суббота, 31 августа 2019 г.

Favourite Place

Question no. 2 As we all know that everyone has their own favorite place which they want to go. The place is whether in our own country or overseas. Before travelling they need to have some preparation in term of financial. Some people like to travel from their country to other country or overseas, they need to have some preparation on their financial because the budget is not very cheap. While others who like to travel locally they no need to worry about the budget because it is cheaper than travelling overseas.Most of the people like to travel overseas because they want to survey their place, their lifestyle, and their society. For me, I prefer Bintulu as my favorite place because I like their environment. Even though they Bintulu is smaller when compare to other city but people who live in Bintulu is very polite and friendly. I have a lot of friend in Bintulu which I wish to meet up with them and hang out together.Due to the increasing population in Bintulu the minister of Bintulu are trying the best to increase the facilities such as hospital, shopping mall, Wi-Fi area and public telephone. The government is built cafe shop and shopping mall near to the housing estate. As the result, these facilities can help the society the better way of living and it’s easier for them to walk to the cafe shop or shopping mall. Besides, in Bintulu the environment is very clean. Other than that, the security in Bintulu is very reliable because the police done their duty.I also want to visit their beach which nearer to the Centre of the city. The beach is very beautiful and many people have their family vacation there. Other than that, while visiting, the visitor have the chance to drink sweet coconut. As a conclusion, this is the reason why Bintulu is my favorite place. Other than the facilities, security, society and environment which are clean, safe and enjoyable. Bintulu can also know as my second home because I feel safe and comfortable. I would like to visit my friend in Bintulu.

Legal Implications of Being a Nutritional Consultant

Introduction Nutrition is among the present society’s number one needs. Aside from the fact that the nutritional knowledge of the people living within the society right now is indeed deteriorating, the role of nutritional consultants in assisting the society get a say with what they need from the governmental provisions especially concerning ample distribution of food is an essential factor contributing to the progress of the present human society. Certainly, from this, it could be noted that through ample application of the rules and regulations behind the job of a nutritionist, the global problem in nutrition application may as well be reduced or at best, it may even have a chance of being completely abolished. What is it that makes the people in this particular career seemingly important and mostly appreciated by the society? What is the nature of this career that particularly makes it one of the most important jobs given stress within the human society? These particular questions shall be discussed within the context of this paper. The Nature of the Job Nutritionists or Nutrition consultants are involved in creating possibilities in assisting the people within the human society in becoming nutritionally aware of their needs. Health is wealth. This is the usual saying that supports the major responsibilities that are vested upon the shoulders of professional nutritionists. Among the many people within the human society, only 43% actually get the correct amount of daily nutrition that is needed by the body to be able to sustain itself for bodily repairs and personal care procedures that the human body itself could take care of. There are different reasons behind the factual reports regarding nutritional issues that are submitted for public knowledge purposes. One reason could be the fact that the poverty line, especially among developing countries hinders the human population from actually being able to acquire the right nutrition that they ought to receive. This issue particularly spurs out from the fact that because of the population-boom that is globally experienced at present, scarcity of resources increase thus making it impossible for the governments to equally provide nutritional measures to both the ones who could afford buying the scarce resources and the ones who could not even afford to buy a single meal for a day. The role of nutrition consultants in the situation narrated above is certainly described with high regard to their responsibility of helping in the education of the society regarding their nutritional and dietary needs as well as their role in helping in researching the best possible ways to equally distribute the food resources of the present human society among all the population around the world. To add up to the said description of the job of nutrition consultants, Phoenix University, an online-based educational institution describes the career of nutrition consultants as: â€Å"Dietitians and nutritionists are health professionals who study and apply the principles of nutrition and food management. There are several kinds of dietitians and nutritionists. The largest group is made up of administrative dietitians. Administrative dietitians manage food services in hospitals, schools, nursing homes, restaurants, industrial plants, military bases, and other institutions. They plan and direct the purchase and preparation of food, as well as supervise other food service workers. Administrative dietitians ensure that the meals served are nutritious, appetizing, and within the institution's budget. †¦ Nutritionists study the use of food in the human body. They are not usually involved in feeding people. They deal instead with the broad principles of nutrition. They may teach others about scientific discoveries in the field of nutrition. These discoveries can then be applied to the planning of diets and menus. For example, a nutritionist might develop a course to teach poor families how to eat well on a small budget. Nutritionists are employed in the food industry, schools, hospitals, agriculture, and public health agencies.† As the role of the nutrition consultants had been carefully outlined, it is then necessary to consider the fact that the law, also usually bound the activities that the nutrition consultants engage with. From the clear understanding of the job performed by nutrionists, it should occur to readers that the laws concerning the legality of this particular career is related with the pharmaceutical measures of consideration when giving out samples of food supplements to people who are lacking certain types of nutrients within their body’s system. The law with regards this issue is aimed in protecting the patient’s health. It should occur to the nutrition consultants that recommending food supplement products such as synthetic vitamins and/or herbal medicines should be made within the basis of being of great help to the patient or the person who is being assisted. With regards considering this particular issue, it should be remembered that whatever it is that happens recommendation of the medicines should be measured with the actual nutritional requirements for the person being dealt with and not simply gaining profit from the producers of a certain nutritional supplement. This particular responsibility of nutrition consultants is highly given close attention especially within the areas of territory of several developed cities such as New York. This is particularly because of the fact that producers of fake nutritional supplements could be found everywhere else making it harder to identify what is really the true food supplement. Not being able to address this issue would surely cause problems with the health situation of the patient as well as with the reputation of the consultant in the said particular branch of medical profession. Reference: The Nutritional and Dietary Supplement Law.(2006). Nutritional supplements, dietary ingredients, functional foods and drinks, nutraceuticals and the law. http://nutrisuplaw.com/?page_id=68. (May 18, 2007). Phoenix University. (2007). Dietitian and Nutritionist Job Description, Career as a Dietitian and Nutritionist, Salary, Employment – Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job. http://careers.stateuniversity.com/pages/342/Dietitian-Nutritionist.html. (May 18, 2007). ;

пятница, 30 августа 2019 г.

Limit Pricing and Oligopolies

Limit pricing is the type of pricing wherein firms discourage entrants to the market by choosing a low price that is below short-run profit maximizing price but above the competitive level. Firms who engage in limit pricing are forfeiting current profits to earn future profits. The output is being maintained despite the presence of entrants. However, there are still issues whether the application of limit pricing models is profitable for firms (2002). A firm engages in limit pricing by choosing its price and output while an entrant cannot sufficiently cover the average total cost of the remaining market demand. An established firm that is threatened by an entry in a single-period could use limit price as the highest price. This will block the entry. As first explained by Modigliani in 1958, it was assumed that entrants would expect that incumbent firm will continue production at an entry-limiting output with an entry present. It is the same as the Cournot Competition wherein firms believe that its competitors will continue production at the current levels (McAuliffe, 1997). On the other hand, â€Å"classic limit pricing† is another pricing policy where limit pricing allows established firms to earn economic profits while they are preventing the occurrence of entry. It happens if there are economies of sale in production even if the entrants and the incumbent firms have the same costs (McAuliffe, 1997). Another model is explained by Gaskin in 1971, called the dynamic limit pricing. It happens if there are threats from potential competition to a firm for current and future periods. The firms would now depend the rate of entry from the difference between the current price and their marginal costs. If a firm would want to earn high profits at current period, it will set a high price. However, the number of entry will also increase while the price and profit are likely to decrease in the future. On the other hand, if an established firm decided for a lower price, both the entry and the profits will decrease. Moreover, if the firms do not have any cost over the entrants, it will lose its position then the market will be competitive. The competitive outcome of the market however is not astonishing at all since only the price is used by the firm (McAuliffe, 1997). Both in the classic and dynamic limit pricing, the market power of the established firms are restricted due to the potential competition. In the end, they have no choice but to set the price under monopoly level. However, the expectation from an entrant that a firm would always maintain its output is not always true. After the entry period, both firms would earn high profits through high prices and restricted output. An established firm therefore with maintained output after the existence of an entry is not always a threat for an entrant. Otherwise, the established firm should bind for the current period   in order to obtain high profits with high output for the next periods (McAuliffe, 1997). Successful limit pricing could affect the market structure however few firms do set prices equal to or below the monopoly level to discourage entry. Major American companies use different strategies such as advertising and product proliferation  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   to discourage entry (McAuliffe, 1997). Competition is important in the American economy system but what if there is only a small number of competing companies? This condition falls under the oligopoly market. Unlike the monopoly where there is only one seller and many buyers, in oligopoly there is more than one seller (Schenk). In oligopoly, there may be homogenous or heterogeneous products; however entry is deterred by legal restrictions such as banking, minimum efficient scale such as overnight mail service , or strategic behavior (2008). Oligopoly has different models such as the Cournot-Nash Equilibrium of Duopoly and the Collusive Oligopoly. Cournot focused only on duopoly where there are only two firms competing assuming that both sell the same products produced at zero marginal cost. Both firm engage in output that is profit-maximizing expecting that the output of the other firms is maintained or held constant (Lipsey and Crystal, 2007). Under Cournot-Nash equilibrium, duopolists are competing for the quantities where each produces less than a monopoly. However, the sum of the production of both duopolists is more than the monopoly but their economic profits are less than the monopoly. The price is always less than monopoly level but not more than the competitive price (2008). Under Cournot equilibrium, firms would earn less than a monopoly because the duopolists’ outputs are more then the monopoly output. They would earn however more than the perfectly competitive firms since they could decrease the price upon increasing output (Lipsey and Crystal, 2007). Each competing firm is expected to adjust their outputs. However, if they cannot make any more adjustments then equilibrium is reached (Hobbs, 2001). Unlike Cournot-Nash equilibrium with doupolists as competing firms, in collusive oligopoly the firms cooperate in order to have a monopoly power. They may agree in setting price and dividing the output therefore gaining the quantity a monopoly produces and earning the economic profits a monopoly can. The firms are now earning more than doupoly profits (2008). There are many factors for collusion such as the number of sellers, personalities, equality of shares, costs of each firm, and others. There is a possibly that a collusion might disintegrate especially if the firm begin competing and cheating with the other firms (Schenk). Monopolies in the U.S. are most likely to be regulated by the government unlike the oligopolies. Price-fixing by the collusive oligopolies however is not allowed unless for agricultural cooperatives and professional sports league (2006). Collusion oligopolies, just like the doupoly, could turn into competition as well. Firms begin violating the production limits and producing more than they have to. Besides, the price tends to be lower. In the end, the collusion becomes unsuccessful. Bibliography OECD 2002, Limit Pricing, viewed 6 May 2007, . NC State University 2006, Collusive Oligopolies, viewed 6 May 2008, . 2008 Oligopoly, viewed 6 May 2008, . Hobb, B.K. 2001, Cournot Equilibrium, viewed 6 may 2008, . Lipsey, R. G. & Crystal, A. 2007, Doupoly. Oxford University Press, viewed 6 May 2008, . McAuliffe, R. E. 1997, Encyclopedic Dcitionary of Managerial Economics, Blackwell Punlishing, viewed 6 May 2008, . Schenk, R. The Theory of Few Sellers, viewed 6 May 2008, .         

