Football Club, Walsall Football Club, Wycombe Wanderers Football Club, and Yeovil Town Football Club For the League 2, again, there are also twenty-four teams, the teams in the League 2 are: Association Football Club Wimbledon, Accrington Stanley Football Club, Aldershot Town Football Club, Barnet Football Club, Bradford City Association Football Clu b, Bristol Rovers Football Club, Burton Albion Football Club, Cheltenham Town Football Club, Crawley Town Football Club, Crewe Alexandra Football Club, Dagenham & Redbridge Football Club, Gillingham Football Club, Hereford United Football Club, Macclesfield Town Football Club, Morecambe Football Club, Northampton Town Football Club, Oxford United Football Club, Plymouth Argyle Football Club, Port Vale Football Club, Rotherham United Football Club, Shrewsbury Town Football Club, Southend United Football Club, Swindon Town Football Club, and Torquay United Football Club History Of Hooliganism in football The hooliganism in football is said to be first introduced around 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. Historical hooligans were called Ã¢â¬Å"roughsÃ¢â¬ . They caused trouble at matches throughout the 19th century. Some extreme cases the roughs attacked referees and visiting players. In the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s football as a sport began to get more media attention, so did the fights and disorder. In the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s hooligans were more organized than it is today. We do not see outrageous incident frequently nowadays. European Cup final in 1985, when Liverpool against Italian side Juventus at Heysel Stadium in Brussels, Belgium, 39 fans mostly Italian were killed. English clubs were banned from participating in European Cup for five years, and Liverpool were initially banned for 10 years but later reduced to six years. 14 of Liverpool fans received conviction for involuntary manslaughter. What Makes A Person Hooligan Name of hooligan is said to come from the Irish word Ã¢â¬Å"houlieÃ¢â¬ , which means a wild and spirited party. Definition of hooligans is quite vague, this is because the word Ã¢â¬Å"hooliganÃ¢â¬ was created by media in 60's. On the dictionary, it is stated Ã¢â¬Å"rough and lawless youthÃ¢â¬ . However, this statement does not really explain who the hooligans are in football. Hooligans come to watch the game with extremely strong local prides. This kind of extreme fans does not appreciate away fans to come in to their local territories. Hooligans usually have strong feelings towards their supporting club. On top of that, hooligans love and enjoy to be involved in football disorder that they come to matches with intention of riot, which they think it cool to do. Most of the times, the incidents happen before or after the matches on the street or in pubs. There are three types of hooligans: 1. Hooligans who come to a match with intention of vandalizing. 2. Hooligans who do not make themselves get involved in actual violence but set up commotion. 3. Hooligans who do not start a riot by themselves but get involved in a riot by seeing others are doing so. From our point of view, hooligans are who disrupt the peace of matches and vandalize both away fans and policemen, and properties around and inside the stadium such as cars, pubs, and houses. In terms of organized violence between hooligan gangs, a feeling of community, tribalism, and enjoyment of being involved in disorder are obviously in evidence. Can The Football Hooliganism Be Defeated The approach taken by the British authorities to reducing football hooliganism has been largely reactive: Increasing sophisticated policing, surveillance and monitoring techniques, segregation of fans, and restriction on alcohol etc. The British Government has also introduced specific legislation to cover acts of hooliganism. While such measures are evident elsewhere in Europe, the German, Dutch, and Belgian authorities, in particular, have been more proactive in their approach to the problem. The development of a scheme called Ã¢â¬Å"fanÃ¢â¬â¢s coachingÃ¢â¬ appears to have had an impact on levels of violence in certain areas. There is, however, a general lack of initiative from the major football clubs in Europe. While German clubs are involved to an extent in the Ã¢â¬Å"fan coachingÃ¢â¬ schemes, elsewhere there is little contact between club officials and the fan groups. For instance, Urawa Reds have a strong bond between club officials and supporters. It is suggested that local Ã¢â¬Å"fanÃ¢â¬â¢s forumsÃ¢â¬ , which allow genuine dialogue between officials and supporters may help to reduce some of the problems. Causes Football hooliganism and the Ã¢â¬ËultrasÃ¢â¬â¢ movement are too complex to be attributed to one cause only, yet there are several ways that lead down the path of violence. Most hooligan organizations are located in poor neighborhoods, where people have less opportunity for entertainment and they choose to go to football matches. Troubled with their lives, they prefer to spill their rage and anger on the pitch and on the stands instead of try and work on achieving more. A common cause for hooliganism in the past was alcohol but nowadays no professional club allows any kind of alcohol to be sold at the stadium or in a radius of several hundred meters. Another reason while people go wild during football games is city rivalries. The so-called derbies are often filled with a lot of excitement and tension and the losing teamÃ¢â¬â¢s supporters are not happy to see their team sink. There are also organized gangs called football firms that go to matches with the single purpose of fighting with other firms from the city rivals. Conclusion English football industry is very active in terms of the movement of money on playersÃ¢â¬â¢ transfers. As it has been mentioned, after the take-over of Manchester City Football Club in 2008, Abu Dhabi United Group has invested more than 44o million pounds on players. For the first transfer window, which was in summer 2008 after the take-over, Manchester City spent almost 79 million pounds. Following summer they spent almost twice as much of 120 million pounds. Last summer they spent around 90 million pounds. Having been taken over Manchester City have been better and better as a team. They finished 3rd last season, which means they are qualified to play at Champions League. The Background of Chelsea Football Club seem to be similar to Manchester City. Chelsea were purchased by Roman Abramovich who is a Russian Billionaire. Since the take-over in June 2003, Abramovich is estimated to have spent about 475 million pounds. On the first season for Abramovich Chelsea finished second in Premiership, and they concrete themselves as regular in top three. Next season Chelsea won the first league champion honour under new owner within two seasons. After the take-over by Abrmovich Chelsea have won three champion titles in total and they compete in Champions League every year. Unlike these two clubs, Arsenal have different kind of ownership. ArsenalÃ¢â¬â¢s parent company, Arsenal Holdings plc, operate as non-quoted public limited company. They have comparatively small amount of budget they can use on transfers. Each season Arsenal has been spending 10 million pounds. However, Arsenal is undoubtedly successful in terms of quality of football and players. The reason for this is that Arsenal have good eyes on prospective young players. Arsenal have been successful on players without investing enormous amount of money to win the title. Thiery Henry, Cesc Fabregas, and Jack Willshere are all grew under Arsenal manager Arsene Weger. In 03-04 season they managed to win the title, but one game at either Premiership or Champions League, starting players were all foreign players from outside the U. K. They had good young talents but from outside home country. There may be impression if the club is wealthy they can buy star players and they can eventually win the league. Like Manchester City and Chelsea they have been successful on transfers, they can relatively buy any player unless playersÃ¢â¬â¢ attached clubs refuse to negotiate. However, before it was only Chelsea who used to be rich as a club many expensive players went to Chelsea because of high salary but today, after Manchester CityÃ¢â¬â¢s take-over Chelsea and Manchester city seem to be in competition. There are also other foreign owners in Premiership, for instance, Aston Villa is now in hand of Randy Lerner who is also the owner of American Football team in America. Liverpool was also sold to New England Sports Ventures. Premiership seems such an attractive field in terms of business for foreigners. On the other hand, there are many clubs that go into administration. Crystal Palace and Portsmouth are the good example. Portsmouth went into administration during 09-10 season they were deducted nine points. Crystal Palace also went into administration last year and deducted ten points from Championship League. Premiership is said to be the richest League in the world, however, at the same time there is always a chance to fail big time as well. Media is always on hoe the money is moving within football field, but we have to see football substantially and know football is not all about money. Hooliganism Conclusion We have learned that many clubs are taking actions to combat this problem. This may be because if the supporters cause some incidents, destroy properties and injure people, that club will be heavily fined, and for the worst case, they would be banned to participate in a competition. As I have mentioned earlier, 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s was the peak of football hooliganism. It can be seen that actions taken by clubs has been successful, however, it is still difficult to zero the hooligans. Hooliganism is a part of the culture for British in particular. Furthermore, as long as the exaggerated media report this extent of football disorder excessively, there would still be people who will be influenced by it.
