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Odysseus: Character Analysis

Odysseus: Character Analysis Odysseus Leader Odyssey Odysseus: a leader of past and a pioneer of the present era Odyssey, the leading character of The Odyssey is quite complex, fascinating and inspiring. Odyssey is quite dominant as a leader who is certain of his words and actions. However, there exists some uncertainties in his character which, at times, take the form of contradictions in the character of a great leader, overshadowing his true potential. Throughout the Odyssey, the lead character, Odysseus, has been presented as an ideal leader who treats his men well and deals efficiently with problems that are presented before him. Now there might arise a question as to how can the ideal leader be defined. An ideal leader has often been defined as one commands the respect of those being led, but also gives respect. He must be intelligent and cunning, and able to think logically with the intentions of keeping the well being of those under him. An ideal leader must have an ability to lead a military victoriously, but at the same time realizes as to when military action is unnecessary, and therefore must be avoided. Odyssey, at various occasions presents that he not only has attained these qualities but also demonstrated his keenness to enhance these qualities to the best of his ability. For example, Odysseus did not need to send his men probing the unfamiliar island, but still felt it necessary. This decision is one that had to be made, but given past experiences, the reader would expect Odysseus to choose otherwise, especially when his men felt hesitant. They were all silent, but their hearts contracted, remembering Antiphates the Laistrygon and that prodigious cannibal, the Kyklopes But seeing our time for action lost in weeping, I mustered those Akhaians under arms, counting them off in two platoons, myself and my godlike Eurylokhos commanding. (X, 217-224) Another instance when Odysseus demonstrates his leadership ability is when he is faced with the escape from Polyphemuss cave. His quick thinking and strategic approach gave him victory over the giant, two traits Homer emphasizes in Odysseus. Odysseus is able to lead his men to blind the Kyklops, but shows how no mortal man can be perfect, no matter how heroic, by shouting back at Polyphemus and telling him who had truly blinded him. Odysseuss similarity to some of the known leaders of ancient Greece can be used to express how Odysseus was presented as the ideal Greek leader. The first of whom being the democratic leader of Athens, Pericles, and second being Alexander the Great. Pericles was much like Odysseus in a sense of his ability to manipulate and influence those under him, a necessary skill in any democratic society. He was able to influence the other elected officials into believing what he wanted, and stemmed his success from that ability. Although not an especially admirable trait, the ability to influence men into what is needed to be done in the eyes of the leader is most certainly necessary, especially when it involves military authority. Alexander the Greats decisiveness is paralleled only by Odysseus, which is another trait that all strong leaders must possess. Another element to a leader that is often present is that of arrogance, as Alexander the Great believed himself to be half immortal, and he ld himself in comparison with Hercules. Alexander was even known to sleep with copies of Homers books under his pillow, and drew heavy influence from Homers characters, including Odysseus. At the same time Odysseus has been shown to be a complex person who suffers greatly on his return from Troy. As the gods challenge him with a wide variety of trials, Odysseus creates a positive influence for anyone in the ways he responds to each new test. In some instances, Odysseus shows himself to be a remarkable hero. In other ways, however, he shows himself to be a fallible human being – the true qualities of a leader. In other words, analyzing Odysseus throughout The Odyssey, one can see that Odysseus is a multifaceted character who displays both strengths and weaknesses. The epic hero of The Odyssey, Odysseus is a fascinating character full of contradictions. On one side he is eager in returning to his home to his faithful wife, Penelope, and his son, Telemachus, whom he has barely seen. Then on the other side he is perceived also perceived as a person who sleeps and lives with not one but two beautiful goddesses during his travels. On one hand, he shows little remorse for his infidelities, while on the other he still hates the suitors attempting to court his wife. These contradictions extend even to his intellect. Blessed with great physical strength, which he amply demonstrates, despite his hard years, he has an equally keen mind that bails him out of many dire situations. There is no better improviser or strategist in Greek mythology, though the label attached is often cunning or deceiver, indeed, many Greeks saw Odysseus habit of lying as a vice and a weakness. His penchant for disguise compliments his ability to make up plausible stories about his background. Although Odysseus ingenuity comes across as his chief weapon, his weakness is the frequency with which he falls victim to temptation and makes grave tactical errors, none more so than when adding insult to injury to Polyphemes and revealing his true name (his main fault!). Still, Odysseus is aware of this flaw, and bids his men to tie him up when they pass by the Sirens, the paragons of temptation. By the end of his journey, he has learned to resist temptation, willingly suffering abu se by the suitors to meet his eventual goal of destroying them. However, temptation hurts his crew, as well, in their encounters with Circe, the bag of winds from Aeolus, and the oxen of Helios. Despite his occasional mistake, Odysseus is a courageous and just leader who inspires admiration and respect from his shipmates and servants; the faithfulness of his dog and swineherd after so many years shows this. The near-constant protection he enjoys from the goddess Athena (the goddess of cunning and wisdom thus representing his counterpart in Mt Olympus) seems justifiable for a man who has endured so many hardships, and cast away so many luxuries, to reunite with his beloved