четверг, 29 августа 2019 г.

Attendance at a local seminar (report) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Attendance at a local seminar (report) - Essay Example â€Å"Project management is a carefully planned and organized effort to accomplish a successful project,† (Lonergan, K) Walters explained, stressing on the dire need of project managers in the industry. Walters further informed the students about different factors which influence the success of a project. They were Project team, sponsor, customer, programme manager, operations and the sellers. He mentioned that there were three crucial points related to project management also known as â€Å"triple constraint.† They are known as time, cost and scope. Walter mentioned the Work-Braeakdown-Structure where he described the project management tools, including, common sense, eyes, ears and all the other senses. He clearly noted that â€Å"trust but verify.† Dear Client, I have written what all I could understand from the pdf’s. If you think I am missing on some points do let me know. Apart from that, if you think I can pick up matter from the internet, I would do that. Let me

среда, 28 августа 2019 г.

Discernment Practices Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Discernment Practices - Essay Example It is the evolved concept of understanding the truth from the distribution of energy around oneself. In the space of human individuality, there is a massive intake and outflow of energy and the most important concept is to understand this energy and act or react accordingly. It is the spiritual feeling of the inner conscience through which we see the world as we perceive it. The religious input is derived from the fact that religion has played a vital role in shaping the spiritual consciousness of its followers. Discernment can be made in two different ways. The first is self-enlightenment, where the individual attains knowledge of his/her impulses, through this process is able to manage them and take the negativity out of them. Along with this aspect, he also reaches up to the higher level of thinking and living through understanding the flow of energy centred around his/her impulses. The second method is to do theology study and to gain knowledge with respect to religion and its in fluence on the human mind and desires. This method covers the aspect of reading the holy bible as well as other religious texts so as to affirm one’s position with regard to the flow of impulse in the soul. Within the scope of this paper, various concepts will be discussed, compared and contrasted on the basis of a number of aspects. The first is detachment or non attachment towards a religion or a spiritual entity where the subject matter of Ignatian spirituality has been provided focus upon. Similarities between Islam and Christianity on Discernment Practices This paper shall be discussing the similarities and differences in discernment practices between Christianity and Islam. Saint Ignatius of Loyola is extremely influential in the practice of spiritual discernment. According to him, to achieve spiritual peace within oneself, the individual has to confess and open up before a spiritual director He is not allowed to go on his own and do it alone. St. Ignatius had laid down strict guidelines with reference to spiritual attainment of the soul. He had explicitly said that those who are looking for divine intervention with respect to spirituality in their lives must adhere to the rules lay down under Christianity and there shall be no let off from that aspect. The religion preaches that the Spiritual Director shall guide the individual to ultimate spirituality regardless of how his past life has been. He shall help him go through all the different mechanisms and work out the situation in a better way for him. The purpose of the director is to help the individual and take him away from all the negativity and put the positive picture around his heart and soul. The spiritual director takes us away from the bad spirits. He is extremely influential in the way he makes his decisions, and all his decisions are for the betterment of the individual who has approached him with love. The director also tries to make the individual understand that the bad and negativ e spirits can propel us to make quick and fast decisions without thinking much for them which might lead us into troublesome situations. With this regard, the spiritual director brings us to the focus of the good and positive spirits by taking care of each and every emotion of the individual. He listens to the individual with utmost care and tries to analyse objectively his feelings and reflections on the society and his life, with measures to make it a better life worth living. Looking at Islam now, the religion was brought into

вторник, 27 августа 2019 г.

HISTORY - choose 1 of the questions to answer Essay - 7

HISTORY - choose 1 of the questions to answer - Essay Example It also fired a round lead ball. The efficient range of the smoothbore musket was only 200 yards (Adams 1). The Mississippi Rifle, on the other hand, which fielded simply to an extremely limited extent, is considered as one of the first army rifles. The rifle incorporated rifling, and was noticeably more precise than the smoothbore musket, but its main difficulty was that it fired a round orb making it hard to reload and not as precise as the future Minie Ball (Adams 1). The American Civil War led to the death of numerous traditional styles of warfare, the performance of new weapons, and the start of new creations. It also confirmed how unarmed inventions like rail, steam, as well as the telegraph, could renew the way war was fought. As weapons become more successful, warfare became harsher than in the past. Military conditions were in frequent instability during the mechanized age as fresh weapons were developed and communication, as well as transportation, improved. Fresh technology made it feasible to produce a lot of weapons with improved power, precision and range. New inventions comprised of the percussion cap, breech-loading, cylindro-conodial bullet, metal cartridges, machine guns, magazine-fed small arms, smokeless powder and the TNT explosives with timers. Mass production of firearms, during the American Civil War, contributed to more dependence of technological weapons than normal weapons (Adams 1). Army Generals, in both sides, failed to adapt quickly to this change as they were acquainted to the old weapons making it hard for them to change immediately (Adams 1). When the soldiers used the musket, they only aimed in the path of the opponent and fired volleys. The soldiers were acquainted to the musket, which was extremely inaccurate that they were taught to aim just to the general direction of the opponent. The suggestion of the volley was to gather as much ground towards the opponent as possible. It was, therefore, hard for the soldiers to

понедельник, 26 августа 2019 г.

Feminism Role in Photography Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Feminism Role in Photography - Essay Example The essay will focus on the roles women play in photography and determine if children sexual photography will ever be ethical. Women are often seen as sexual creatures globally when it comes to some of the roles they play in photography. It is a belief that sex sells, thus the need to portray it more often in attracting male or the opposite sex. Men are chauvinistic on women being behind the camera as it is, and they assume that women are not good at it. The notion has remained since the 20th century, but many women are changing these facts. In the 1950s, female photographers were about 10% in California; this figure, however, increased to about 20% in the 1970s (Warren 2006). Now, female photographers have significantly increased to about 40%. Women, however, have been taking different career roles in photography including final retouchers, print-finishers, camera operators, gallery owners and the most obvious one models (Warren 2006). The major role of women in photography is model ing. They are the people in front of the camera, making poses for the photographer’s needs (Ang 2002). The pictures produced by the photographers are never the real image of the person modeling, and this has often caused many controversies. The images, which portray a thin, tall and flawless woman, are normally not real thus a fairy tale. Edits on the images make women go through many struggles and troubles to lose weight and look flawless including surgeries (Aadland 1996). It is a major problem because of the women, who try to look like their counterparts in magazines, go through all the surgeries to be something that is not real. I recently did a photo shoot with an 11-year old girl who wanted it to be sexy. The poses were controversial and more adult like. My inspiration for the photo session was the shoot of Thylane Blondeau, an 11-year old model who featured in Vogue magazine. The images were deemed seductive, and many people disagreed. Children should be fully clothed when taking photographs like photographs that are commercial. Children should be fully clothed

воскресенье, 25 августа 2019 г.

Why are you passionate about leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Why are you passionate about leadership - Essay Example Hence, for me leadership is about the ability to interpret events and concepts in a way that allows for individual views, while making way for a sense of commonality and a shared sense of purpose. Doing so, a leader not only gives meaning to a collective vision, but also helps bring about the much needed alignment on strategies and goals. To me a leader is a person who ushers in an atmosphere of cooperation and trust by the dint of one’s personal integrity and charisma. Enterprises are always in the need of individuals who facilitate the quintessential backbone to the overall organizational culture, thereby ushering in a professional environment imbued with trust and integrity. The biggest source of satisfaction for a true leader is one’s ability to empower and enable people and groups. Leadership is about what happens when the leader is not present at the scene of action. So I hold that the biggest responsibility of a leader is to create an environment that motivates others to assume leadership and be willing to face

суббота, 24 августа 2019 г.

The Batek of Malaysia Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

The Batek of Malaysia - Research Paper Example They live a nomadic lifestyle and therefore the exact location of their settlements change within the general confines of the area that they inhabit (Bonta, 1993). The Batek language belongs to the so-called Aslian sub-branch of the Mon-Khmer branch of the Austro-Asiatic language family (Lewis, 2009). Until about 1970, the Batek were widespread throughout the region of peninsular Malaysia. However, since then, heavy encroachment for the purposes of logging and farming has resulted in this community being confined to the Taman Negara National Park and the surrounding region (Lye, 2004). In spite of the encroachment and resulting interactions with the surrounding Malays, the Batek have managed to build and maintain a significantly different culture that strays away from the socio-structural norms of their neighbors. The Batek Lifestyle Traditionally, the Batek have lived by hunting and gathered from the forest. Their diet included fruits, leaves, shoots, fish and small game animals lik e monkeys. However, as a result of encroachment and increased interactions with surrounding Malays, they have started depending on commercial foods items like rice, sugar, tinned sardines, biscuits and tea. One of the social norms of the Batek society is to share the food which they have collected by hunting and gathering. ... When this happens, the Batek follow a more formal and ritualistic way of dividing the food. For example, if they have caught a monkey, first the members of the hunting party would eat the offal and the tail, because they cook the fastest. Then the cooked meat is divided into parts so that each family in the camp gets some. The portions are adjusted based on the size of the family (Endicott, 1988). The Batek do not believe in hoarding food but freely share it with camp members including those who have not been able to collect any food. However, there are some things that are considered personal property like a man’s blowgun, radios, tobaccos or a woman’s hair comb (Endicott, 1988). Still it is common for them to be lent or even borrowed without the owner’s knowledge. Since the 1960s, the Malaysian Government has encouraged the Batek to live in Pos Lebir and become non-nomadic farmers. However, most Batek are unwilling to settle in Pos Labir because it would mean l eaving their nomadic lifestyle and their culture. The Batek do not prefer farming since it involves a heavy investment of time and energy before the results may be enjoyed. However, they prefer to work as daily laborers revealing that they accept changes such that they can maintain the important elements of their culture. Reflecting on this situation, one Batek said, â€Å"We Batek are rich if we have a cooking pot, digging stick, bush-knife, lighter, tobacco, salt and fishing pole. Also a man is sad if he doesn’t have a blowpipe. We only want four or five sarongs, we don’t need trousers. If we live here (in Pos Lebir), we need money, if we have money we buy a lot. But if we have no money, no problem, we reject possessions. When we live in the forest, we don't need

пятница, 23 августа 2019 г.