пятница, 27 сентября 2019 г.
My experience of significant stressor - Assignment Example Panic is one outcome of a stressful situation that numbs down any feasible accurate responses and overcoming it can be a challenge in itself. I was to catch a local flight from Bali to Jakarta and then fly back home through an international one. I arrived at the airport on time and since there was time left for the boarding side to open, I ended up reading a book on a nearby bench. Time went by and I was so consumed in the book that the boarding opened and I could not check in on time. I kept looking at the desk side but since there was no sign put up, I missed my chance to get the boarding pass. When I noticed that an awful lot of time had passed by and I checked with the main counter, I was told that the flights boarding was now closed and I had n option but to wait for the next flight available. I panicked and my heart beat went up. My stomach started to churn in an uncomfortable manner and I had no idea what to do. Even in an air conditioned airport, I felt like I was sweating and my palms were wet. My breathing was high and being clueless, I felt miserable. I gathered enough courage to have some water and calm my nerves. After settling down, I went to the help center to ask for the list of flights but unfortunately there were none available since it was a weekend and the flights were full. My immediate response was to inform my family back home and then to prepare myself for the delay. I managed to email my father about what had happened and then I kept checking the help desk to see if any flights had seats available. I managed to catch a flight to Jakarta but the situation that was created at that time was an unforgettable one. The stress that I faced during that time when the lady at the help desk informed me that there were no available seats for the next two days was unexplainable. After panicking for a while, I ended up thinking clearly and behaving accordingly instead of giving up and taking an incorrect
четверг, 26 сентября 2019 г.
IPhone Customer Satisfaction - Assignment Example The purpose for research into iPhone customer satisfaction of service and functions is to investigate why has it fallen from the number one ranking within the USA and UK market place. This research is crucial to the academic field as it will provide relevant information to the future researchers related to the satisfaction level of customers with iPhone. The research will help in providing information on the impact of customer services of iPhone on enhancing customer loyalty, thereby, enabling companies to be able to enhance the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction level by designing and developing highly innovative and attractive products. In addition, this research study will help in identifying any other key factor responsible for the decline and if the causes are from the macro or micro environments or if they are frequent. This will help Apple and other companies in coming up with strategies to tackle such declines.The research methods that have been adopted for this project include t he use of questionnaires and the secondary method in the form of literature review as well as face to face interview with the potential/current customers and potential clients.Ã An investigator has an obligation of ensuring that the subjects receive a full disclosure of the nature of the study, the risks, benefits and alternatives, as well as an extended opportunity to ask questions. As a result, the research took into account ethical considerations towards the respondents as well as the company researched. This was made evident in the questionnaire within the opening paragraph, to ensure the individual was immediately aware of the considerations and that the company was not harmed in any way with regards to the research undertaken.
Formula Analysis - Assignment Example When the element of violence was introduced was the point that the story slowly unfolded and moved on. It was evident in the film albeit being an animated feature geared to entertain the young that the element of violence had to be employed to spice things up. Without violence, there would not have been a story. Formulas, apparently, have not changed over the years. Movies still employ the Ã¢â¬Å"bad guy vs. good guyÃ¢â¬ plots. The bad guy brings menace to the good guy and his familyÃ¢â¬âanother staple factor to formulaic movies. Good guy defends his family to the deathÃ¢â¬âusually of bad guyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬âthus justifying the violent actions of good guy. Bag guy gets eliminated, but nobody knows what happened or where he had gone after. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s simply out of the picture. Nobody could care less as long as the protagonists are happy. The Incredibles, for instance, has the Parr FamilyÃ¢â¬âMr. Incredible, the dad; Elastigirl, the mom; and the kids Violet, Dash, and Jack-jackÃ¢â¬âpitted against Syndrome, the evil genius. The warmth of family versus the evil of cold revenge. Mr. Incredible ditches Syndrome as a young fan who wanted to be his partner. Young Syndrome exacts revenge years by trying to prove he can outdo Mr. IncredibleÃ¢â¬âto the extent of putting his family in grave danger. Viewers are made to consider violence as an integral and positive part of the movie for without which the Parr kids would not have been able to bring out the best in themselves. After all, if they had not been subjected to SyndromeÃ¢â¬â¢s menace, they would not have been able to rise above childish scuffles. And the consequent violenceÃ¢â¬âthe destruction of the villain SyndromeÃ¢â¬âis thereby justified. He is the Ã¢â¬Å"bad guyÃ¢â¬ after all. And as the clichÃ © goes, Ã¢â¬Å"they lived happily ever after.Ã¢â¬ The viewers are satisfied. Very formulaic. Yes, the formula, tiresome as it
среда, 25 сентября 2019 г.
Health Information Patient Handout - Assignment Example The frequency of the disease is towering and something needs to be done on it. Diabetes is a disease that is results from the incapacity of the human body to create insulin (Type 1) or use insulin effectively to control glucose levels in the blood cells and take it to the body cells (Peacock, 2011). When this happens, one develops a condition that is known as hyperglycemia which is a condition of high glucose levels in the blood. When the condition of hyperglycemia persists, it may lead to damage to the human heart, kidney failure, poor blood circulation as well as blindness (Peacock, 2011). Four out of ten patients suffering from Hyperglycemia develop long term complications of diabetes. They include damage to large blood vessels causing high blood pressure, heart attack and in some cases stroke. It may also lead to damage of small blood vessel leading to blindness, importance and kidney failure. Therefore the effects of Diabetes are catastrophic. Even though the single cause of diabetes is not clear, there are risk factors, both genetic and environmental that increases the likelihood of getting diabetes. On genetic risk factors, studies have shown that heredity can contribute to getting diabetes. Someone with a family account of diabetes, insulin resistance and obesity is likelier to suffer from the diseases that the one who does not have such history. Environmental risks such as obesity, exposure to cowÃ¢â¬â¢s milk proteins at infancy and auto antibodies puts one at risk of getting diabetes. Age and lifestyle also puts one at risk. Those above 55 have been found to have more cases of diabetes because of the inability of their body to respond to insulin. However this does not mean the young are not at risk. Several young people are obese and some lifestyles that are sedentary. Apart from the symptoms and complications associated with diabetes, the disease has implications such as cost of treatment, change
вторник, 24 сентября 2019 г.