family. Odysseus is considered to be one of the greatest mythological heroic leaders. Not only is he presented as the model for the ideal Greek leader, but has influenced many other leaders throughout history, including Alexander the Great. Odysseus was a model for ancient Greek leaders, and still influences our views of leadership today, although we may not even notice it. Employee Turnover: Literature Review Employee Turnover: Literature Review Employee turnover refers to the number of incoming and outgoing workers from an organization or company. The turnover of employees can occur following a myriad of factors, such as an excessive workload, not having sufficient authority, low salary, or the inefficient facilities of the organization. This study refers to the problems of employee turnover. Suggested causes of employee turnover include: Job dissatisfaction A lack of employee rights Management gives the workload of two people to an individual (excessive workload) A lack of decision making power Poor leadership A lack of allowances, bounces or fringe benefits Preferential treatment of employees No future in the company (i.e. repeatedly not being promoted) LITERATURE SEARCH Now we will search about the literature we are required for the study of Employee turnover, I referred to different articles, books, online databases and found the following researches previously done on the Employee turnover. From a study I found that causal relationship is if and then statement for example If price increase then demand will be decrease. In other words we can say causal relationship explore the effect of one thing upon other. From the study four models which show the causal relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employee turnover. We study that satisfaction build commitment in employees. And commitment creates satisfaction in employees. We understand that there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover. If employees are satisfied by their jobs it will leads commitment in employees towards organization (Magid Igbaria,Tor Guimaraes,Journal of Management Information Systems,Volume 16 Issue 1, June 1999 table of contents) From another study we understand that the attitude and behavior of employees affect the organization outcomes and profit. We can see if the organization is not encouraging the employees according to their rights then there will be higher rate of employee turnover. We can say that organization behavior, employee turnover, employee satisfaction can affect profitability and buyer satisfaction. We collect data from different sources like employee survey, manager survey, and customer survey and from the record of company for showing that how employee attitude and behavior can affect the company objective. From collected data we can observe that if human resources works well then there will be fewer turnovers in employees and business results will be better. (Daniel J. Koys, Personnel Psychology, Volume 54, Issue 1, pages 101-114, March 2001) From this study we understand that satisfaction level and perception of employees about jobs can be examined by checking the behavior of employees and organization. We examined that if employees are treated well they have good image of organization and satisfied with their jobs. If employees are satisfied with the behavior of organization that organization treat them fair attitude then satisfaction level about jobs of employees will be higher and turnover will be low. (John E. Dittrich and Michael R. Carrell 1978, University of Colorado, USA, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Volume 24, Issue 1, August 1979, Pages 29-40) From another study we understand that mental understanding, economic conditions and concepts about jobs of employees are the reasons of employee turnover. There is need to develop a structure or system in the organization for making policies to build the positive image about job in the minds of employees that will reduced the thinking of employees about economic conditions and satisfied the employees to continue their jobs that will cause the results low turnover of employees. (Baysinger,Barry D, Mobley,William H (APR 1982), Employee Turnover: Individual and Organizational Analyses). From this another study we get understanding that employee turnover is a big problem and it is a difficult task for human resources manager to reduced employee turnover in asia.we study that the attitude of employees are not positive, employees having negative attitude, because they think there is shortege of labour and it is not a difficult task for them to find a new job thats why employee turnover rate is very high that is a big issue for human resurces manager in asia.we study that the employee turnover rate in singapore is highest among asia.singapore companies developed a good setup to reduced the employee turnover rate in their home companies.from the abstarct we find that there are reasons of employee turnover like low organization commitment, lacke of justice for employees, and hope of new job in the mind of employees. (Naresh Khatri, Chong Tze Fern, Pawan Budhwar, Human Resource Management Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1, pages 54-74, January 2001) From this study we examined that there is high employee turnover rate in private clubs and industries. It is said by management that the reason for this is that employees are leaving their jobs on hourly basis that leads to high rate of employee turnover. Managers of private clubs and industries are appointed to find the reasons of employee turnover. Because manager having vast experience in their relevant field they can easily suggested that what are the reasons of employee turnover. We find that it is difficult for a team manager to create positive environment in industry to build the image of clubs and industries in the mind of employees to control the employee turnover rate. (Naresh Khatri, Chong Tze Fern, Pawan Budhwar, Human Resource Management Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1, pages 54-74, January 2001) We do another study we get understanding that how employee turnover can be control.here 153 New Zeland companies are selected to determine their employee turnover rates.153 companies of New Zeland use the skilled based and grouped based compensation plan to control the employee