Compare the influence of the revolutionary leadership on the french Essay

Compare the influence of the revolutionary leadership on the french and Russian revolutions - Essay Example This discourse seeks to compare the influence of revolutionary leadership on French and Russian Revolutions. An analysis of the French Revolution clearly shows that the revolution occurred mainly as a result of poor leadership though the economy also played a part in its establishment. In this respect, historians reveal that in the 1780s just before the beginning of the French Revolution, the leaders of the country made a terrible mistake by allocating a large portion of the budget to finance the lavish estate of King Louis XVI at Versailles (Lucas 1973, p. 86). Surprisingly they did this despite the fact that many French citizens were suffering as the majority were not able to put food on the table. At the same time, the leaders allowed the country to operate without a central bank and paper currency and utilized antiquated tax system that only taxed the poor who had no money with which to buy even food. The continued poor leadership demonstrated by the top leaders of the country angered the French poor comprising mainly of the peasants who started to protest against poor leadership. The angered peasants reportedly invaded the Bastille in search of guns to use against the oppressive leaders. The invasion of Bastille resulted in a revolt against the king all over France. The revolt continued throughout 1789, resulting in the overthrow of King Louis (Lefebvre 2005, p. 34). It was after his toppling that the French established a democratic government. The Declaration of the Rights of Man doctrine was established after that, serving as the ground for the revolutionary French leaders. The French Revolution also resulted in the establishment of a government consisting of three arms, namely the executive, judiciary, and legislature. Under the new system of government, the executive was still headed by the King though the King only served as a figurehead with no real power. Similarly, the chaotic Russian

Urbanization, Population and the Environment Essay

Urbanization, Population and the Environment - Essay Example This increase as well as migration of the world population will have an effect on the natural environmental resources owing to the increased consumption of food, energy, water and land. It has increased the air, water and noise pollution levels and other phenomena such as global warming which is adversely affecting the health of the population (Torrey; Ichimura). In addition, urbanization has also resulted in extensive exploitation of the natural resources thus leaving irreversible ecological footprints that have long-term effects on the population (Ichimura). Thus both the quality of life and environmental degradation are the major effects of urbanization and as the population in the urban areas is poised to increase in the future suitable strategies need to be implemented in order to maintain agricultural yield, energy and utilization of other natural resources such as water to sustain life. Urbanization is defined as the â€Å"process by which rural areas become urbanized as a result of economic development and industrialization† (Peng, Xiangming and Cheng). However, urbanization is also defined in demographic terms as the redistribution of the population from the rural to the urban areas over a period of time (Ichimura; Peng, Xiangming and Cheng). Urban settlements are larger and denser and the population is a heterogeneous group of people coexisting in the area while rural regions are smaller and less differentiated (Peng, Xiangming and Cheng). According to estimates only about 2 percent of the world population lived in urban settlements during the 1800’s, however, within a span of 200 years it has rose to 50 percent with the development of 18 megacities as of 2000.

четверг, 22 августа 2019 г.

Penn Foster Exam Essay Example for Free

Penn Foster Exam Essay Paragraph 1 I’m replying to your career opportunity posted on your website. I understand that you are actively seeking to hire a Medical Coding and Billing Specialist at one of your Dartmouth Hitchcock locations. This position is responsible for reviewing medical records of discharged patients to ensure that diagnoses and procedures have been recorded; collect, code and compile medical record data for future retrieval, reports and reimbursement purposes. My granddaughter passed away about a year and a half ago. She was air-lifted to one of your locations upon birth where the doctors and nurses tried everything they could to save her; however she died. Through that experience, though, I saw how your employees, handled a very difficult situation, and the nurses and doctors inspired me with their compassion. The Health Care industry has always been a dream of mine, and I decided to pursue a career in Medical Coding and Billing with Penn Foster University. As a Medical Coding and Billing Specialist within your company, I am confident that I could make a valuable contribution to the medical team serving your patients and insurance companies in a timely and professional manner. Paragraph 2 My boss, Ms. Levine has a position available for an assistant here at Northeast Propane. I think this would be an excellent job opportunity for you. From your previous experience, I know you are more than qualified for this position from your interaction with customers in the retail field, you have excellent written and verbal communication skills, you work independently, you are organized and you are great at multitasking. You are always willing to offer help and assistance with coworkers and you have a good rapport with your past employers. This position pays very well and is a Monday-Friday position with no weekends. I honest think you should apply for the position. Please give it some thought and if you decide to apply let me know and I will put in a good word for you.

среда, 21 августа 2019 г.