Animal Farm - Essay Example VIRTUE BASED THEORY This ethical approach takes into consideration the different characters or parties to an event or an encounter and how they affect the interactions with other parties, either directly or indirectly. In this regard, it is evident that disparity in characters appears among various individuals. Good act may be presented by two people differently based on their characters. This therefore depicts ethics as the human nature one should strive to achieve, with specific characters such as being honest, kind, fair, faithful and generous among others being credited. Since these characters ensure harmonious interaction and co-existence among various parties, they are very appealing and appreciated. In a bid to achieve these qualities, one should act accordingly. In the Animal Farm, the deeds executed by various characters depicted either an adherence or non-adherence to the traits, a) Napolean treats other animals unfairly and strives to maintain his position as a leader thro ugh unfair ruling. He uses the nine dogs as a military weapon to intimidate other animals, which is not right as well as not directed towards achieving the ethical traits outlined above. b) Snowball is passionate and always strived to improve the welfare of other animals and works towards the achievement of the traits. c) Boxer is depicted as a strong character, who has dedication and loyalty in the improvement of the welfare of the members of the Animal Farm. d) Squealer is depicted as of unfit characters as he indulges himself in spreading propagandas, which are intended to ensure Napoleon retains leadership. e) Old Major is depicted as of good character through his leadership as well the vision of improving the welfare of the animals. f) Clover is of good character and is always observant of the commandment designated to govern the conduct of animals in the farm, is not pleased by violation of the laws by the pigs and blames herself for frequently forgetting the commandments. g) Moses is depicted to be of good faith by presentation of stories of the destination of the animals after their death. h) Mollie is depicted as a character that likes being treated fairly well by other, and is not involved in bad acts. i) Benjamin holds the opinion that life remains unchanged irrespective of who takes charge of leadership and always displays good characters in his undertakings j) Muriel is depicted as being very observant of the seven commandments, and thus depicts good character. k) Mr. Jones is depicted as an unjust leader, who does not take care of the welfare of the animals who suffer from lack of food. l) Mr. Fredrick is depicted as a person who is dedicated in his undertakings in a bid to ensure that perfection is derived from his undertakings m) Mr. Pilkington, is depicted as an easy-going character, an attribute not favoured in the virtue theory Consequentialism theory It asserts that an actionÃ¢â¬â¢s impacts or behavior determines the moral value of it. Me asuring the moral worth of an action or impact is the main concern in consequallism. This is because consequences may be approvable, natural or bad. In consequential theory, only the real affects matters. People or objects affected by the behavior and
понедельник, 23 сентября 2019 г.
Electoral college - Coursework Example The government of the United States is comprised of three branches. The separation of power is provided by the constitution. The three branches are executive, judiciary and the legislature (Campbell, 2004). The executive is comprised on the President, Vice President and the Departments. The body makes up the most superior governmental position. In addition, the branch implements the laws created and stated in the constitution. The legislature is comprised of the House and the Senate. The two bodies are less superior to the executive. However, there are responsible for the creation of laws. Additionally, the two bodies act as supervisors to the functions of the executive (Campbell, 2004). They analyze the effectiveness at which the executive implements the provision of the constitution. The judiciary contains the court system and the Supreme Court. The branch is provided with the responsibility of interpreting the provision of the constitution. The branch also oversees the function of the executive and the legislature as provided by the constitution. The separation of power allows for the effective operation and completion of duties by the three branches. In addition, the separation of power allows for the measurement of the effectiveness of the three branches. Regardless of separation of power, there is the need to create a mechanism that would enable the control and restriction of excessive dominance by one body. Specifically, the dominance of one branch of government should not be allowed. In most cases, the executive may implement policies that depict dictatorship. To avoid such occurrences, the constitution provides for checks and balances (Kilman & Costello, 2000). The provisions are aimed at increasing the ability of each body of the government to effectively carry out its functions. In addition, checks and balances minimize the occurrence of one body having greater power and
воскресенье, 22 сентября 2019 г.
Fossils in Kenya Essay Kenya lies in a strategic place in Africa. Its capital city is Nairobi with a current total population of 39. 11 million it has an area of 224,960 square miles. Two main discoveries in Kenya have made a great contribution to the evolution tree. These discoveries were made in the year 2000 by an association of international scientists, most of who were from France in collaboration with scientists associated with the National Museums of Kenya (NMK), working under an umbrella project known as the Koobi Fora Research Project lead by Louse Leakey who was at the time of the discoveries affiliated to the National Museums of Kenya and their findings were published in the science journal Nature. These studies preceded the earlier controversial findings by Kenyan researcher Richard Leakey on the exact age hominids found on Koobi Fora Area that lies east of Lake Turkana. The first specimen to be found was unearthed from the grounds of Kapsomon in Tugen hills that are found in the Kenyan district of Baringo in October 25, 2000. The main parts of the human that were excavated included jaws that contained teeth, upper and lower teeth that were also isolated from each other, and both the arm and finger bones. Initial studies on the finger bones seemed to lead to the suggestion that the hominid discovered were trees climbers while similar studies on the leg bones established them to be two legged creatures that walked on the ground. Similar initial studies on teeth showed that the canines were shorter than the apes however; they were longer if compared to the current human canine. This probably indicated that they lived on wild fruits particularly hard-skinned fruits. The leg bones on initial observation seemed to have chewed probably by a large carnivore that used to feed on the individuals who existed then. The researchers thought the carnivore might have been a cat for the simple reasoning that the cat feeds on its catch while on a tree and itÃ¢â¬â¢s during this process that the remains fell on the water below. Their research findings were published in 9th august 2007. The studies were done on samples that were found in Turkana which is in the Northern dry Kenya. Scientists who were studying the evolution history in Kenya reported on their findings disputing on early findings that Homo habilis and Homo erectus evolved one after the other being in a straight line to Homo sapiens. In stead their analysis based on two specimens, one being a Homo habilis dated 1. 44 million years, this being the youngest species ever found by scientists who were studying the evolution of human, and a homo erectus dated 1. 55 million years ago, lived concurrently alongside each other for an estimated period of five hundred thousand years. This disqualifies the thought that Homo habilis evolved from home erectus consequently rearranging the initial straight line to Homo sapiens. This indicated that there was an overlap between the Homo habilis and Homo erectus ages and further, it indicated that the fact they the two species managed to live concurrently on the same lake basin then it is right to suggest that they probably had different ecological niches as a result avoiding direct competition that would have led to elimination of one of the species. Stringer Chris one of the scientists involved in the study, who was then studying at the Natural History Museum in London in the field of human origins suggest the possible life styles. In his view the larger and more mobile erectus was possibly a more active hunter while the less active and smaller Homo habilis was a scavenger. This study took several years to prepare the specimen so as to be exactly sure of the identification of the specimen. It took around seven years for the group of scientists lead by Leakey to analyze and announce the results. This interpreted to the view that almost two to three million years ago both Homo habilis and Homo erectus must have originated from a common ancestor. This common ancestor is thought to have lived the age dating almost two to three million years ago, a time that there is no much fossil information. This discovery further indicates that the early general understanding that man evolved from a more ape like being to a more human like being is still poorly researched. However, the discovery does not contrast much from the early thought that homo habilis is the direct ancestor of Homo sapiens. The Homo erectus fossil discovered at Lake Turkana, dated 1. 55 million years ago, was a surprise discovery, according to Dr. Spoor a professor of professor at the University College London concerned with evolutionary anatomy; the skull had a striking feature as compared to early discoveries: it was the smallest. This small size was relatively close in size to Homo habilis than the previously discovered Homo erectus species. This new finding made scientists to consider re-examining early skulls they had already collected from various parts and dozes of partial fossils which together totaled to thirty in number. However, its neck, jaw and teeth and the cranium with a distinctive feature had the characteristics that indicated it was a Homo erectus. In addition, the skull of the individual that was found in Kenya was probably an adult in its young ages or a Ã¢â¬Å"sub-adultÃ¢â¬ in its late ages the scientists estimated the age to be between 18 and 19. The early discoveries had indicated that the large skull of the Homo erectus was a clear indication that home erectus was the most recent in the ancestry of the human being the only difference being that human beings had a larger brain that the former ancestor: Homo erectus. However, the small skull changed this view suggesting that Homo erectus was less human like than earlier assumed. However, different reporters on the Lake Turkana tend to give different opinions on the small size of the skull of Homo habilis that was found. One such reporter is Susan Anton an anthropologist at the University of New York. In her report she postulates that the small skull is an indication of the varying in skull sizes of erectus specimen with more emphasis on the differences between the male and the female of the erectus species. This difference in the two is what she called sexual dimorphism. She further writes to illustrate that on average the human males are in general almost 15% larger than their female counterparts. This same characteristic applies to chimpanzees and gorillas as well. The theory of sexual dimorphism, lead to other anthropologists to come up with other views for example; Dr. Lieberman of the Harvard university suggested that the initial discoveries of homo erectus must have been male since they were large in size while the specimen that were found at Lake Turkana are likely to be females due to small size. Susan Anton attributes sexual dimorphism to either reproductive strategy or sexual selection. In an example in support of this view she documents that in the silverback the male are far much large than females and one male usually has several females. In contrast in male gibbons are almost similar in size to their female counterparts consequently they mate in pairs. In other words in the a primate family where the male and the female have the same size skull the male tends to be monogamous whereas a family that has different sizes the male tends to be polygamous. Conclusion The discovery of fossils in Kenya and the rest of Africa especially Ethiopia and the subsequent dating procedures have provided a wide array of time frame work which has given a new dimension in answering questions of the origin and evolution of hominids. With improvement in dating techniques it is now easier to estimate, without a lot of doubts, the ages of a given carbon containing specimen as compared to earlier estimates that were in most cases were debated hotly before a consensus would be agreed upon. The improvement in dating techniques can be attributed to the incorporation of 40Ar-39Ar dating technique. With the new discoveries the evolutionary tree seems to scientists to be chaotic rather than being heroic. This is because the old evolution theory where it was thought that origin of man started from homo habilis to home erectus and finally to modern man or homo sapiens seems to be proven wrong and in a more simple manner. The new discoveries have further brushed off the idea that human beings evolved from Neanderthals. It is important to note that as new discoveries are made the evolutionary tree will keep on changing. However, according to Kimbel this should be considered as a basis for getting more convincing evidence, getting questions answered more clearly and formulating more clearer theories. References Asfaw B. , Hart W. K. ,Beyene Y. , Renne P. , Gilbert W. H. , WoldeGabriel G. et al. (2002): Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature, 416:317-20. Balter M. and Gibbons A. (2002): Were Little People the first to venture out of Africa? Science, 297:20-8. Clark J. D. , WoldeGabriel G. , Renne P. , Beyene Y. , Hart W. , Gilbert H. et al. (2003): Stratigraphic and chronological contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature, 413:767-82. George M. , Wilson G. , Noble S. , (2004) Fossils Link Pre-human in the West Europe to Earlier Date. London Academic Press New York University (August 13, 2007,). New Kenyan Fossils Challenge Established Views On Early Evolution Of Our Genus Homo. New York Richard Leakey (2002) the origins of human kind: a search of what makes us human. London. Harper-Collins Publishers.