turnover rate.its means that they compensate their employees according to their skills,experience and qualifications.we observed that if employees are compensate according to their rights,thet are provided bounses,incentives then the employee turnover can be reduced. (James P. Guthrie, University of Kansas, Group Organization Management December 2000 vol. 25 no. 4 419-439) From this another study we find that there is problem of employee turnover is discussed. We can find here how employee turnover can be measured in different situations and importance of employees in organization.employee is the backbone of organization. It is discussed here how turnover rate can affect the organization effectiveness to chieve its objectives.there is need to reduced the employee turnover rate to prevent organization cost. (Kevin Morrell, John Loan-Clarke, Adrian Wilkinson (DEC 2002), International Journal of Management Reviews, Volume 3, Issue 3, pages 219-244, September 2001) From this study we can find what the relationship between organizational change and employee turnover is. Organizational change means the environments are not suitable for employees and employees are not compensating according to their rights thats why employee turnover rate is higher. If the organizational changes are in favor of employees then turnover can be reduced and it is also important for manager that the turnover can be controlled. (Kevin M. Morrell, John Loan-Clarke, Adrian J. Wilkinson, (2004) Organisational change and employee turnover, Personnel Review, Vol. 33 Iss: 2, pp.161 173) From this study we get understanding 353 nurse leavers the hospital in the national health and service of England nad Wales.it describe why the nursing turnover rate is so higher in hospital of national health and service.its reason is that the understanding and image of hospital is not good in the minds of nurses thats why their turnover rate is so high.the analysis of this research is that how employee turnover rate can be reduced.it can be reduced by improving the understanding of image of hospital in the minds of employees.it is also benificial for management and organization that their nursing turnover can reduced and it will be cost effective for hospital. (Kevin Morrell, John Loan-Clarke, Adrian Wilkinson(NOV 2004), British Journal of Management, Volume 15, Issue 4, pages 335-349, December 2004) We do another study Here we find what kinds of expensess and how much expensess can be faced to an organization due to the high employee turnover.here we study that if any employee leaves the organization then organization have to face expensess like recruitment, selection and training again.and it will be time consuming for organization.if employee leaves the organization then it will be difficult for management to hire suitable and productive employees and trained him easily and guide him. (J. Bruce Tracey, Ph.D, Cornell University School of Hotel Administration  Timothy R. Hinkin, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly February 2008 vol. 49 no. 11) From this another study we observe that how salaried employees having share in development activities of organization.here we study conducted analysis of a survey through this we understand that 667 employees think that on job traing which is providing to employees positively increased the commitment of employees towards organization and create positive image about organization and will result in reducing the rate of employee turnover.so the employee turnover can be reduced through providing them job related training and prepared them for marketable place and improve their skills.promoted the employees and build good relationship to reduced the turnover rate. (George S. Benson, MAR 2006, Human Resource Management Journal, Volume 16, Issue 2, pages 173-192) Here in this study we find that salaries issues and incentives are the reasons of employee turnover and low productivity. For this we collected data from 400 retail shop of UK.here in UK all the 400 shops compensate their employees on hourly basis, and there is no reward for workers on their productivity basis. When there is no productivity reward for workers then it create negative image. The employees who are productive will leave the firm and only low productive employees remains with the firm. When employees are satisfied with their jobs then productivity will increased. (Chevalier, Arnaud, Siebert, W. S, Viitanen Tarja, May 2003 University College Dublin. Institute for the Study of Social Change (Geary Institute) In this study we find that when the top management or leaders of an organization change the policies or structure at grand scale without proper planning or the frequency of these changes is high this results in high employee turn over and also cause senior employees to leave as it becomes difficult for them to cope with these changes as they have practiced old policies for a long time and are not able to change themselves quickly. (Baron, J. N. and Hannan, M. T. and Burton, M. D. (2001) Labor pains : change in organizational models and employee turnover in young, high-tech firms., American journal of sociology., 106 (4). pp. 960-1012.) According to integrative and expanded contextual model there are different variable which lead an employee to make the decision to stay or leave in an organization, it divides these variables in the following manner. Structural/Process Variables: Career growth opportunities, Rewards according to individuals performance, ease of communication, and finally the challenge involve in performing the duty. Environmental Variable: One environmental variable is that how much better opportunities are available in the market. Mediating Variable: What methods are adopted to keep the employee interested in there job. Demographic Variables: Finally the social (occupation, age, education, and sex) variables and there fulfillment. (THOMAS N. MARTIN, JR. Southern illinois University-Carbondale) This study discusses employee engagement behavior, according to it racial base pairing of supervisor and junior in an organization shows this result. At low levels where supervisor and junior are of same race tend to stay together in an organization for longer period as compare to supervisor and junior of different race, but at the higher levels of management members of different race tend to remain for longer period in the same organization. Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs | Marketing Essay Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs | Marketing Essay Research has been conducted on Maslows Hierarchy of Needs theory parallel to the theory of Personality Trait. Consequently, theoretical and practical implications of these theories have been discussed in regards of Chinese and Australian market. Trait theory focuses on the identification and quantitative measurement of personality in terms of specific psychological characteristics (Schiffman et al, 2011). Maslows theory of needs identifies five basic levels of human needs, which rank in order of importance from low-level (biogenic) needs to higher-level (psychogenic) needs (Schiffman et al, 2011). It provides an overview of the consumer market of China and Australia, as well as compares the products and contrasts them in terms of the different aspects of consumer behaviour of both the regions. This report also analyses the position an Australian exporter might have in China and the product it focuses on is tourism and how to market it to the Chinese population. Contents Introduction The aim of this report is to discuss the difference in consumer behaviour in China and Australia in terms of two personality theories the Trait Theory and Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory. China is one of worlds growing economies at the moment and comparing and contrasting consumer behaviour in Australia and China will help marketers decide what type of products they should concentrate on to expand and be a part of globalisation. It may even open up doors for Australian exportation to China for various products. The report explains the trait theory and Maslows theory as well as describes how some of the Chinese products relate to it in terms of consumer behaviour. This is followed up by contrasting them with Australian consumer behaviour and finally it discusses the opportunities for Australian exporters in China. Trait Theory Trait theory in psychology, as an approach of researching individuals personality, is prevalent in the field of management as well in terms of its relationship with peoples behaviour. Generally speaking, a trait can be considered as a comparably constant and stable characteristic that leads individuals to behave in certain ways. According to Gordon Allport, portrayed as the originator of the doctrine of traits (Zuroff D, 1986), traits are divided into three main categories: cardinal traits, central traits and secondary traits, which determine a persons characteristics in different levels. In the present days, the trait theory is more relating to the Big Five framework of personality traits, known as a robust model of acknowledging the relationship between traits and behaviours (Poropat, 2009). The five critical elements in Big Five can be recognized as extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness. Based on the association between personalities and behaviours, trait theory is broadly applicable to the study of consumer behaviour, especially in the aspect of culture referring to the global marketing. Different consumer behaviours are associated with divergent cultures which exert great impact on individuals personalities. Unlike the independent self-model that Western (especially North America) culture fosters, East Asian (particularly China) tends to be more collective between individuals and group members (Kanagawa, Cross, Markus, 2001; Yulia E Jeanne L, 2010), leading to different conventions and patterns of goods consumption. 2.1 Luxury goods Even not being in the individualism-asserted country, consumers in China are still under the impact of scarcity, which means they would pursue limited resources to satisfy unlimited wants. As the increase in purchasing power and divergent cognitions in brand of Chinese consumers, their demands for luxury goods have expanded in an accelerating rate. Luxury goods companies are expanding rapidly in China based on their forecasting global growth in the next 10 years. It has been reported (CLSA, 2011) that handbags, leather goods and jewellery are going to experience fast growth in the following several years; the fact is Chinese buyers have already been the biggest customers while Richemont, Gucci and Hermes also have large amount of sales made in China (about 22%, 18% and 11% respectively). 2.2 Cars Social status is a significant element existing in Chinas convention, leading the brand to be a critical consideration when choosing motor vehicles like cars. The consumer market research of Western multinationals in Asia comes to a conclusion that consumers in China are most interested in brands and trademarks (Backman M Butler C, p191-192). Although home-grown brands of Chinese car industry are increasingly emerging, the Western giants such as PSA Peugeot and Mercedes still have relatively more market share compared with home-branded companies in China. Chinese consumers tend to have more preference and confidence in famous-branded cars to show their social status as well as the wellbeing. 2.3 Media Products Personal and cultural values can be recognized as another important determinant in trait. According to Morriss (1956) Way to Live survey, the way act and enjoy life with group participation ranked in the second place, which means that Chinese people prefer to make group decision rather than independent one. Generally speaking, consumers in China are more likely to make group purchase of media products. To be more specific, the purchase of media products is not a simple decision to make for it is relatively large-portion spending of income in families. Given that an individual has introduced one preferable type of media products he has, counterparts (including friends, colleges and family members) are potentially to purchase the identical or similar product as well. However, the growing importance of self-valuation orientation cannot be ignored in the present years, which requires the subsidiary of multinational companies to get more emphasis on the personalization in designing their products. 