Pipe Surge and Water Hammer Experiment

Pipe Surge and Water Hammer Experiment The objective of the work undertaken was consisted two separate experiments, pipe surge and water hammer. These are both caused by a reduction in the flow rate within a pipe. They are two alternative dissipations of the kinetic energy of the fluid into another form of energy pressure in the case of the water hammer, and potential energy in the case of the surge shaft. The surge shaft is a device used as a way of avoiding pressure surges which accompany the water hammer effect, by allowing the fluid up a shaft near the valve, thus absorbing the pressure exerted by the fluid on the valve and the pipe. The aim of these two experiments was to compare the results with the theory derived from Newtons Second Law of Motion. Introduction Pipe Surge Water pipelines and distribution systems are subjected to surges almost daily, which over time can cause damage to equipment and the pipeline itself. Surges are caused by sudden changes in flow velocity that result from common causes such as rapid valve closure, pump starts and stops, and improper filling practices. Pipelines often see their first surge during filling when the air being expelled from a pipeline rapidly escapes through a manual vent or a throttled valve followed by the water. Being many times denser than air, water follows the air to the outlet at a high velocity, but its velocity is restricted by the outlet thereby causing a surge. It is imperative that the filling flow rate be carefully controlled and the air vented through properly sized automatic air valves. Similarly, line valves must be closed and opened slowly to prevent rapid changes in flow rate. The operation of pumps and sudden stoppage of pumps due to power failures probably have the most frequent impact o n the system and the greatest potential to cause significant surges. If the pumping system is not controlled or protected, contamination and damage to equipment and the pipeline itself can be serious. The effects of surges can be as minor as loosening of pipe joints to as severe as damage to pumps, valves, and concrete structures. Damaged pipe joints and vacuum conditions can cause contamination to the system from ground water and backflow situations. Uncontrolled surges can be catastrophic as well. Line breaks can cause flooding and line shifting can cause damage to supports and even concrete piers and vaults. Losses can be in the millions of dollars so it is essential that surges be understood and controlled with the proper equipment. Water Hammer Water hammer is the formation of pressure waves as the result of a sudden change in liquid velocity in a piping system. Water hammer usually occurs when a fluid flow start or stops quickly or is forced to make a rapid change in direction. Quick closing of valves and stoppage of pump can create water hammer. Valve closing in 1.5s or less depending upon the valve size and system conditions causes an abrupt stoppage of the slow. Since liquid is not compressible, any energy that is applied to is instantly transmitted. The pressure waves created at rapid valve closure can reach five times the systems working pressure. If not considered for, this pressure pulse will rapidly accelerate to the speed of sound in liquid, which can exceed 1200 m/s, causing burst of the pipeline and pump causing as well as fracture in the pipe fittings. For this reason, it is essential to understand under what conditions these pressure waves are produced and reduce the pressure rise as much as possible in a pipi ng system. Risk assessment In experimental work there are always some risks to everyone in the lab, hence a health and safety briefing before commencing the labs. These will aware people to the potential risks and the appropriate steps to reduce the likelihood of accidents. Therefore it is crucial to follow the advice of the staff supervising at all times and use the protection equipment provided. There are different hazard around in the lab, identifying them is important. There are people doing other experiments at the same time in the lab, make sure what the worst situation can happen with it. Therefore knowing where is the closest fire exit is important, or the short route to get out the build. Making sure there are not wire on the floor, incase people fell over it. Make sure that all the equipments going to be used are safe. Connecting the equipments correctly to prevent short circuit. Make sure that the load is not too heavy to left. When loading the equipment, be careful it might fell on to someones toe. Be aware of anything caught into the equipment When leaving the lab make sure things are placed back to the original place, and all equipments are switched off. There are ways to prevent it happen. Make sure you know the risk of the experiment. Ask others to help to set up, if not sure what the equipment does. Do not leave anything unattended. Not lift anything heavy alone or with equipments help. Wear PPE Methodology Pipe Surge The equipment is set up as shown Figure 4 1, where the head loss can be measured. The static head (hs) is recorded through the level on the surge shaft when there is no flow, this will be the datum level throughout the experiment. Then adjusting the gate valve and supply control valve, so that there is a steady of water flowing into the sump tank, where the new reading in the surge shaft is the velocity head (hv). Then the gate valve is close and wait for the oscillations to stop, once it is stopped the lever is opened to operated gate valve and the water level should drop back to the same value for the velocity head. The value of hs and hv are used to calculate the head loss due to friction which is hs hv = hf. The flow rate will be needed by closing the dump tank to find the quantity of water in the tank in 60 seconds. More reading should be taken for better accuracy. The flow rate should not be changed for the rest of the experiment. The maximum and minimum surge heights are measure by the oscillations and the time between the gate valves is quickly closed. The same procedure is repeated but the time taken between the surges passing the datum point is measured. Water Hammer: Follow the Appendix 8 -1 to set the equipment up. Where the water hammer flow control valve should be fully open and the surge shaft valve is fully closed, then the measurement of the volumetric flow rate will be taken and thus calculate the flow velocity. The volumetric flow rate can be measure using the same procedure as Pipe Surge. Then the fast acting valve is release to stop the flow of water instantaneously causing a pressure pulse to travel up and down the pipe. This is instantaneous closures which mean closure less than 2L/c, i.e. the valve is closed before a reflected wave reaches the valve again, as this will give us the same pressure rise as an instantaneous closure. These pulses are captured on the oscilloscope where we record the average amplitude, time base and the duration of the pulse. The time lags between the two pressure transducers are also recorded. For the second half of this experiment, the oscilloscope setting is changed so that the time base setting is increased to 25ms/div. Once it is set up, the same procedure will be repeated as before. The fast acting valve is release and records the average amplitude value and duration of the pulse for the traces that are on the oscilloscope. Discussion When comparing the values gained experimentally to the values predicted from the equations, tabulated in table 6 -1, it can be observed that the predicted flow rates and the period of oscillation are both quite similar with their experimental values. The reason for the slight difference in flow rates is partly due to the fact that the equation that we needed to use to find the flow rate had two unknown values in it, Q and hf. The equation that we used was: The experimental value of frictional head loss is used so that the predicted flow rate can be calculated. The experimental value of Q is used for calculating the theoretical value for frictional head loss by substituting this value in to the equation However this value would have accumulated more errors and therefore the value would be further away from the experimental value. From Figure 6 1 the time period is about 8 seconds can be observed, whereas the predicted value is 7.5705 seconds. The discrepancy between the two numbers is most likely to be as a result of human error, when timing the points of max and min surge and also when the surge crosses the datum a time factor needs to be taken into consideration for the time taken between the person saying when to stop the timer and the other person actually pressing the button. This time delay could easily explain the half second difference between the two values. When comparing the difference between the experimental and predicted values for maximum surge height, the first predicted value is hugely different to the actual value achieved. The reason for this is because the equation gives the max surge from the static head assuming that there are no losses due to friction, therefore the equation will need to be adjust to take into consideration of the effects of friction. This acts as a correction factor. The reason why it need to be use, because the initial head loss which is due to friction, this is the difference between the static head and the velocity head which is much lower than the static head therefore the initial max amplitude should be taken away. Throughout the effects of friction is important as dealing with a small bore system whereas in reality surge shafts have diameters in meters. The effects of friction can be assumed negligible, as long as the initial head at the valve is assume the same as at the reservoir. However in the flow frictional losses are relatively large, this can be seen in the fact that there is a large difference between the static head and velocity head. This is partly due to the small diameter of the pipe, as the friction occurs at the walls and if the diameter of the pipe is small then the area in which the fluid is unaffected by the friction is going to be smaller. In order to take the effects of friction in to account, the equation of the max amplitude must start from the velocity head therefore the head loss due to friction can also be taken into consideration. Water Hammer From observing Figure 5 -1 the single pressure wave, it varies slightly to the symmetrical smooth square shown as in the Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual. The pulse shown on the oscilloscope showed an unsymmetrical, rough rectangle. This irregularity of the line is as a result of not all the kinetic energy being transferred into potential energy, which is the pressure pulse, and the remaining energy being lost in the form of heat, sound and strain. The strain loss is where the compression of the water tries to expand the pipe, i.e. constant volume therefore change the cross sectional area. The reason of that assumption is the irregular graph as when deriving the equations as assumed that the kinetic energy lost is equal to the energy gained in the form of the pressure pulse, this does not take into consideration the effects of energy losses like heat noise and deformation. In another part of the experiment, the pressure transducer set up halfway along the pipe. i.e. 1.5meters away from the valve; this meant there is a time lag between the first wave and the second wave giving the opportunity to measure the speed of sound in water. Firstly the time lag need to be calculated, using 0.75 per division. In the first set up the time axis for the oscilloscope to 2.5milliseconds per division, therefore the time lag is 1.5 milliseconds. The time lag should roughly be a quarter of the time period, so it is as expected the time lag is 1.5625 milliseconds, which is very close to what experimentally gained therefore suggesting that the value has a slight error but not as significant error that the value cant be used to work out Ce. As a result the value of the time lag in the equation can be used An experimental value was given for the speed of sound in the water/pipe system which is 960m/s. This value is used to calculate the time it takes a single pressure pulse to travel a complete circuit of the pipe, in this case 6 meters, and the value is 4.523 milliseconds compared to 6.25 milliseconds from the sketch. The difference between these two values could be due to not reading the number of divisions accurately enough and also where the measure of the period from, both of which could have made the result closer to the result calculated. However the discrepancy might also be due to pulse travelling further than it is assumed. For the calculations, assumption is made that it is just travelling the length of the pipe, however the pulse might travel some distance into the header tank instead of being reflected back at the edge. This would then account for why the measured time period is longer, as it could be travelling further than the 6 meters as assumed. When looking at the table 6 -2 for the water hammer experiment, the predicted and experimental values for the speed of sound in water can be compared, peak pressure and also the duration of the first pulse. There is not much difference the experimental and predicted values of speed of sound in the water/pipe system, this indicates that the experiment went well and that the calculations and therefore the equations used are correct. However there is a significant difference between the peak pressure and also the duration of the pulse, it is quite likely that measured the duration of the pulse inaccurately as determined a rough value for how many divisions the period was, likewise with the amplitude of the pulse. Furthermore when calculating the experimental velocity of sound in water the time lag was used as the time in the equation and the time lag again was measured by reading how many divisions it took up and as a consequence was open to human error in reading it. From Figure 5 1 can be observe several reflected pressure waves. When the pulse is reflected as a low pressure wave, the pulse is going lower than the original start point. The pressure wave is actually reaching the vapour pressure of water and as a consequence the water is boiling and evaporating creating bubbles, this causes a vacuum to be created thus slowing down the pulse. The energy created from the boiling water soon dissipates and when there are not enough bubbles to slow down the pulse then a second pulse starts and the whole process repeats itself. The fact that the pulse is slowed down in the pressure trough by the vacuum and bubbles means that the pulses are not symmetrical. Studying the Figure 5 1 more closely, on the second pulse wave there is a small spike half way between the first pulse and the second pulse can be observe, this could be due to a number of reasons but the most likely is that it is the pulse that has been reflected back from the back of the Header tank. Ideally the experiment would be set up such that the header tank has a big enough change in volume and pressure compared to the pipe that it would act as a discontinuity and reflect the pulse back straight away. However in this case some of the pulse could be being reflected from the back wall of the header tank. This would also explain why there is a difference between some of our experimental and predicted results for the speed of sound in water, as we could be assuming that the distance travelled by the pulse is slightly shorter than it travelled in reality, thus having different values when calculating C. The reason why the amplitudes of the pulse wave are not symmetrical is partl y due to the vaporisation of the water and also as a consequence of friction, as the flow is slowed the frictional head loss also reduces and so the head at the valve increases to the equilibrium position of the static head, that is why the amplitudes converges towards the static equilibrium can be observe. Conclusions In conclusion, the results between theoretical and experimental were similar and close to each other. However, the slight discrepancies might due to human error, e.g. not recording the time as accurately and also the effects of friction will need to be taken in consideration. Therefore if the experiment is repeated to get better accuracy for the result can be more reliable to use. References Fluid Mechanics Laboratory Manual Level 1 and 2 notes on unsteady flow Douglas JF, Gasiorek JM and Swaffield JA, Fluid Mechanics, 4th ed, Prentice Hall, 2001. (ISBN 0582414768) Massey, B, Mechanics of Fluids, 8th ed, Taylor Francis, 2006 (ISBN 0-415-36206) http://www.valmatic.com/pdfs/SurgeControlPumpingSystems.pdf http://ksbpak.com/pdfs/waterhammer.pdf

вторник, 20 августа 2019 г.