суббота, 21 сентября 2019 г.
The Subjects Of Truth And Deception Philosophy Essay The subjects of truth and deception are things that concerns everyone in the world, also it something everyone wants to find out. The search for the truth is basically what life revolves around, whether it is finding out the truth about yourself (e.g. your personality), in science or perhaps of other people; the truth is something everyone wants to know. My experience is that the truth is hard to find, for example when in an argument with people the truth always lays midways. There are no absolute distinctions between what is true and what is false. To answer this question it is important to know what truth and deception means, also this question is difficult to answer because the truth about this is hard to find as well. There are a lot of different opinions on this matter to distinguish truth from deception. The complexity of this simple claim can be easily underestimated due to its simple nature, however to completely understand the true complexity of the statement would require t horough analysis of its meaning and an understanding of the process that we go through in order to obtain knowledge. Definitions of truth can only be interpreted so far, however an understanding of how knowledge in acquired through the ways of knowing in each of the areas of knowing can provide further insight into the certainty of the claim. This essay will revolve around the statement that it is impossible to absolutely distinguish truth from deception; it seems that there is a thin line between what is true and what is false. Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ãâ¦Ã¢â¬Å"To say something which is that it is not, or to say something which is not that it is, is false. However, to say something which is not that is not, is trueÃ ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ã Ã Ã . However, true and false, in many cases, does not seem to be a simple black and white matter, that is to say, there could sometimes be no causes for which we can decide what is true and what is false. As truth is an necessary part of knowledge, we have to distinguishing between what is true and what is false constantly through our learning process and our pursuit of knowledge, and whether we are aware of it or not, the distinctions between what is true and what is false, to a certain extent, shape and form the way we think and should therefore be considered of great importance. This idea of there being an absolute truth or also known as universal truth has been debated for centuries. For example Pluto believe believed that absolute truth existed, but that truth on e arth was merely a shadow of great forms of absolute truth existing in the universe. Yet many believe in relative truth, which means that something is true depending on the circumstances. Many factors such as reason, perception, emotion, the area from which this truth is coming determine if something is true or not. If one has a look at perception for example, there are many theories of approaching perception which vary strongly what we perceive and therefore take as true. Through religion it becomes very clear that what one perceives as the truth, is not accepted by others. Christians, for example, see God and his creation as the truth, but atheist would argue that there is no actual proof for this and therefore they do not perceive it as true. This clearly shows as well that truth is also something based on opinions and beliefs combined with proof. Everyone in the world has a different perception of the world, and therefore has different beliefs and thus has a different conception of what the truth and falsehood conveys. But it is also shown through science, Newton introduced the law of gravity to the world which is believed as the truth by many but is it actually the absolute truth? This is something which can be questioned because of course we know that when we drop a pencil it will touch the ground eventually, but does that proof gravity immediately? Does that really show the absolute truth of NewtonÃ ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã ¢s gravitationa l law? This is not shown clearly. The claim that there is no absolute distinction between what is true and what is false is correct if it goes as far as absolute truth, there is no such thing as absolute truth. It should be kept in mind that truth is relative and that because of peopleÃ ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã ¢s interpretation of the world; the truth is perceived differently per person. What might be the truth to one person, could also be false to another. There is a thin line between truth and falsehood which differs per person which is very complex and causes for a lot of dilemmas and troubles in the world.
пятница, 20 сентября 2019 г.
Media Essay - ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Time to Ban the Advertising of Alcoholic Beverages Everywhere we go, we're bombarded by all sorts of advertisements. We can seldom go through one day without receiving at least one phone call from a telemarketer. Turn on the TV for 15 or 20 minutes and you'll see at least one 5-minute commercial break. Advertisements are abundant everywhere we go: alongside roads, at airports, and at train stations. Why is advertising so popular, why do so many companies pump millions of dollars each year into advertising? The answer is simple: ads inform people of products they otherwise wouldn't have heard of, they make products look appealing to so that people will buy them, and they allow advertisers to influence the general public to purchase their product. Generally speaking, this isn't a problem Ã¢â¬â companies make money and people get the products they need and want. What about products, though, that hurt, rather than help, people, products such as alcohol? Should advertising of such products, products that give way to so much harm, be al lowed? The biggest argument for the banning of advertising for alcoholic beverages points out the strong negative effects of alcohol on our society and the problems associated with alcohol. Alcoholism is a disease. According to the government-run NIAAA, or the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, alcoholism has a few easy to recognize symptoms. First of all, alcoholics have an addiction to alcohol. They constantly have a desire to consume more alcohol. This strong desire for alcohol leads to a loss of control. Rather than choosing when to drink and limiting the amount of alcohol consumption, alcoholics are controlled by their alcoholism. This desire is often overwhel... ... is no longer the popular thing; people are often looked down upon for it. We can accomplish the same with alcohol abuse. Works Cited "Alcoholism is a Family Disease." FamilyFun. (Online). Available http://family.go.com/yourtime/relationships/feature/kypa107alcohol/kypa107alcohol.html, February 25, 2003. "Frequently Asked Questions Ã¢â¬â Alcohol." National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (Online). Available http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/faq/q-a-text.htm, February 25, 2003. Hanson, Prof. David J., Ph.D. "Alcohol Advertising." Alcohol: Problems and Solutions. (Online). Available http://www2.potsdam.edu/alcohol-info/Advertising/Advertising.html, February 25, 2003. Youth-Oriented Alcohol Advertising . 1997. Issue Briefs. Studio City, Calif.: Mediascope Press. Also available online at http://mediascope.org/pubs/ibriefs/yoaa.htm, February 25, 2003.
четверг, 19 сентября 2019 г.