2.4 Special Belongings Since the traditional cultural values, especially the god worship, have great influence on large amount of people, special belongings or so-called lucky charms are prevalent all around China. This product ought to be unique and meaningful to certain individuals. Under the force of convention, flexibility and performed to be local is a vital strategy to obtain success in such particular industry. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory Maslows hierarchy of needs, also known as Maslows macro theory, consists of a pyramid of needs, where people move up the pyramid by fulfilling the levels one by one. It starts off with physiological needs such as food and shelter, followed by needs for safety, social affiliation, self-esteem, and finally self-actualisation. According to Schiffman et al (2011), consumers tend to satisfy lower level needs first and it is necessary in order to move up the pyramid. When the initial need is satisfied, consumers face a new need which is of a higher-level. This continues on until the consumer presumably reaches the top of the pyramid of needs. When it comes to products however, it differs from culture to culture. For example, a product may be treated differently in Australia in comparison to another country, such as China. For consumers, their needs motivate their future needs, so for example, if they satisfy one particular need that will stop existing for them and give birth to another need. This allows them to pursue another need which seems more important to them (Kotler, 2000). For example, if a person needs a new phone, he/she will go buy it. This diminishes his/her need for a phone so that need will no longer be pursued. This means the initial need has been satisfied. However, now the person may think that they need to buy a case for their phone. So he/she will pursue this need now instead which seems more important in comparison now because the first need has been satisfied (appendix A). According to some researchers, lower level needs continue to motivate consumers and cause them to buy more products (Engel et al, 1995). Since this report talks about consumer behaviour in China and Australia in terms of personality theories, it can be said that Maslows theory will affect the different cultures in similar ways when it comes to certain products such as a phone and/or its case. Marketers use Maslows theory to target consumers. Sometimes a single product can satisfy multiple levels of the hierarchy. For example, a necklace from Tiffanys will fulfil a persons social affiliation as well as self-esteem needs its a pride and social issue for the consumer (appendix B). In the same scenario, a jacket from Louis Vuitton not only fulfils a persons physiological needs, but also their social and self-esteem needs (appendix C). Some researchers have come to the conclusion that Maslows theory is not fully valid as it did not go through all the necessary empirical research (Churchill Peter, 1998). Despite these claims, many think that Maslows theory helps marketers. Consumers buy different products for different reasons, sometimes one product can satisfy multiple needs. For example, Johnny Walker Black Label, a brand of alcohol, not only serves as a drink, but also as a symbol of prestige and social affiliation (appendix D). China is a collectivist society, as opposed to Australia which takes an individualistic approach. When applying Maslows theory of needs, it is essential to keep in mind that in Chinese cultures, the consumers will react to the affiliation step differently compared to Australian culture. Difference in the consumer behaviour 4.1 Media With the changing environment and continuous pace of Chinese consumer market, products are very often being accepted by the consumers before it has successfully established its place in the market. Traditionally, advertisement on television helps a lot in gaining attention of the Chinese consumers. However, the consumers react best while they get a recommendation from someone close to them. In China it is still very high likely to get peoples response via television commercials whereas in Australia the response rate is higher in radio advertisement. 4.2 Personal Characteristics Considering the factors of the Big five Model, Chinese people emphasis more on the concept of Face which is the influence of others. They are more likely to buy expensive/ luxurious product to keep up their face. They would always go for branded items or try something unusual and expensive. Researches show that the most popular brands of China are Louis Vuitton, Chanel, Gucci etc. On the other hand Australian people look for something reliable and longer lasting. The trait theory describes about consumers different characteristics which influences their purchase behaviour. For instance, people in China are low in dogmatism and so they have the drive towards new launch. This reflects the idea that, whether or not they will make a purchase just because its the newest, most popular item available or because it is truly what they need and/or want. On the other hand people with high dogmatism will stick to the brands they feel comfortable with. Purchasing behaviour of a consumer is also influenced by the way the product is advertised by the marketer. It entirely depends on how the market identifies its potential customer. For example the Billy Martin and George Steinbrenners emphasises on both taste and its less filling quality (appendix E). Traditionally, Chinese people are more likely to drink with a gathering of friends and family. So they would not respond very well to this television commercial. To sum it up, along with all the characteristics, culture and social norms are equally important for a product to be successful. If the product represent the existing values of specific region its more likely to receive better response. 