Life Cycles Of Paper And Plastic Bags Environmental Sciences Essay

Life Cycles Of Paper And Plastic Bags Environmental Sciences Essay This research performs life-cycle assessments on two products-plastic bags and paper bags. The two products are considered to be substitutes for one another, and the end objective of the life-cycle assessments performed on the two products is to compare the life-cycle costs of the two products for the purpose of recommending a production strategy for a company that produces bags. A life-cycle assessment for paper bags is presented in the following section, and this presentation is followed by a presentation of a life-cycle assessment for plastic bags in the succeeding section. Following the presentations of the two life-cycle assessments, the two substitute products are compared with the emphasis being placed on the full costs of the products for the manufacturing company. Recommendations and conclusions based on this comparison are then presented. Life cycle assessment attempts to measure the total environmental effects of a product from cradle to grave. Proponents contend that life-cycle assessment can provide the information to assess tradeoffs throughout the life of every product. Life-cycle assessment permits producing organizations to determine the environmental impact of both their products and the manufacturing processes used in the production of those goods. As manufacturing companies have experienced increasing pressures to minimize adverse environmental effects of all types, therefore, life-cycle assessment has assumed greater importance in manufacturing management. The initial step in a life-cycle assessment involves the establishment of the purpose of the study and defining the objectives of the study. This step for this current examination was established in the initial paragraph of this Introduction. The second step of a life-cycle assessment is the life-cycle inventory. In the life-cycle inventory, energy and raw material requirements and environmental emissions of the product and its manufacturing process are quantified. Precise and extensive calculations are involved in this step. Totals for all material requirements and environmental emissions are presented for all stages of production, from raw materials acquisition to waste management. The third step is an impact assessment, which attempts to translate the life-cycle inventory data into effects on human health, ecological health, and resource depletion, which are the impacts of the product and its manufacturing process on the environment. The impact assessment is accomplished by classifying the inventory items into condition groups that may lead to an environmental impact. The final step in a life-cycle assessment is an improvement analysis. The improvement analysis develops recommendations based on the results of the life-cycle inventory and the life-cycle impact assessment. Such recommendations may include the modification of a production process, the use of different raw materials, or choosing one product over another, as is the case in this current study. The steps of the life-cycle assessment process from life-cycle inventory through life-cycle improvement analysis are addressed in this current study in the following two sections. In these two sections, these steps of the life-cycle assessment process are developed for both plastic bags and paper bags. Life-Cycle Assessment: Plastic Bags The life-cycle assessment of plastic bags is presented in relation to life-cycle inventory, life-cycle impact assessment, and life-cycle improvement analysis. Life-Cycle Inventory The life-cycle inventory analysis is a technical, data-based process of quantifying energy and raw material requirements, atmospheric emissions, waterborne emissions, solid wastes, and other releases for the entire life cycle of a product, package, process, material, or activity. In this section, the life-cycle inventory is developed for plastic bags. In the broadest sense, a life-cycle inventory analysis begins with raw material extraction and continues through final product consumption and disposal. The scope of the life-cycle inventory refers to the setting of boundaries for the life-cycle inventory of a specific product. A flow chart of the life cycle of plastic bags is presented in Exhibit 1. The exhibit may be found on the following page. The flow of the life cycle of plastic bags is illustrated in Exhibit 1. This flow begins (PE) petroleum extraction, and progresses through (PR) petroleum refining, (Pl-E) plastic extrusion, (Pl-F) plastic fabrication, (PB-M) plastic bag manufacture, (Tr) transportation of plastic bags to initial users, (IU) initial use, (SU) secondary use, (UD) user disposal, and thence to either (Rcy) recycling or (LFD) landfill disposal. The life-cycle inventory of environmental factors for plastic bags is presented in Table 1. The table may be found on the following page. Table 1: Life-Cycle Inventory Plastic Bags Environmental Factor Emissions [metric tons] SO2 0.07037 CO 0.01655 NO2 0.04692 VOC 0.27504 Lead 0.00001 PM10 0.00241 MTCO2E 58.76522 Non-Point Air 0.02432 Point Air 0.03892 Air Releases 0.04723 Water Releases 0.00225 Land Releases 0.00106 Underground Releases 0.01568 The life-cycle inventory of plastic bags indicates that several environmental factors are involved in the production and use of the product. These factors come into play at every stage of the life cycle of plastic bags. Life-Cycle Impact Assessment Qualitative aspects of the life-cycle are addressed through the life-cycle impact assessment. The life-cycle impact assessment, however, also includes technical and quantitative data to assess the effects of the resource requirements and environmental factors (atmospheric emissions, waterborne emissions, and solid wastes) identified in the life-cycle inventory. The life-cycle impact assessment for plastic bags developed in this section considers ecological and human health impacts, and resource depletion. Other effects, such as habitat modification and heat and noise pollution, also are included in the life-cycle impact assessment. The key concept in the life-cycle impact assessment is the environmental stressor. The environmental stressor concept links the life-cycle inventory and the life-cycle impact assessment through identified conditions that tie resource consumption and environmental factors. Thus, a stressor is a set of conditions that may lead to an impact. The life-cycle impact analysis does not attempt to quantify any specific actual impacts associated with a product or process. Rather, the life-cycle impact assessment seeks to establish a linkage between the product or process life cycle and potential impacts. The substance releases associated with the manufacture, distribution, use, and disposal of plastic bags create a number of stressors. These stressors, in turn, have an impact on the ecology, human and other animal welfare, and resource conservation. The magnitude of releases into the air, water, and land are not enormous; however, the are nevertheless substantial. Life-Cycle Improvement Analysis The life-cycle improvement analysis is an evaluation of the needs and opportunities to reduce the environmental burden associated with energy and raw material use and waste emissions throughout the life cycle of a product or process, which in this section is a product-plastic bags. This analysis includes both quantitative and qualitative measures of improvements. The economic costs associated with the use of plastic bags approximate $0.58710 per metric ton of environmental discharge. Electricity consumption in the production of plastic bags approximates 0.19 million kilowatt-hours per $1 million production of plastic bags. Life-Cycle Assessment: Paper Bags The life-cycle assessment of paper bags is presented in relation to life-cycle inventory, life-cycle impact assessment, and life-cycle improvement analysis. Life-Cycle Inventory As noted in the preceding life-cycle assessment of plastic bags, the life-cycle inventory analysis is a technical, data-based process of quantifying energy and raw material requirements, atmospheric emissions, waterborne emissions, solid wastes, and other releases for the entire life cycle of a product, package, process, material, or activity. In this section, the life-cycle inventory is developed for paper bags. In the broadest sense, as stated in the life-cycle assessment of plastic bags, a life-cycle inventory analysis begins with raw material extraction and continues through final product consumption and disposal. The scope of the life-cycle inventory refers to the setting of boundaries for the life-cycle inventory of a specific product. A flow chart of the life cycle of plastic bags is presented in Exhibit 2. The exhibit may be found on the following page. The flow of the life cycle of paper bags is illustrated in Exhibit 2. This flow begins (TH) tree harvesting, and progresses through (LT) log transport, (Pm-O) pulp mill operations, (Pa-F) paper fabrication, (PB-M) paper bag manufacture, (Tr) transportation of paper bags to initial users, (IU) initial use, (SU) secondary use, (UD) user disposal, and thence to either (Rcy) recycling or (LFD) landfill disposal. The life-cycle inventory of environmental factors for plastic bags is presented in Table 2. The table may be found on the following page. Table 2: Life-Cycle Inventory Paper Bags Environmental Factor Emissions [metric tons] SO2 0.80988 CO 0.51794 NO2 0.35931 VOC 0.30502 Lead 0.00010 PM10 0.03281 MTCO2E 91.28522 Non-Point Air 0.00471 Point Air 0.07472 Air Releases 0.07824 Water Releases 0.00362 Land Releases 0.00144 Underground Releases 0.00000 The life-cycle inventory of paper bags indicates that several environmental factors are involved in the production and use of the product. These factors come into play at every stage of the life cycle of paper bags. Life-Cycle Impact Assessment Qualitative aspects of the life cycle are addressed through the life-cycle impact assessment, a fact noted in the life-cycle assessment of plastic bags. The life-cycle impact assessment, however, also includes technical and quantitative data to assess the effects of the resource requirements and environmental factors (atmospheric emissions, waterborne emissions, and solid wastes) identified in the life-cycle inventory. The life-cycle impact assessment for paper bags developed in this section considers ecological and human health impacts, and resource depletion. Other effects, such as habitat modification and heat and noise pollution, also are included in the life-cycle impact assessment. The key concept in the life-cycle impact assessment, a previously noted in the life-cycle assessment of plastic bags, is the environmental stressor. The environmental stressor concept links the life-cycle inventory and the life-cycle impact assessment through identified conditions that tie resource consumption and environmental factors. Thus, a stressor is a set of conditions that may lead to an impact. The life-cycle impact analysis, as stated in the life-cycle assessment of plastic bags, does not attempt to quantify any specific actual impacts associated with a product or process. Rather, the life-cycle impact assessment seeks to establish a linkage between the product or process life cycle and potential impacts. The substance releases associated with the manufacture, distribution, use, and disposal of paper bags create a number of stressors. These stressors, in turn, have an impact on the ecology, human and other animal welfare, and resource conservation. The magnitude of releases into the air, water, and land are not enormous; however, the are nevertheless substantial. Life-Cycle Improvement Analysis The life-cycle improvement analysis is an evaluation of the needs and opportunities to reduce the environmental burden associated with energy and raw material use and waste emissions throughout the life cycle of a product or process, which in this section is a product-plastic bags. This analysis includes both quantitative and qualitative measures of improvements. The economic costs associated with the use of paper bags approximate $0.57299 per metric ton of environmental discharge. Electricity consumption in the production of plastic bags approximates 0.27 million kilowatt-hours per $1 million production of plastic bags. Comparative Assessment of Plastic Bags Paper Bags Comparing the life-cycle assessment of plastic bags with the life-cycle assessment of paper bags reveals that, from an environmental risk perspective, plastic bags are a lower risk product than are paper bags. With respect to life-cycle inventory comparisons, paper bags are superior to plastic bags only within the context of non-point air releases. Comparing the life-cycle assessment of plastic bags with the life-cycle assessment of paper bags within a total cost context reveals that plastic bags consume less resources in production and distribution. Further, the total cost of production is lower for plastic bags than for paper bags. Recommendations For the company manufacturing bags, the recommendation is that plastic bags continue to be produced. Although the company does not now produce paper bags, the recommendations is that such production not be commenced. Conclusions One conclusion drawn from the findings of this study is that plastic bags are a more economic product for the manufacturer than are paper bags. A second conclusion is that plastic bags are less harmful to the ecology than are paper bags.

понедельник, 19 августа 2019 г.

The Civil Rights Movement Essay example -- The Civil Rights Movement

The latter part of the Civil Rights Movement was characterized by action and change as it was no longer centralized in the South or only fought for by black individuals. Rather, northerners were active in achieving black equality and the white community was campaigning for integration. Although many lost their lives in this struggle, their valiancy did not go unrewarded and soon enough African Americans were able to vote, work, study, and simply eat lunch beside white individuals. Despite the great efforts put forth during the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955 in which the black community and its supporters refused to use public transportation, transport segregation still remained in some southern states. As a result the civil rights group, the Congress on Racial Inequality (C.O.R.E.), began to organize what they called â€Å"freedom rides.† In 1961, the group began sending student volunteers on bus trips to test the implementation of new laws prohibiting segregation in interstate travel facilities (Peck, 161). Most notable was a trip they took from Washington, D.C., making stops in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. Upon arrival the group was met with violence and brutality from the Ku Klux Klan and others, but this did not deter them from getting their voice heard. In September 1961, the Attorney General petitioned the Interstate Commerce Commission to draft a policy making racial segregation in bus terminals illegal, and in November this was put into effect. The Freedom Riders gave national publicity to the discrimination that black Americans were forced to endure and, in doing so, helped bring about change not only in bus terminals but in the nation as a whole. One of the groundbreaking ev... ...s Movement in America. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1986. Flynt, Wayne. â€Å"In the Memory of Four Little Girls† 2 Nov 2004 http://www.useekufind.com/peace/summary.htm Meier, August and Elliot Ridwick. CORE: A Study in the Civil Rights Movement. Urbana, Ill: University of Illinois Press, 1975. Peck, James. Freedom Ride. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1962. Williams, Juan. Eye on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965. New York: Viking Penguin Inc., 1987. â€Å"Africana: Gateway to the Black World.† 2000. 1 Nov 2004 http://www.africana.com/blackboard/bb_his_000156.htm â€Å"Black Civil Rights in the USA (1954-1970). 2 Nov. 2004 http://www.heretaunga.school.nz/dept/history/5BLACK.htm#Birmingham â€Å"We Shall Overcome: Historic Places of the Civil Rights Movement† 2002. 2 Nov 2004 http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/civilrights/al11.htm

воскресенье, 18 августа 2019 г.