Similarities Between Creatures and Crew in Moby DickÃ Ã When looking at the cycle of life one sees that creatures usually hunt others that are opposited from themselves. The relationship between cat and mouse is the apotheosis ot this idea, a classic case of one preying on the other where the two are looked upon as complete opposites. In Herman Melville's "Moby Dick" the whalers are hunting down the white whale. So according to my statement above this should make the crew members of the "Pequod" the absolute negation of Moby Dick. At first glance, maybe it seems this way, but in actuality the two are very similar. From the moment the crew members choose to embark on their voyage they become more like creatures of the sea than land dwellers. As the story evolves, the reader begins to uncover more and more similarities between the creatures on board the vessel, and those of the ocean. On top of this, as the characters progress and become more similar to their fellow ocean dwellers, they begin to actually show character traits similar to tha t of Moby Dick himself. Ã Before affiliating the crew aboard the ship with Moby Dick, there are some comparisons to be made between them and ocean inhabitants in general. While living in the ocean environment the men begin to acquire the same survival techniques as some of the organisms in the ocean. The manner in which the whalers go about slaughtering the whales is much like the way that the sharks react to the whale carcass being held stagnate in the water. "....because such incalculable hosts of sharks gather round the moored carcass, that were he left so for six hours, say, on a stretch, little more that the skeleton would be visible by mornong"(Melville 328). These sharks are savages in the face of sustenance. In most cases the sheer size of the whale prohibits it from being captured and consumed by the sharks. The only chance that they have at these huge beasts is when they are slung along side the whaling ships. Once they have their opening to this plethora of meat it becomes a barbaric feeding frenzy . These actions of the sharks reflect the actions of the whalers when taking part in the slaying of a whale. "Soon ranging up by his flank, Stubb, firmly planting his knee in the clumsy cleat, darted dart after dart into the flying gish.
среда, 18 сентября 2019 г.
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), is the most common psychiatric disorder among children today. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s symptoms are not necessarily obvious and start at various times. Some children give indication of having the disorder before they are born, others are not diagnosed with having it until their preteen years. ADHD overlaps with several other conditions, further confusing physicians and mental health professionals who attempt to provide a diagnosis. Hyperactive children, who are often misdiagnosed as "emotionally disturbed," create a lot of chaos in the home and at school. The number, severity, and types of symptoms differ from one child to the next, each of whom show a different pattern of behavior and personality. There are, however, certain similarities among ADHD children. ADHD was described as early as 1845 by the German physician Henrich Hoffman in his classic Der Struwelpeter (Slovenly Peter), a collection of humorous moral tales for children. The heroes were taken from his observations of children. In 1902, Dr. G. F. Still, described the behavior of a group of hyperactive children. He knew of no medical reasons for their behavior and made no mention of their educational needs or social skills. He said that part of the problem with ADHD children was "deficient training in the home." In 1923, researcher, F. G. Ebaugh, was one of the first to publish a professional paper recognizing ADHD as a long-term problem requiring cooperation and intervention by several professional disciplines. Over the past four decades, dozens of labels have been used for a collection of traits that has come to be known as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Children who have some of these traits show them most of the time; the types, number, and level vary within each child from moment to moment and from situation to situation. Research studies point to a 5 to 10% number of children who have the syndrome. Some experts believe the true number is closer to 20% of the general population. In a recent study of over 9000 children in the Midwest, the number of children who have been medically diagnosed as hyperactive was about 3%. The number of undiagnosed children, based on data from teachers and parents, was estimated at about... ...D children also have sleeping problems, coordination problems, are self-centered, impatient, reckless, and have extreme emotional problems. Some indications that a child will be ADHD are, apparent hyperactivity in the womb, poor maternal health, mother under 20 years of age, first pregnancy, high blood pressure during pregnancy, maternal alcohol abuse, heavy maternal smoking, and drug abuse. Research now indicates that hyperactive children continue to have multiple problems as adolescents, though the hyperactivity has decreased. Problems with aggression, poor self-concept, impaired peer relationships, and poor school performance become prominent. The ADHD adolescent is often sad and depressed. Children whose obseverable symptoms continue into adolescents have higher rates of delinquency and conduct disorders and lower IQÃ¢â¬â¢s and academic achievement scores than those whose symptoms stop at early adolescence. There are many helpful and sucessful programs for children and adolescents who have this disorder. With the right help and medication, many ADHD children can grow up to lead a normal life.
вторник, 17 сентября 2019 г.
Home. Finally. I turn off the heater, the lights, and then the engine. Work was difficult. Another 7-hour shift, completed. I grab my belongings, open the door, and walk to my house. The dogs are barking already. The ferocious bark of Reggie and the low, almost growling of Checkers can be heard from the porch. I open the door to find the addition lights on. Everyone else is asleep. The dogs greet me with their usual delight. Checkers sniffs my legs, and Reggie stars at me, wagging his little Ã¢â¬Å"nubbin.Ã¢â¬ Turning back to the door, I turn the lock. With a little push, I make sure the door is completely closed. I turn the knob once to make sure it is actually locked. You just never know if someone will come in your home in the middle of the night. I pull the cord, and turn off the light. I hate the dark. My parents snore so loudly. Creeping past their bedroom to my own room, I open the door slowly in an attempt to smother the inevitable screeching sound. Ã¢â¬Å"Erin? Is that you?Ã¢â¬ Dad asks the instant the door sounds. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, Dad. I'm home.Ã¢â¬ I turn on my bedroom light, and close the door. There's no need to worry about the sound it makes now. Dad is already awake. My shoulder throbs from all the weight I'm carrying. I put my book bag down in the corner of the room. Placing my orange bag on my bed, I begin to take out all the clothes that need washed. First, my tennis shorts, then my shirt, then my socks, then my shoes. Yep, everything's there. Next, I take out my school clothes: my jeans, my shirt, and my shoes. Good, didn't forget anything. Finally, I take the clothes and put in them in the hamper. I'll never remember in the morning. I go to my closet to pick out my pajamas, choosing my undergarments first. Next, I choose a shirt to sleep in. The last article is my pants. Everything has to match. If they don't, I have to put them back. Another ten-minute process. Time to shower. The smell of grease, fries, and fat, fast food is overwhelming at night. I slowly slide the door closed, turn on the light, and open the hamper. Showering quickly, I make sure to wash my hair twice. I hate stiff hair. I turn off the water and dry myself. Then, I get dressed, and get ready to brush my teeth. I take my toothbrush out of the holder. The nice, shiny, pink cover needs removed. Taking off the cover and placing it to the left of the sink, I wet my toothbrush once and apply the toothpaste. I wet the brush again. Brushing my teeth slowly, I make sure to get every tooth perfectly clean. Last, I slowly make soft circles on my front teeth making sure to get them cleaned extremely well. I run the brush under the water again, and then rinse my mouth with the hottest water that will come out. Spit the water out, then rinse again. It's normal in my routine. Now my mouth is clean enough to talk. I sneak to the computer room, and quietly snatch the phone from its charger. Returning to my room is difficult. I have to slowly close the door to avoid waking my parents. I hold the phone under a pillow so my parents can't hear me dial. Placing my finger on the 9, I dial his number with ease even though I cannot see the buttons I am pushing. Memorizing the location of the numbers on the phone has made this action easier. I quickly cover my head before he answers the phone to drown out the sound of my voice. He picks up and we talk for a while. The floor creaks as the furnace turns on. The sound is reassuring to me now. We hang up after a half an hour and I sneak the phone back to the computer room. I'm almost ready to sleep. I walk back to my room and close the door for the final time. Turning on the radio to Q 102, I grab the pink dinosaur he bought me for Easter, and climb into bed. Quickly I pray for my family and my friends and thank God for all the days he has given me. When I am finished talking to God, I shut my mouth, and then my eyes. The excitement of the day runs through my head again. I wonder about the events that have happened. If I had said something differently, or acted in a different way, what would have happened? Thinking about the fun things that occurred at work and school today makes me smile. My friends are impossible to replace. My mind seems to jump around more quickly now. That's the sign I was looking for. I am getting close to sleep. As I begin to drift off, I listen to the radio. The words I hear begin to float in my head: Ã¢â¬Å"I probably wouldn't be this way. I probably wouldn't hurt so bad. I never pictured every minute, without you in it. Oh, you left so fast. Sometimes IÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬
понедельник, 16 сентября 2019 г.