4.3 Maslows Theory According to the Maslows hierarchy theory income is one of the major elements effecting consumer behaviour. As wages are continuously rising from the past few years in china, theres been a drastic change in peoples behaviour. The basic needs are met, so people are looking forward for the upper level of Maslows hierarchy pyramid. On the other hand, Australians expenditure has dropped down due to few financial strikes over the last few years. So, the Australian consumer market is concentrating more towards the Physiological needs level of Maslows hierarchy. Marketing Opportunity for Australian Exporter The increasing westernization of China, coupled with the rapid growth rates experienced by a developing economy, has seen a marked increase in international investment within the Chinese economy; representing a global perspective of strong economic potential from such a large market base. The nature of the Chinese economys growth facilitates an increase in wealth per capita and allows for higher disposable incomes, which means that consumers have a greater ability to satisfy higher levels of Maslows hierarchy of needs. Tourism represents a positive marketing opportunity for an Australian exporter due to the dramatic social, cultural and economic change that has taken place, as well as the potential influence that this market base might have on the entire tourism industry (S Chen and M Gassner 2012). The China National Tourism Administration forecasts that by the year 2015, China will have 100 million international travelers (World Travel Online 2011). Providing a diverse range of all-inclusive package tours empowers Chinese tourists to make consumer choices based on their personal characteristics and values. Packaged offerings could take advantage of the gift buying culture in China by including specific shopping stages throughout the trip, helping to fulfill the social needs of Chinese tourists (M Chiang 2012). This differentiated approach to package tours not only provides Chinese Tourists with a greater variety of options, but also helps them to learn about the wide range of Australian tourism p roducts (D Buhalis and E Laws 2001). The marketer could also emphasize the importance and evolving nature of the relationship between Australia and China as a reason to choose Australian tourism products over other western offerings. Furthermore, since mostly the Middle Upper class of Chinese society will be the target market for the exporter; select Australian tourism products could be marketed as being luxurious or lavish, which can help to satisfy the ego level of Maslows hierarchy of needs. 6. Conclusion In conclusion, it can be seen that the cultures in China and Australia are different as well as similar when it comes to consumer behaviour they react differently to advertisements and then to products. It is very important for marketers to account for this fact as explained with the help of Trait theory and Maslows theory of needs. This report also explains how tourism is a rising product that Australia can promote tourism to China as there is great potential for many joint ventures. It is important to also account for the similarities if the marketers want to get maximum advantage out of the consumers. 7. References Beckman. M, Butler. C, 2003, Big in Asia, p191-192, Martins Press, Great Britain Churchill, Gilbert A. Peter, J. Paul, 1998, Marketing: Creating value for Customer, 2nd Edition, Irwin/McGraw Hill (Boston) Engel James F., etc., Blackwell R.D., Miniard P.W., 1995, Consumer Behaviour, 8th Edition, U.S.A, Dryden Press D Buhalis and E Laws , Tourism Distribution Channels: Practices, Issues and Transformations 2001 Jennifer L. Aaker, Dimensions of Brand Personality, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Aug., 1997), pp. 347-356 Frans Giele , Chinese Consumer Behaviour, An Introduction, 6th February 2009. Kotler, Philip, 2000, Marketing Management, Millennium Edition, Prentice Hall (Upper Saddle River, N.J.) Meera Komarraju , Steven J. Karau, Ronald R. Schmeck, Alen Avdic, 2011, The Big Five personality traits, learning styles, and academic achievement, Elsevier, p472-477, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, United States Schiffman, Leon, OCass, Aron, Paladino, Angela, DAlessandro, Steven, Bednall, David, 2011, Consumer Behaviour, 5th Edition, Pearson Australia Pty Ltd. Sergio Picazo-Velaa, Shih Yung Choua, Arlyn J. Melchera, John M. Pearsona, Why provide an online review? An extended theory of planned behavior and the role of Big-Five personality traits, Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 26, Issue 4, July 2010, Pp 685-696. World Travel online, China is forecast to be the number one source of tourists by 2015, 1 April 2011 Yulia E. Chentsova-Dutton, Jeanne L. Tsai, 2010, Self-Focused Attention and Emotional Reactivity: The Role of Culture , p507-519, Georgetown University, Stanford University, American Yang Kuo-shu, 1986, Chinese Personality and its Change, p106-170, Oxford University Press, Hong Kong Zuroff. David C, 1986, Was Gordon Allport a Trait Theorist, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Cultures of Collecting: Pros and Cons Cultures of Collecting: Pros and Cons Why do people collect? What are the oppressive and the more therapeutic aspects of the ‘cultures of collecting’? The phenomenon of collecting is a universal feature of societies across the world. Current research recognises that museums organised over the last 150 years ‘represent all sorts of possibilities for exploring other times, places and ways of life,’[1] yet as Gosden and Knowles state, there has been little ‘in-depth’ research into the meaning and status of collections[2] . This essay seeks to define the major approaches to studying the phenomenon of collecting, and how these approaches have been informed by a historical understanding of collections that has developed over time. Particular focus will be given to a Euro-centric understanding of collecting and how collecting has been used to represent autonomy and preserve cultures which are under threat. Susan Pearce, from the University of Leicester, suggests that in modern post-Renaissance western society, museums are the ‘political and cultural institutions entrusted with holding the material evidence, real things, which constitute much modern knowledge.’