Essay on Symbols, Symbolism, and Allegory in Hawthornes Young Goodman

Symbols, Symbolism, and Allegory in Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown Symbolism is a literary technique that is used to clarify the author's intent. Sometimes it is used to great effect, while other times it only seems to muddle the meaning of a passage. In "Young Goodman Brown," Nathaniel Hawthorne uses objects and people as symbols to allegorically reveal his message to the reader. Nathaniel Hawthorne uses different people as symbols throughout "Young Goodman Brown." The largest symbolic roles in the story are goodman Brown and his wife Faith. Both of the characters' names are symbolic and representative of their personalities. "'With Heaven above and Faith below, I will stand firm against the devil!' cried goodman Brown," is just one of many quotes that directly relates goodman Brown's personality with his name (189). Goodman Brown is truly a good man. Faith, goodman Brown's wife, also has a name that is indicative of her nature. The story directly supports this point in the phrase "Faith, as the wife was aptly named . . . " (184). Faith is persistent in trying to keep goo...

суббота, 17 августа 2019 г.

Letter to the Provost option

Dear Sir/Madam: I have been studying for [] years in this school and I have always believed that the school supports and upholds students’ rights that gear towards maturity, discipline, fairness and respect.   Five people in your staff have proven my belief wrong. In pursuance of our grievance procedure as indicated in the most recent Undergraduate Bulletin, I am writing this formal complaint against the [name here], supervisor of our Computer Lab, 2 Computer Lab Assistants and 2 Security Personnel. Last [date of incident], I, together, with a classmate was rushing to the Computer Lab to print handouts for a group presentation that shall start in 20 minutes.   Like normal, we went straight into the Computer Lab but were suddenly stopped by a Computer Lab Assistant (a girl), and who asked us to swipe our IDs.   Although there is a note outside of the door that the ID is required, they never required this of me so for the past 2 years that I have come into the lab, I didn’t think it was ever needed and since time is of the essence at this point, I didn’t think I had the time to search through the three bags I had with me for my ID. My classmate was able to find hers and she went in.   I explained the situation to the Computer Lab Girl and requested for me to just sit next to my classmate and instruct her on what to print but the girl said â€Å"No, you should sit in the corner; and you can’t sit next to your classmate.†Ã‚   I find the first statement very inappropriate but we were pressured.   I asked her to reconsider.   Another Computer Lab Assistant (also a girl) then came and started giving me an attitude.   I was forced to defend myself and answered back saying that â€Å"for two years no one ever asked me for an ID and you guys are giving me an attitude.† They didn’t respond anymore so I went in with my classmate and sat beside her as I surf through my things for my ID.   As my classmate started to type, the supervisor is suddenly there asking me what happened.   I am guessing he has already spoken with the 2 Lab Assistants because when I started to explain, he interrupted me 3 times and then he went off and called Security. A Male Security came and told me to â€Å"leave my stuff† as he escorted me outside.   I followed, with my ID, now in my hand, and once outside, [name of supervisor] started narrating the story to the security as if he was there when it happened.   I tried to butt in to explain my side but [name of supervisor] did not let me, nor was the Male Security willing to listen.   After [name of supervisor] was finished, he snatched my ID from my hand and walked away.   I started to protest and tried to explain but no one is simply, listening to my side of the story and that action was taken as a hostile behavior for they called another security. When the Female Security came, she attempted to take control of the situation by screaming at me.   [name of supervisor] was now back and told me that my name and info is in the system and he said, â€Å"You can’t use MY computer lab and library lab for the rest of the year!† He gave my ID back and since I’m already severely humiliated, ultimately late for my presentation, I told him I want to get my stuff.   [name of supervisor] said that’s not possible and that the security will get it for me.   I protested.   That was my stuff with money, gadgets and personal belongings inside and I’m supposed to trust the security guard who had treated me badly to get it for me, I think not.   [name of supervisor] gave in and the security guard escorted me to my things and out of the Computer Lab. Before leaving, I made an attempt to find out what was the [supervisor’s name]’s name and I said I wanted to file a complaint.   The male security guard utterly refused to give me the name and the Woman Security started yelling at me saying that I’m harassing [name of supervisor]. I heard they wrote a report about me and they asked my classmate who was inside the lab for proper identifying details about me. Looking at this situation, I believe: (1)  Ã‚   First and foremost, that the fact that I’m Jewish, I’m white and that I have an accent is one of the reasons why I am treated differently.   No one gave me the opportunity to explain and no one was willing to listen to me.   Even our Grievance Procedure supports two sides of the story.   There should NOT be any discrimination in this school. (2)  Ã‚   Second, that the Computer Lab Assistants are not doing their jobs.   If they were doing their job in the instance that I am complaining of, (i.e. asking us to swipe our ID), they should have consistently done it for 2 years so that people, like me are not misled.   That is technically, neglect of duty, for them, not to add the fact that majority of their time is spent on pretend typing, music playing (ipod), cellphone handling or maybe nail polishing, I don’t know.   I just know this is very unprofessional. (3)  Ã‚   Third, that the Computer Lab Supervisor should follow due process.   He approached me with prejudice and without the respect that I am due.   I do not think interrupting me while I explain, calling off security and relaying a one-sided story and grabbing my ID from my hand is respectful. (4)  Ã‚   Fourth, the Male and Female Security Staff should follow due process as well.   They do not have to be rude or worse, they should not humiliate people more than they already are. Due to the underlying circumstances, I am unable to write a formal complaint directly to the [name of supervisor], the 2 Lab Assistants and the 2 Security Personnel.   If I may reiterate, this is because: (1)  Ã‚  Ã‚   The supervisor has already humiliated me in front of everyone.   I do not think he has a problem of doing it again. (2)  Ã‚  Ã‚     The supervisor has explicitly made it clear to me that he has entered the fact that I am â€Å"banned† from using the library for one year into the system.   Such being the case, if I do swipe my card, I will automatically be kicked out and maybe, since he’s always there, he can throw me out and add to the injury he has committed. (3)  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Computer Lab Assistants never helped me before and I don’t think they will help me now. (4)  Ã‚  Ã‚   This is an issue of discrimination and even if I do follow the grievance procedure, it will fall onto deaf ears.   My only hope is to bring this up to you. Knowing that you are my final resort in this particular matter, I believe I have the right to demand for the following: (1)  Ã‚   Lifting of the computer ban that was imposed because of a SINGLE, UNFAIR, UNJUST and DISCRIMINATORY instance. (2)  Ã‚   Appropriate action, a warning or a reprimand at the very least, against the people who have mistreated me. (3)  Ã‚   Clear and specific guidelines in the use of the Computer Lab to be included in the Undergraduate Bulletin and/or disseminated through the Computer Lab Bulletin.   These guidelines should indicate all the lab rules [not just the minor ones, see sample announcements attached] specially, the PROCESS in facilitating and addressing complaints or situations such as mine; should specify the procedure to follow for people who DO NOT have their IDs yet and the sanctions for non-implementation of computer lab rules.   Both students and personnel should uphold these rules. I hope you understand where I am coming from specially as regards the Computer Lab.   This service is part of the fee I paid for when I studied here and I am gratefully maximizing this fact.   This is extremely important in my pursuance of good education. I hope you help me achieve that goal and help me rebuild the distorted image I have of this school because of my experience.   I wouldn’t want any others to experience the same thing. Thank you for your time and consideration. Read also: â€Å"Co Curricular Activities Letter†

Mass Media and Economic Development Essay

Mass media has always been one of the pillars of modern society. With its wide range and base, it is indubitably, the most effective and efficient way of mass information dissemination. Yet, instead of mass media being a primary tool for education, it is mostly being used as a medium for entertainment; to show bland, superficial products with little, or no educational value. So, attempting to connect mass media with economic development would seem as disjoint as climate change and my inability to make good analogies. Surprisingly, this is what the last speaker, from ‘The Public Sphere’ talked about. The forum cites economic literacy as the main contribution that mass media can make to economic development. Defining economic literacy as ‘the ability to identify, analyze and evaluate the consequences of individual decisions and public policy,’ the speaker, Mr. Omar Dumdum of NEDA, goes in to explain the ineffectiveness of economic education in secondary school; therefore, mass media should take the primary responsibility of promulgating economic literacy, to promote economic development. This can be done, according to Mr. Dumdum, through better economic news writing and reporting, making economic news understandable for the general population, and information dissemination campaigns. There will be some difficulties encountered, of course, as Economics is wrought with technical terms that cannot be easily simplified, but, if information campaigns are done in tandem with better reporting, results can be achieved. Personally, I do think it is possible and feasible. Being someone who believes in the power of mass media to reform society, I think mass media could enhance the net economic literacy of the Philippines, which would, hopefully, increase Filipino participation in crucial economic activities, resulting in inclusive economic development. But of course, mass media has internal flaws that prevent this from happening. For one, it bears the inability to make economic news/information exciting, or even understandable. If not for my privileged secondary and tertiary education, I would not know anything about our country’s economic status, as I regularly skip the Business section of the papers, because it is simply boring. Economic reporting tends to be too technical, or elitist, so much so, that for the average Filipino citizen believes that the economic opinion of his/her neighborhood barber is more valid and believable compared to the TV guy in a suit. I am not dismissing the opinion of Manong Barber as incorrect or irrelevant (he might be an economist, who knows), but this points out the preference of Filipinos to opinion-based economic information, over rigorous, empirical economic reporting. And, so I have mentioned, we Filipinos are not entirely at fault. We cannot be blamed for giving more importance to comprehensible information than jargonic ‘gibberish.’ Also considering the fact that public opinion greatly influences economic policies in our country (i.e. sin tax bill), this, all the more makes the media’s role in promoting economic development crucial. I do agree with Mr. Dumdum’s proposed approach of information campaigns being conducted simultaneously with better news reporting, because better enws reporting alone would not fulfill the expected impact of mass media in the economic literacy of our society. In conclusion, I think that the mass media, is indeed, an important element in aiding the development of a Philippines as a globally competitive economy. It is not enough, however to merely educate people about the Economics and the economic condition of our country at present. Public policies, political will, exhaustive analyses and correct decisions are also parts of the solution to the enigma that is Philippine development. And, in these, mass media can only contribute so much; mass media cannot improve the Philippine economy alone.