The Simpson or any other cultural reference, illustrate an application of the type of failure you have chosen. You may not choose the applications provided In the lecture notes or shown in class. Comment on ways that society attempts to Meltzer or eliminate the type of failure you have chosen. The Course Work project Is due to be handed up to me In my office on Thursday the 12th of January, 2012 between pm and pm. All parts carry equal marks. Word Count is a maximum of 1500 words. Please submit 2 typed copies. Assignment should be stapled in the top left-hand corner with no other binding or covers. The cover page should Include the name of the author, Student number, the type of failure you are examining, and an exact word count. Ensure the work of others is appropriately acknowledged.This assignment accounts for 8. 3% of your overall mark in ICE 104. If you fail to follow these guidelines your assignment will not be accepted. Department of Economics Policy for Missed Coursework and Late Submission The Department to Economics seeks to operate a Atari policy tort all students attending in-class examinations on specified dates and submitting assignments on time. A fair policy starts with recognizing the consideration due to students who meet these requirements. 1. Missing In-Class Examination: 1 . A zero mark will be assigned where an in-class examination is missed without remission being granted. . Permission for Absence is only granted in exceptional circumstances (see point 3 below). 2. Late Submission of Assignments: 3. To be fair to students meeting deadlines, a penalty will be implemented for the late submission of an assignment. Where work is submitted up to and including 7 days late, 10% of the total marks available shall be deducted from the mark achieved. Where work is submitted up to and including 14 days late, 20% of the total marks available shall be deducted from the mark achieved. Work submitted 15 days late or more shall be assigned a zero mark.Wh ere feedback on assignments has been given by lecturers before this 2 week period, the lecturers will indicate the final date for the late submission, after which a zero mark is assigned. Please note the following: Saturday and Sunday count as 2 days. Late submission of assignments to either your lecturer or Student Services in the Department, can only take place during normal office hours (I. E. 9. 15-4. 30 Monday to Friday). Assignments will only be accepted when a Student Declaration form is signed and stamped by a member of the Department. 4. Assignments that are put under the door of the lecturer orStudent Services will not be accepted until students sign the declaration form and it is stamped by a member of the Department. Permission for an Extension is only granted in exceptional circumstances (see point 3 below). 3. Exceptional Circumstances 5. Permission for absence from in-class examinations or assignments and permission for extensions for assignments will only be granted in exceptional circumstances (I. E. Relevant illness, bereavement or other extenuating circumstances Ã¢â¬â please note holidays in term are not classified as extenuating circumstances).Medical certificates must be submitted to Student Services in advance of the examination date/assignment deadline if possible or, at the latest, within 2 weeks of the deadline. Medical certificates will only be accepted after 2 weeks if an explanation is provided. Medical Certificates will not be accepted if your lecturer has given feedback on assignments. You are advised that, if necessary, your medical advisor may be asked to clarify your certificate. 6. The Examinations Committee of the Department of Economics will consider applications for permission for absences and extensions within 1 week of application.Where permission for absence is ranted, the mark achieved for the subject in the Summer Examination (or equivalent) will be awarded for the missed in-class examination or assignment. For exam ple, where a module has a course work component consisting of two in-class examinations counting tort each (I. E. Summer Examination; 2 coursework) and, due to exceptional circumstances, you are granted permission for absence from one in-class examination, your final mark will be based on 90% for the Summer Examination mark and 10% for the coursework component attempted. For some postgraduate modules and for the following undergraduate modules: (Checks,Checks, Checks, Checks and Checks) the Examinations Committee may, where possible, arrange for an equivalent piece of coursework to be submitted. 7. Permission for absence is not granted for assignments (save in exceptional circumstances). An extension may be granted. The period of extension is normally 2 weeks. Where an extension for an assignment is granted, penalties for late submission will not apply for the period of the extension. Student Services http://www. USC. IEEE/USC/depth/economics/seductiveness's/suffice/index. HTML Mond ay to Friday 9. 15-1. 00; and 2. 10- 4. Pm. Room 1. 02, Arras-An-Alai The Simpsons The Simpson or any other cultural reference, illustrate an application of the type of failure you have chosen. You may not choose the applications provided In the lecture notes or shown in class. Comment on ways that society attempts to Meltzer or eliminate the type of failure you have chosen. The Course Work project Is due to be handed up to me In my office on Thursday the 12th of January, 2012 between pm and pm. All parts carry equal marks. Word Count is a maximum of 1500 words. Please submit 2 typed copies. Assignment should be stapled in the top left-hand corner with no other binding or covers. The cover page should Include the name of the author, Student number, the type of failure you are examining, and an exact word count. Ensure the work of others is appropriately acknowledged.This assignment accounts for 8. 3% of your overall mark in ICE 104. If you fail to follow these guidelines your assignment will not be accepted. Department of Economics Policy for Missed Coursework and Late Submission The Department to Economics seeks to operate a Atari policy tort all students attending in-class examinations on specified dates and submitting assignments on time. A fair policy starts with recognizing the consideration due to students who meet these requirements. 1. Missing In-Class Examination: 1 . A zero mark will be assigned where an in-class examination is missed without remission being granted. . Permission for Absence is only granted in exceptional circumstances (see point 3 below). 2. Late Submission of Assignments: 3. To be fair to students meeting deadlines, a penalty will be implemented for the late submission of an assignment. Where work is submitted up to and including 7 days late, 10% of the total marks available shall be deducted from the mark achieved. Where work is submitted up to and including 14 days late, 20% of the total marks available shall be deducted from the mark achieved. Work submitted 15 days late or more shall be assigned a zero mark.Wh ere feedback on assignments has been given by lecturers before this 2 week period, the lecturers will indicate the final date for the late submission, after which a zero mark is assigned. Please note the following: Saturday and Sunday count as 2 days. Late submission of assignments to either your lecturer or Student Services in the Department, can only take place during normal office hours (I. E. 9. 15-4. 30 Monday to Friday). Assignments will only be accepted when a Student Declaration form is signed and stamped by a member of the Department. 4. Assignments that are put under the door of the lecturer orStudent Services will not be accepted until students sign the declaration form and it is stamped by a member of the Department. Permission for an Extension is only granted in exceptional circumstances (see point 3 below). 3. Exceptional Circumstances 5. Permission for absence from in-class examinations or assignments and permission for extensions for assignments will only be granted in exceptional circumstances (I. E. Relevant illness, bereavement or other extenuating circumstances Ã¢â¬â please note holidays in term are not classified as extenuating circumstances).Medical certificates must be submitted to Student Services in advance of the examination date/assignment deadline if possible or, at the latest, within 2 weeks of the deadline. Medical certificates will only be accepted after 2 weeks if an explanation is provided. Medical Certificates will not be accepted if your lecturer has given feedback on assignments. You are advised that, if necessary, your medical advisor may be asked to clarify your certificate. 6. The Examinations Committee of the Department of Economics will consider applications for permission for absences and extensions within 1 week of application.Where permission for absence is ranted, the mark achieved for the subject in the Summer Examination (or equivalent) will be awarded for the missed in-class examination or assignment. For exam ple, where a module has a course work component consisting of two in-class examinations counting tort each (I. E. Summer Examination; 2 coursework) and, due to exceptional circumstances, you are granted permission for absence from one in-class examination, your final mark will be based on 90% for the Summer Examination mark and 10% for the coursework component attempted. For some postgraduate modules and for the following undergraduate modules: (Checks,Checks, Checks, Checks and Checks) the Examinations Committee may, where possible, arrange for an equivalent piece of coursework to be submitted. 7. Permission for absence is not granted for assignments (save in exceptional circumstances). An extension may be granted. The period of extension is normally 2 weeks. Where an extension for an assignment is granted, penalties for late submission will not apply for the period of the extension. Student Services http://www. USC. IEEE/USC/depth/economics/seductiveness's/suffice/index. HTML Mond ay to Friday 9. 15-1. 00; and 2. 10- 4. Pm. Room 1. 02, Arras-An-Alai
воскресенье, 15 сентября 2019 г.