[3] Pearce’s paper examines how and why museums are perceived to embody set knowledge and values, while recognising that study of museums and collections has three distinctive approaches. Firstly, each museum object and specimen can be seen as individual, secondly, there exists the professional care approach that seeks to better understand the mechanisms and motivations behind the collections themselves, and thirdly there are interpretive approaches which examine the nature of collections. Scholarship recognises that the inclination to collect can be most clearly identified to have originated in the eighteenth century (eg: Benedict, 2001[4]). Benedict identifies her study as an examination of the representation of curiosity, of curiosities, and of curious people[5], again like Pearce suggesting that the cultures of collecting are to be considered in direct relation to all three distinctions. Curiosity that Benedict argues lies at the heart of collecting was manifested in a variety of forms in the eighteenth century. In his review of Benedict’s book Dennis Todd writes that these manifestations can be seen in novels, satiric poetry and drama, journalism, trial transcripts, prints, and reports of scientific experiments; as well as in museums, exhibitions, and cabinets of curiosities; and in works by Shadwell, Swift, Pope, Defoe, Walpole, Beckford, Samuel Johnson, Radcliffe, Godwin, and Mary Shelley[6]. Collecting in early societies has been identified as being closely associated with exhibiting as a process through which to display a collector’s knowledge and education. For example, Wolfram Koeppe, from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, states that pre-Renaissance societies had a taste for collecting the strange and the curious, and that this inclination had long been part of human evolution.[7] Suetonius (died 122 A.D.) records that Augustus, the Roman Emperor had his houses embellished, not only with statues and pictures but also with objects which were curious by reason of their age and rarity, like the huge remains of monstrous beasts which had been discovered on the Island of Capri, called giants bones or heroes weapons.[8] The desire to showcase collections as symbols of power, knowledge and authority has meant that some collections have tended to possess less artistic merit and are more assertive and thus oppressive in their content and organisation. For example, Afric an museum contents have proven to be a strong area for museum researchers to focus on. The Scramble for Art in Central Africa is a study of a group of collectors, such as Torday, Frobenius and Schweinfurth, who worked in the Belgian Congo at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and were interested in how objects such as carved figures or metal items reflected local social forms. As Gosden and Knowles explain, ‘this is a process by which Africa was invented for the West, arriving back in the northern hemisphere stripped of context and presented in private collections and museums so as to create particular impressions of African tribalism and designs.’[9] By removing objects from their original context and moving them to suit the commercial and social aspirations of a very different culture, the objects’ meaning is thus obscured and essentially altered. Although collecting objects in this way can, in some cases, preserve the existence of the objects, the motives behind the desire to possess the objects in the first instance are questionable. Many collectors in early twentieth-century England were unscrupulous in their acquirement and handling of unusual and collectable items. For example, the archaeologist and antiquarian collector known as Edward Cunnington developed a poor reputation for removing objects that he particularly ‘liked’ and keeping them at his own premises[10]. Benedict highlights the phenomenon of collecting to be intrinsically linked to ambition both personal and national, often with hegemonic motivation. In the eighteenth century, curiosity was associated with an ‘empirical bent of mind’ in relation to new social opportunities and a new commercial culture that echoed ‘curiositys desire for novelty and for the personal, intellectual, and moral development.’[11] Todd writes that collecting ‘had an air of menace’: that ‘in its restless exploration of new realities, curiosity was dangerous, subversive [..] By definition, it was motivated by a discontent with what one knew or with what one was. Its essence was ambition.’[12] It is the opinions of many scholars that European countries have attempted to build strongholds for themselves by using collections to their economic and imperialistic advantage, thus asserting their independence from, and authority over, other countries. Cultural imper ialism as constructed through Eurocentric means of production, imbued with Western ideologies, has resulted in biased interpretations of historical events. This means that ways of representing and exhibiting material can often tend to favour and reinforce historical events which place Western societies in a strong and favourable light, focussing less on historical events or material that suggests otherwise. In Photography, as suggested by Mark Sealy Director of ‘Autograph’, the Association of Black Photographers a ‘Eurocentric hierarchy’ has developed from ‘the propagation of canonical figures to sustain hegemonic control across the cultural and commercial industries.’[13] Sealy highlights Photography and the associated control of the distribution of images as being a ‘vital component in the execution of Western, colonial policies, especially in relation to extreme, exploitative and aggressive imperial desires that endorsed systems such as slavery, suppression of tribal peoples and national independence movements.’[14] Although in the more obvious cases such as British photography of African culture this approach may be valid, the view that Eurocentric hegemonic control is all-pervading is damaging to the artistic credibility of collections which seek only to further and sustain the culture that they represent. Understanding the phenomenon of collecting as a means of preserving and repatriating heritage can afford a more insightful perspective on the motivations of collections. In present cultures across the world the impulse to collect grows stronger in light of fading cultural distinctions and the spread of Westernised society. With a shrinking island of opportunity for indigenous cultures to reassert their position and maintain their existence in specific geographical areas or types of landscape, collections can become celebrations of originality and uniqueness that is consistently threatened by the universality and uniformity of Western ideals. Collecting becomes a near-desperate attempt to keep hold of livelihoods and traditional ways of life. A good example of a culture under threat is the Cree Indians of Moosonee, Canada, whose ‘Cree Village’ reconstruction offers tourists the opportunity to see a history of 300 years of the fur trade history. However, such museums can o ften fall short of Western expectations, being overpriced or poorly organised[15]. Kylie Message in her 2007 publication, New Museums and the Making of Culture, speaks of the term ‘survivance’; meaning ‘more than survival [..] raising our social and political consciousness.’