пятница, 16 августа 2019 г.

Basic Economics

The main reason for studying economics is that it is practical. Everyone makes economic decisions everyday. We all face the problem of scarcity and, thus, must continue to make choices. Today, people are getting to be more and more concerned about Economics. The current economic situation seems to interests everybody in society; the bread earner, the laborer, the bank teller, the accountant, the college professor, and even the student.While most of these people have had no actual background in economics, it comes as a change for the students to familiarize himself with what economics is about. He gets to learn howto analyze the theory and to explain why things are happening in the nation. With today’s emphasis on economics it, therefore, pays to be equipped with the knowledge of economic theory. Man’s basic economic activity consists of effort to satisfy human wants with the use of goods and services. It involved satisfaction. Human wants from the needs for survival oth erwise known as basic needs (e. g. food, clothing & shelter), to higher needs for a comfortable and more meaningful life. Man is subject to create wants, developed due to the effects of advertising and demonstrative effects of consumption. Economics isconcerned with the satisfaction of many of these human wants especially the basic ones. The basic economic resources of a nation consists of land, labor, capital and entrepreneurship. The economy should pay the owners of these basic factors of production for the use of their resources such as rent for the land, wage or salary for labor, interests for capital and profit for entrepreneurship. The technique of production which shows how resources are used and combined in production, thus, production is described as capital intensive or labor intensive depending on what factor is predominantly used.In effect, the basis activities of man also constitute the basic exchange that take place between the business firm and the consumers. The hous ehold is the basic consuming unit in the economy. Since human wants are unlimited, it maxims its satisfaction through the proper allocation or mix of expenditures within the context of budget limitations. The business firm serves as the economy’s producing unit to satisfy human wants with goods and services. The use of the resources generates income for the resource owners. Most societies aim to use economic-activity as a channel to improve the people’sstandards of living within the limits of available resources. Hence, a government can restructure the economic system in order to solve its shortcomings or problems like; unemployment, economic instability that cause highs and lows in production and investment levels, low level of growth and development, inequality income distribution, determination of the type of economic system. The choice of the nation’s economic system is vital to any country because it determines the manner in which goods will be produced, th e quantities of each good that will be produced and the distribution of these goods and services.Within the economy, the basic activities of production, consumption, employment and income generation take place through the interrelationship existing between the basic consuming unit, which is the household and the basic producing unit, which is the firm. Business firm supplying the household with goods and services in exchange for payments representing consumption expenditures. On the other hand, the business firm has to use economic resources consisting of land, labor, capital and entrepreneur to produce these goods and services. The households provide the firms’ theses resources inexchange for payments in the forms of rent, interest, wages, salaries and profit. The money flow is depicted in the money payment by the firm to the household of its money income and by household to the firm for its purchase of goods and services. On the other hand, the good flow is depicted in the flow of economic resources from the household to the firm and in the flow of good and services from the firm to the household. An economic system, in answering the needs of society, has the function of determining what goods and services to produce as well as the order of their importance. This willnaturally depend on the needs of the economy as well as its goals and objectives. In addition, the economic system has to perform the task of organizing productive efforts to produce the selected goods and services in the proper quantities. Lastly it must determine how these goods and services should be shared among the members of society(Leftwich). In traditional economic system, production decisions are made according to customs and traditions ( not allowing the producers to adjust to changes dictated by the time). This is usually practices in underdeveloped regions and in mountainous areas whereThe command economics, the answers to the basic economic problems are dictated by the govern ment through the head of the nation or a group of men designated by the head to make the decisions. This system is socialistic as the government owns and controls the factors of production. The government plans what to produce and how resources should be allocated. The system works under the principle that the interest of society should prevail over that of the individuals. Decision regarding the distribution of goods, lie in the hands of the government and, hence individual preferences are not considered at all.The market system deals with the economic problems by considering consumers choices. Consumers demand in the market as reflected in the prices of goods and services. The market prices serve as signals to the producers about what goods to produce and how much of these goods should be produced. The problem of production is therefore, solved by the price mechanism. In an economy where prices are continuously rising, people have always wondered what factors cause prices to fluct uate. The demand and supply are the main forces that cause prices to increase or decrease.From our daily experience of buying and selling, we know that higher prices influence people to buy less. Therefore, the demand function shows how the quantity demanded on a particular good responds to price change. As price increases, the quantity demanded of the product decreases, but as price decreases, the quantity purchased will instead increase. (If the price is low demand is high while if the price is high demand is low) Individual consumers, business firms and government agencies participate in the market place motivated by the desire to maximize utility (consumers), profits (business firms), orthe general welfare (Government agencies). People who are willing and able to buy a particular goods at some price become part of the market demand while those willing and able to sell the good demanded by people at some price are part of the market supply. The behavior of all buyers and sellers in a market determines the quality of good and services that is actually exchanged. With today’s emphasis on economics it therefore, pays to be equipped with the knowledge of economic system and learn the basic economics. Leftwich, Richard. 1969. An introduction to economic thinking. USA: Rhinehart & Winston Inc.

четверг, 15 августа 2019 г.

Exploring Sexuality with William Shakespeare Essay

The presence of homoerotic references in the works of William Shakespeare was a direct result of the Elizabethan attitude towards sex during the English Renaissance. Within the privacy of the sonnets, Shakespeare could effusively express a passion that the Elizabethan Era, with its social mores, stifled greatly as it frowned upon homosexuality. Given the freedom to express himself uninhibitedly, Shakespeare cast aside the homophobia of his age and inscribed love sonnets for another male, Mr. W. H. This unrestricted honesty created great tension and drama between Shakespeare and his adversary, the dark lady as well as fueling some of the greatest love poems of all time. Over hundreds of years, it comes to no surprise that many scholars have found the sonnets effective in revealing insight into the biography of William Shakespeare. The emotional pressure contained in many of the sonnets and the fact that many, if not all, are dedicated to a man named ? Mr. W. H. ‘, provide important clues to Shakespeare’s life. It begins with the sonnets’ dedication, a passage written by Shakespeare that opens a world of controversy amongst scholars. The dedication runs as follows: To. The. Only. Begetter. Of These. Ensuing. Sonnets. Mr. W. H. All. Happiness. And. That. Eternity. Promised. By. Our. Ever. Living. Poet. Wisheth. The. Well. Wishing. Adventurer. In. Setting. Forth. T. T. (Shakespeare, 1490) The initials T. T. at the conclusion of the dedication refer to Thomas Thorpe, the original publisher of the sonnets (http://andrejkoymasky. com/liv/sha/sha00. html). However, one question remains, who is Mr. W. H? During the English Renaissance, it was customary for members of high social standings to hire established writers and poets to create masterful love sonnets and other works of literature for their entertainment. For a large portion of his adult life, Shakespeare spent his time writing sonnets for an upper class family, specifically for a young man (Rowse, 96). The beginning sonnets describe a ? lovely youth’ and it is believed that over time, Shakespeare’s sonnets became more personal as the relationship between him and his patron intensified. Scholars have professed that this patron could in fact be â€Å"the only begetter of the sonnets,† Mr.  W. H, or William Hughes. The majority of the sonnets were written between 1593 and 1596, however, they were not published until 1609 and then further edited in 1640, long after Shakespeare’s death (Auden, 86). The randomness of their order leads scholars such as Northrop Frye to question their validity in accurately capturing real life happenings (Fleperin, 96). The publisher who replicated the sonnets in 1640 actually changed the pronouns in sonnets 15 through 126 to make it seem as if the poems were addressed to a woman. The question now at hand is; are the feelings expressed in the sonnets a celebration of homosexual love? And if so, how could such feelings emerge in a time where homosexuality had no place in social life (Taylor, 39)? The sixteen hundreds were a time of strict values and high standards of living. At this time, embracing sexuality was not encouraged and questioning ones sexuality was not an option. During the English Renaissance it was common for men to wear their hair long and dress in silks and ruffles (Taylor, 45). World renowned professor, Edward Hubler, published his book, The Sense of Shakespeare’s Sonnets, in which he points out the Elizabethan men used the term â€Å"lover† between men without embarrassment (Hubler, 17). Author C. L. Barber, in his essay on Shakespeare’s Sonnets, reminds us that the suppressed roles of women in Elizabethan society kept them out of the theater, forcing men to play the roles of women in many of Shakespeare’s productions at the Globe Theater. This openness is most attributed to Shakespeare’s sexual curiosity, and because his masculinity was never in doubt, his sexual awakening quickly progressed. To truly grasp Shakespeare’s feelings for Mr. W. H, we must refer to sonnet twenty, which is the first in the series to address the mysterious love affair. Despite the fact that male friendships were openly affectionate, the sonnets’ powerful emotions are indicative of a deeper love (Cross, 1,490). Line two of the poem describe the subject as the â€Å"master-mistress† of his passion. Right away we sense a conflict between the love for a man and the love for a women. Shakespeare makes it known in lines eight and nine of the sonnet, that W. H was in fact created for a woman’s love and affection, telling his readers that his subject is male. Further into the poem he describes his acceptance of that fact that he was defeated by nature, but continues to acknowledge their love (Cross, 1,4940). Shakespeare’s persistence in his attempt to win over the heart of his acquaintance is noted in sonnets 135-137 (Cross, 1511,1512). It is here that Shakespeare emphasizes the name ? Will’ as seen in italics in nearly every line. It is at this point in the series where it is suspected that the poets love for W. H is being threatened by a woman. In attempts to re-establish the ? dark lady’ in relation to Mr. W. H, scholars have studied specific sonnets in which her character is revealed. We find that the twenty-five sonnets dedicated to a woman, the â€Å"dark lady,† dwell on her imperfections and falsehoods (Barber, 16). For example, in sonnet 127, Shakespeare devotes his energy to expressing a lower love toward the woman and a higher love toward the man. It is not until the later sonnets that Shakespeare begins to feel threatened by the dark lady, and begins to depict a competition for the heart of W. H. In sonnet 138, Shakespeare is almost trying to convince W. H that this woman could never love him in the manner that he was willing to (Cross, 1,870). Shakespeare’s main concern, in the midst of anguished humiliation, is to keep the man’s love, not the woman’s. Shakespeare’s inner conflict expressed in his works evidently developed during a time when his life, outside of the ? dark lady’ and W. H, was relatively normal, and this is another reason as to why the sequence of the sonnets is so important. As we know, Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway in 1582. She gave birth to his children soon after. Was this heterosexual fantasy life all a cover up for the love he shared with W. H? Because no one has been able to figure out the correct order of the sonnets we will never know precisely when these love affairs took place. To label Shakespeare a homosexual would be ignorant, only because the consummation of the love between the poet and his muse was never proven. We can only base our knowledge of his curiosity on the contents of the sonnets, and with that we can gather that Shakespeare was involved in affairs, not necessarily physical, with both a young man, Mr. W. H, and a reticent woman, the Dark Lady. The conflict involving these two characters sparked the fire that fueled the ingenious works of one of the greatest poets of all time, Mr. William Shakespeare. Auden, W. H. Lectures on Shakespeare. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 2000. Bloom, Harold. Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. New York: Riverhead Books. 1998. Cross, Wilbur, L. The Yale Shakespeare. New York: Barnes and Noble Books. 1993. Hubler, Edward. The Sense of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1952 Hugh, Calvert. Shakespeare’s Sonnets and Problems of Autobiography. Braunton: Merilin Books, 1987. Holland, Norman. Psychoanalysis and Shakespeare. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company. 1966 Pitt, Angela. Shakespeare’s Women. New Jersey: Barnes and Noble Books. 1981 Rowse, A. L. The Elizabethan Renaissance: The Life of the Society. New York: Charles Scriber’s Sons. 1971. Taylor, Gary. Reinventing Shakespeare. New York: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 1989. Internet Sources http://www. onlineshakespeare. com/sonnetsabout. htm http://andrejkoymasky. com/liv/sha/sha00. html http://infopt. demon. co. uk/shakespe. htm http://www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/wilde. htm http://aspirations. english. com. ac. uk/converse/essays/cgonda/loves. acds http://eserver. org/emc/1-2/halpern. html.