Compare and contrast the life stages and life course of your own cultural group with that of a significantly cultural group within Australia. Media Child's You Just need to ensure your sentences are direct and to the point Ã¢â¬â applying the correct terminology Introduction The Yowling indigenous people make up one of the oldest cultures on earth, stretching back more than 40,000 years and make up more than 50 clans, each has its own country, they have with twelve different dialects and many ceremonies that are all concerned with acting out the stones and lore's of the ancestral pasts which Is tutee different to western life In Australia.The Yowling people divide themselves Into two basic divisions, or moieties, called Dhow and Wartime and are connected by a complex kinship system called guru. They have avoidance relationships with son- in-law, mother-in-law and brothers and sisters for their culture to function unlike Australian culture where we have no (need extra). The genders attend ceremonies separately to follow traditions unlike our customs where all a mix of genders are supposed to attend functions.Life stages are the are the steps we go through wrought our life journey that shape our identity, some stages are rights of passage others are actions or just simply participation that affects the self due to the experiences that we encounter. The fundamental deference between the cultures is the connection to the country or land and how the Yowling people see their land as their mother; who will take care of them and watch over them whereas we see land and property to Improve our finances and as as our status.Body Life stages form outsource is the path from birth until death that is shaped by our sections; the concept of our life stages where certain age groups go through rites of passage is similar is the same In both cultures. Often involving individuals being separated from society to go through the translator and then being reincorporated back Into so ciety: such as ceremony for Yowling people and marriage for Australians where we (give wedding example).The Yowling hold some ceremonies just for men that are intended to mark a new stage of life for the individual and develops one's identity within the Yowling culture which is essential for progressing towards man hood and to be accepted as a man. It may involve being taken away from the group for up to a week to learn different skills such as hunting and when they come back they are viewed as a valued contributor that holds a different more experienced status or role after the ceremony (good).In typical Australian culture life stages can form a series of rights of passage such as getting our car license, turning eighteen or moving out of These stages are marked by events and functions. Often events such as an eighteenth birthday mark an important time in an individual's life where they're now considered as an adult. .. Giving them the right toÃ¢â¬ ¦. Portent due to their speciali zed knowledge because they have been around the longest and have experienced the most whereas in Australian culture we are a capitalist society and value people with power, money and authority; we value materialistic items whereas the Yowling people value knowledge and care about what's on the inside, not the outside (physical appearance). The Yowling people holder stronger bonds outside blood ties, they have strong links with their extended family and are expected to follow family traditions whereas in Australian culture we focus on our immediate family (be specific Ã¢â¬â what type of Emily).Yowling groups are connected by a complex kinship system called guru, this system governs fundamental aspects of Yowling life, including responsibilities for ceremony and marriage rules. Yowling life is divided into two moieties, Dhow and Wartime, each of these is represented by people of a different number of groups, each that have their own lands, languages and totems. Avoidance relationsh ips also exist in Yowling culture the two main ones include son in law, mother in law and brother and sister.In Australian culture we have similar relationships where it is frowned upon for first cousins to marry and is illegal to marry your brother or sister. The life course or path that one chooses may depend on life events and the opportunities put in front of them. Yowling culture performs traditional rituals and would never do anything to hurt the land, as the land is their mother, which ensures that they follow traditions and stick to their culture rules to protect what means most to them. They look up to the elders in their tribe and share tight bonds within their group; they see each other together as one and thrive of the idea of belonging.The sys all aim to be selected to go through ceremony to become a man and see it as a reward. If you have not had the ceremony yet you cannot marry nor fall in love. Whereas in Australian culture we have more freedom with the choices we c hoose to make with the help and influence of our peers. We look up to our parents and older family members but also the ones with power and money such as teachers or a wealthy boss. In Australian culture we have the choice to determine our own interests and hobbies, our peers have shaped us to be who we are but we also have individuality.In life we are expected to follow through with traditional education and hobbies and care for one another, mainly your immediate family. Our gender within society reflects the roles we play and the choices we determine. In Australia we tend to want to follow our path to self-fulfillment and to get a good Job and earn a satisfying income. Conclusion The life stages and life course of the Yowling culture and our Australian culture both explore different traditions and experiences that shape and define the people we are today. While we all experience life stages our lives are marked by different rites of
суббота, 14 сентября 2019 г.
Life standed on the sea is very grueling and risky. Only a few are able to face the challenging tasks of such a situation using their wits and persistence. In the book Life Of Pi and the film The Odyssey, the journeys of the main characters are surprisingly parallel, considering the works were written over 20 centuries apart. Both of their journeys contain stages similar to the archetypal hero journey, including the Separation/Departure, Initiation and The Return. Although both Pi and Odysseus face extraordinary challenges, PiÃ¢â¬â¢s character is more intriguing because through his first person narrative, the reader is drawn to his sensitive nature, his vulnerability and his unique personality while Odysseus is interesting because of the hero stereotype re represents. In the Separation/Departure stage, both men are reluctant at first to start their journeys, but due to forces beyond their control, they depart for phenomenal adventures at sea. For instance, when PiÃ¢â¬â¢s family reveals that they are moving to Canada, Pi is reluctant and does not want to leave. Pi shows his hesitation when he says Ã¢â¬Å"Why enter this jungle of foreignness where everything is new, strange, and difficult?Ã¢â¬ (Martel, 86). He was Ã¢â¬Å"thunderstruckÃ¢â¬ (Martel, 88) at the thought of moving by also saying Ã¢â¬Å"It was like Timbuktu, by definition a place permanently far awayÃ¢â¬ (Martel, 88). Pi has created a familiar world of family, filled with religions, his mentors and peace, but is now crossing to an unknown territory far away. Likewise, Odysseus did not want to leave for the Trojan War as he would be leaving his family. He is called to the battle just after his son Telemachus was born, and he is hesitant. Odysseus loves his family, even though he is seen as a typical brawny warrior. This shows that he wants to stay behind to care for his son and wife but nonetheless carried out his duty because he is a brave soldier at heart. The resemblance between those two here is that they both enjoyed life at home, but had to embark on their journeys due to political turmoil Ã¢â¬â For Pi it was GhandiÃ¢â¬â¢s takeover of India that caused his family to leave, and for Odysseus it is the declaration of the Trojan War. In the start of their journeys, Pi crosses the threshold when the Tsimtusm sinks, and this forces him to get on a raft to start his adventureÃ at sea. This can be seen when Pi describes the sinking of the boat which Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦made a sound like a monstrous metallic burpÃ¢â¬ (Martel, 107). Pi also expresses his terror when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"Tell me itÃ¢â¬â¢s a bad dream. Tell me itÃ¢â¬â¢s not real. Tell me IÃ¢â¬â¢m still in my bunk on the Tsimtusm and IÃ¢â¬â¢m tossing and turning and soon IÃ¢â¬â¢ll wake up from this nightmareÃ¢â¬ (Martel, 107). This shows the crossing of the threshold for Pi as he is the only human survivor who enters this unfamiliar place. This crossing from his familiar life to a much more dangerous one creates a struggle for him to return to his ordinary world. Similarly, for Odysseus, he crosses the threshold a few times and it starts after the Trojan War when he ang ers Poseidon. This is seen when he boasts that he defeated the Trojans by himself, thus angering Poseidon who makes him suffer. His arrogance creates a much more difficult journey home because Poseidon repeatedly sends him off course preventing his return home for many years. Both character cross the threshold in different ways, It is forced upon Pi whereas Odysseus brought it on himself. This is considerably accurate since Pi is innocent and did nothing to incur his fate and the struggle that he had to endure. However OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢s crossing of the threshold is because of his ego which he has to pay the price for boasting about himself winning the war. In short, both characters were reluctant to cross the threshold, but in PiÃ¢â¬â¢s case his situation seems more devastating as he is still young and has to bear with the total loss of his family. Throughout their initiations, Pi and Odysseus must face many challenging trials on their road to survival and eventual reward. PiÃ¢â¬â¢s main trials are the danger of the tiger and the overall risk of surviving from hunger, thirst and nature. With Richard Parker, Pi has to constantly find a way to train him, as he sometimes describes: Ã¢â¬Å"Let the trumpets blare. Let the drums roll. Let the show beginÃ¢â ¬ (Martel, 182). This shows the importance of training to him. He will call himself Ã¢â¬Å"THE PI PATEL, INDO-CANADIAN, TRANS-PACIFIC, FLOATINGÃ CIRCUUUUUSSSSSSSSSSSS!!!