среда, 14 августа 2019 г.

Achieving and Maintaining Excellence

I believe myself to be a work in progress, as I get older I find myself wanting and desiring more out of life. Especially, when it deals with goals and objectives that can ultimately change my thought process. In order for me to achieve my set goals as well as achieve excellence I would have to change my current situations with family, education, work environment as well as on a personal note marriage. These entities provide stability and help me in moving forward in the right direction. There are so many factors in relation to achieving certain things and I believe that Peter Senge’s Five Disciplines help in achieving those measures.Ideally they relate to your very existence in effectively and efficiently carrying out those stepping stones towards gaining greater insight, a need to learn, understanding your surroundings, view points, and systematically understanding the measures of possibilities from within and in our daily lives. Five Disciplines Personal Mastery ideally is the spiritually mechanism that we have inside of us, personal growth is a strong entity to need and want. For me my personal growth would be to change my attitude towards certain things, learn from them and focus on being a better me in the process.This will allow me to be open to more things that will bring me ultimate joy. Becoming one with self, god, work, education, family and life helps me to achieve so much more than what it appears to be, happiness is something we inspire for and personal mastery is that for me, almost like connecting to my inner self. It also has been said that it is also legitimate to develop one’s own personal sources of power, such as one’s reputation, technical abilities, clear personal objectives, positive relationships with others, communication effectiveness,  and self-con?dence and optimism (Lynch, 1993, pp. 39–44).Mental Models sometimes I think that I prejudge or even assume things that are not really there. Until I had jury duty, and honestly saw firsthand the way we as people judge others just because of what they are being charged with. Until you hear all sides you begin to see the bigger picture, and notice a shift in your thinking process and that happened for me. We place everyone in little boxes, clusters of sorts and generalize them in a negative undertone that can be farthest from the truth.I believe that everyone has a story and it’s up to us to decipher what is the truth. Myself I now believe that we are all on the same playing field and deserve to be treated equal. This is one area whereas I will focus on changing about myself, understanding others in the process. Building Shared Vision is something that I have aspired with connecting to. One of my goals is to move to a low income area where the need is great and open a non-profit organization that will help addiction, teenager concerns, gay, lesbian and transgender, or even a place where children can have place to be children.I know that might be difficult, but for me it is a challenge that I am willing to struggle for. I may not have all the answers or the money to do so but it’s my eagerness to want to help those particular populations. Chapter 11 states that eventually there should be a â€Å"guiding coalition† (Kotter, 1996) whose members have the power, expertise, credibility, and leadership to make change happen. And that’s exactly what I will need in order to make this dream a reality. Team Learning with this I have learned that working as a team benefits what you are trying to accomplish.Since being in this school and experiencing this type of learning environment made me take note that one has to communicate, respect others and value everyone’s input. So this is how I approach my every day work and life exchanges. In chapter 11, Perlmutter (1985–1986) proposes four â€Å"approaches for proactive leadership,† each of which requires political sophistication. Thes e approaches include working with the appropriate political subdivisions, utilizing the voluntary sector, mobilizing external constituencies, and pursuing legal options.We have to understand our surroundings in order to learn from and build off. Systems thinking is just an integration of all of five disciplines. I would think that each provides a specific role in how we are to function on a daily basis. Ultimately, we want change and change is of the essence, Proehl (2001) suggests â€Å"acting quickly and revising frequently† (p. 109) to ensure that changes have the desired results or can be modi?ed. Integrating certain entities changes the response and how we do what we do in terms of service and self-growth.In terms of skills for growth and assessing myself, I would have to say that I believe that I can accomplish more with believe that I can and learning all that I can with work, school and life in general. Understanding that there is no difference in how we see things if we put the shoe on the other foot, this is the only way to change that thinking pattern. Noting and believing that I can do whatever is necessary (with the right tools and approaches) to believe that I can make a little difference in the lives that I cross. Communication is key to success and how we formalize the necessary measures in finding what we can do as a people.I believe in what I have said and to the degree of finding solace in my thinking process and motivates me to want and need more. If one was to integrate each of the discipline into an assessment one would have to understand the direct need to do so. In chapter 11 page 254 it states, this function of leadership is essential in ensuring integration of and alignment among all aspects of the organization. Personal Mastery and Thinking Systems as we integrate these two entities one would have to really dig deep inside to form an association between the two.There is a hunger or desire to want to improve on self, relationsh ips, friendship and family. Before one can ultimately do this you have to change from within, for me this is what I inspire to do. I have changed a lot, I no longer think of self first, changed my beliefs and aspirations, and have a yearning to learn as much as possible. This will help me to build on my dreams and be able to pass that hunger for education to my children as well. I want to lead by example by showing my children that you have to work hard for what you want and that education is your primary focus at all times.Mental Models and Thinking Systems it takes a strong mind to want to change ones outcome, changing the way we see people is showing that we can change out assumptions on others. For me it’s seeing past the rough exterior and looking at the totality of the situation or person. I used believe that if two people were together and something happens then they are guilty as one, or if you wear your pants off your behind then you are from the streets or if you us ed street slang you are ghetto. That is the farthest from the truth, the most powerful person is those who have street smarts and an education.You may not know this but what I have described was once my life, lived in the ghetto, had wore the tradition garb of those in the ghetto and used street slang. What ultimately changed that for me was when my mother died and I began to take life seriously. Shared Vision and Thinking Systems my thinking is putting the needs of other before my own, wanting to change or help someone with their issues as well as providing resources that will uplift their lives of a particular population. Sometimes the need is to provide a helping hand rather than having a door slammed in your face.I think what generally made me come to this conclusion is when my mother died. It made me understand who Natasha truly is and what I was doing with my life. It humbled me in so many ways, no one really knows the impact was living with an addict and having choose drugs o ver you. That has always been a catalyst towards everything I have ever wanted to do, that’s why I sort out the field of human service, I want to be there for someone like I couldn’t be for my mother without judgment or looking down on them. Team learning and Thinking Systems I have always been a team player, whatever specifics was needed I would get it done.I enjoy working and communicating ideals that potentially change the prospects for myself as well as anyone I am working with. We build off of each other, learn from each other, work together and help each other for a purpose. We all have different outlooks, ideas and aspirations which form an allegiance of sorts that makes us better people and facilitating the process of helping others. This is my framework in understanding the true me, identifying the things that make who I am, were I have, and who I have grown to be and inspire to be.The changes that I have moved passed have inspired me to achieve so many wonder ful things like children I didn’t children (before my mother died but because I was the only child that changed right away), education I took it for granted by dropping out of high school and look at me now, I have my Associate’s Degree in Human Services and working (4 more classes) towards my Bachelor’s Degree and I am going forward with the Master’s Program in Social Work, Public Health or staying in Human Services. These are all attainable goals because this is something I want and will achieve.I will of course stay in the hospital I currently work with because they have so many opportunities but through my union I can relocate to another city (that’s another goal that I have), I plan on within the next 2 years to move to a southern state because it would be better for my children as well as myself (peace in spirit, mind and soul) all of which will be done with my husband as well. My goals are a priority and they will be made a reality, one step at a time, with the intent of focusing on me first and everything else will come into play.