Ã¢â¬ (Martel, 183). Also in order to avoid starvation he must eat meat, as he recounts it for the first time by saying Ã¢â¬Å"It was a great discovery when I found that a fresh-tasting fluid could be sucked out not only from the eyes of larger fish but also from their vertebraeÃ¢â¬ (Martel, 235). He describes turtles as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦a bowl of hot soup Ã¢â¬â became my favourite dishÃ¢â¬ (Martel 235). These quotes show PiÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to train theÃ tiger and using his wits to outsmart him along with the discovery of using aquatic creatures for meat / food sources. Back to Odysseus, After being cursed by Poseidon his journey back home consists of nothing but horrific trials such as the Cyclops and Lotus eaters. For example after Odysseus sets sail Poseidon creates a fog causing them to meet a troublesome foe, by trapping them in the CyclopsÃ¢â¬â¢s cave. However Odysseus gets the Cyclop drunk and stabs him in the eye, allowing them to escape. This portrays his cunning bravery which saves mo st of his men and himself. One similarity for both characterÃ¢â¬â¢s road of trials is that they are all bigger than life. None of their challenges are ordinary or even realistic. However PiÃ¢â¬â¢s challenges are constant throughout the novel and there is no real relief or change of pace for him. On the other hand OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢s bizarre challenges are constantly changing and creates an episodic storyline. Also he stands with many of his crew and watches them die during some of those trials while Pi faces his challenges alone. Many months later, after Pi survive on the sea for 227 days he is rewarded a chance for recovery at an algae island before the final lap of his journey. When he sees the heavenly island at first, he expresses that when he Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦take in green, after so much blue, was like music to my eyesÃ¢â¬ (Martel, 285). Also when he eats the green vegetation he comments Ã¢â¬Å"saliva forcefully oozed throughÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"I tore at the algae around meÃ¢â¬ (Martel, 288). After surviving on the sea for so long, he is finally given fresh food and water, allowing him to stay alive until he reaches mainland. Odysseus also receives a break when he drifts along to CalypsoÃ¢â¬â¢s island, after all the terrors he endures. There he is taken care of by a beaut iful woman named Calypso and she gives Odysseus the rest and treatment he needs. This shows that by overcoming allÃ the challenges thrown at him, he is rewarded a chance to take a break, even though Calypso intended to keep him there forever. The similarity here between the two is that both rewards offer some kind of recovery, allowing them to take a breather before arriving at their destination. Yet PiÃ¢â¬â¢s reward is generally smaller / less satisfying compared to Odysseus because Odysseus still knows his family is back home while Pi still has to bear the loss of everything. All in all, while Pi had a sustained and prolonged struggle with the tiger and starvation, OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢s road of trials is moreÃ varied and exciting to watch. Both heros did, however, get a rest near the end. When a hero is close to being home, though grateful for being alive, their return usually contains one final task that he/she needs to complete. Pi crosses the return threshold when he is found on the shore of Mexico and while being helped by the local people, he tinges with the sadness of the loss of his tiger. He states that he is rescued when Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦a member of my own species found meÃ¢â¬ (Martel, 316). Expressing his release from hell, he also says Ã¢â¬Å"I wept like a childÃ¢â¬ (Martel, 316). So although relieved to be cared for, he is still grieving the loss of his family and Richard Parker. For OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢ crossing of the threshold it occurs when he arrives home by boat, happily, with Athena changing his appearance to help him. He is seen happy when reunited with his old friend (the goatkeeper) and his son Telemachus. However he finds out he has one more obstacle to face in order to achieve happiness. Though he is cheerful to be home, his happiness is a bit diminished when wondering if his wife had kept their promise. He becomes quite angry angry and fired up with what he sees back in the village, certainly not the peaceful reunion he had hoped for with his wife. There is not much similarity between their crossing of the return threshold except that they both return on land, but Pi is very ill and fatigued while Odysseus seem not. Nonetheless Odysseus still has his famil y, while PiÃ¢â¬â¢s is certainly dead. Also Odysseus has another challenge to face at home while Pi has no physical challenge but must now rebuild his entire life from scratch. After being saved, PiÃ¢â¬â¢s last small obstacle is in the hospital when interrogated by investigators from the sunken ship. As PiÃ describes his story, they challenges his tale by saying Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Patel, we donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in your storyÃ¢â¬ (Martel, 324). They also says Ã¢â¬Å"It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold upÃ¢â¬ (Martel, 324). Finally Pi says, Ã¢â¬Å"I know what you want. You want a story that wonÃ¢â¬â¢t surprise youÃ¢â¬ (Martel, 336). Because his adventure is so bizarre, these men did not really accept it. But since he had very vivid imagination, he makes up a completely new version of the journey to say to them and makes everyone satisfied. Back to Odysseus, when he arrives back at his homeland Ithika, he finds one more task which he directly confronts in disguise. When he reaches back to his village, there is many men causing chaos fighting to win over his wife. There is a contest to determine the future husband and heÃ joins to end the madness. Odysseus has to engage in yet another battle, first by completing the contest by stringing his bow and shoots an arrow with it into the twelve lined up rings perfectly. Then he transforms back into his normal self and kills all the suitors, ending the drama. Compareing both of their magic flight, it is a much tougher task for Odysseus as it is Physically more demanding. PiÃ¢â¬â¢s last challenge is minor and it causes us to wonder the validity of his entire journey. However he is still quite physically and mentally drained. Therefore, while Odysseus showed his physical ability once again Pi is obviously suffering in a more profound way filled with grief and future uncertainty. These two characters both showed strong characteristics to complete their journeys, and while they shared similar stages there is more sympathy towards Pi due to his loss of innocence. By examining the Separation, Initiation, and Departures, they all include important stages for the hero to move on. The general process seems to be that the hero leaves his home to a new unfamiliar place, gains experience / skill, and returns home with boon or new knowledge. With these said, though Pi and OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢ adventures shared similar plots, it is important to note that Pi is a single person surviving on the raft, with no other companions other than the Royal Bengal tiger. On the other hand Odysseus has his crew throughout some of hisÃ journey. It can be argued that Pi had a tougher time at the sea, but to be fair Pi is only 16, whereas Odysseus is an adult stranded out wild for many years. His exploits were exciting and entertaining but his personality had no depth. Pi is much more vuln erable and he elicits our pity. Because he is so clever, poetic and even humorous at time, he is more appealing to us throughout the extraordinary challenges.