[16] As a way of defending against the threatening spread of Western living, a museum called the National Museum of the North American Indian in Washington, DC has exhibits which actively try to erase the stamp of Euro-centric Imperialism on its culture. Opened in 2004 the museum was developed collaboratively between architecture groups and Native American Indians, with the main exhibits integrating religious, mythical themes and a series of displays created by diverse communities.[17] These include a welcome wall that spells the word ‘welcome’ in hundreds of native languages, objects, stories; all put together with the universal goal of political advocacy and the need to pr omote cultural rights. In contrast to the socio-political aspirations of indigenous cultures, the therapeutic qualities of collecting or collections are noted by Lois Silverman to include significant benefits or positive changes for individuals or groups. Participating in programme activities at museums can offer the chance to ‘experience’ the problems and demands of lifestyles over time, and can be related to one’s own difficulties. Being able to observe the shapes, forms, and meanings of certain arrangements of objects can offer revelatory experiences, and afford the psychological space to better endure one’s own difficulties, while promoting positive change[18]. This phenomenon although only recently qualified as such has long been a feature of the museum experience. For example, in his essay On Experience, Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592) reflects: For in my opinion, the most ordinary things, the most common and familiar, if we could see them in their true light, woul d turn out to be the grandest miracles of nature and the most marvellous examples, especially as regards the subject of the action of men.[19] The role of memory in the understanding of cultural heritage is also closely linked to the therapeutic aspect of museum experience. Programmed events or tours are designed to dispel feelings of disassociation and to help the viewer engage with what they see rather than view it as a relic or something that bears little relation to themselves or their understanding of the world. Such an experience can precipitate remembrance of past events in the viewer’s own life that can help them to come to terms or better cope with life-threatening illnesses and behavioural health issues. In conclusion, the notion of collecting is a diverse concept, our understanding of which is often historically informed. Contemporary understandings of collections and collecting involve forays into the therapeutic and psychological effects of collections which can be experienced by the viewer. Caution must be exercised in the study of Western representations and interpretations of foreign cultures: although, arguably, it is already too late, as Imperialist ideals are entrenched in the Western methods of design, portrayal and interpretation of ‘other’ cultures. It is a stirring thought that Eurocentric ideology has had such a damaging effect on the welfare and existence of other cultures. As Sealy so keenly expressed ‘the greater Africa’s exposure through the lens of European anthropologists, the greater was Africa’s cultural erasure.’[20] Since the eighteenth century understandings of the collector have changed from the image of the dusty anti quarian, to the more diverse and culturally aware motivation to collect that places socio-political aspirations at the forefront of collections. These understandings of collecting continue to be discussed by scholars today, and continue to develop according to changing social and academic trends. Bibliography Anderson, M.L., 1999, ‘Museums of the Future: The Impact of Technology on Museum Practices.’ Daedalus. Vol 128. Issue: 3. 129. American Academy of Arts and Sciences Benedict, B.M., 2001, A Cultural History of Early Modern Enquiry. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press Bennett,T. 1995 The Birth of the Museum :History,Theory,Politics . Ch 2 The Evolutionary Complex Dean, D., 1996, Museum Exhibition: Theory and Practice. London: Routledge Gosden, C., and Knowles, C., 2001, Collecting Colonialism: Material Culture and Colonial Change. New York: Berg Hooper-Greenhill, E., 1995, Museum, Media Message. New York: Routledge Jameson, F., 1991, Postmodernism, Or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham:: Duke University Press Koeppe, W. Collecting for the Kunstkammer . In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. Available from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kuns/hd_kuns.htm  [Accessed 31/10/08] Krauss,R., 2004, ‘The Cultural Logic of the Late Capitalist Museum,’ reprinted in D.Preziosi and C.Farago eds Grasping the World, pp. 600-611 Message, K., 2007, New Museums and the Making of Culture. Berg Publishers. Miles, R., and Zavala, L. (eds), 1994, Towards the Museum of the Future: New European Perspectives. New York: Routledge Millgate, M., 2004, Thomas Hardy: A Biography Revisited. New York: Oxford University Press Pearce, S., ’Studying Museum Material and Collections,’ International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol 1, Issue 1, (1994), pp.30-39 Salloum, H., ‘Among the Cree Indians of Canada.’ COntemporayr Review, (Jan, 1998). [online]. Available from:  BNET http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2242/is_n1584_v272/ai_20539966/pg_4  [Accessed 31/10/08] Sealy, M., 2007, ‘White Noise Photography and Visual Power.’ [online[. Available from:  http://thedemocraticimage.opendemocracy.net/participate-blog-for-us/  [Accessed 31/10/08] Sherman, D., and Rogoff, I., 1994, Museum Culture: Histories, Discourses, Spectacles. London Routledge Silverman, LH., ‘The Therapeutic Potential of Museums as Pathways to Inclusion.’ In Sandall, R., 2002, Museums, Society, Inequality. London: Routledge Todd, D., 2002, ‘Curiosity: A Cultural History of Early Modern Inquiry.’ Criticism. Vol 44. 2. P. 189+. Wayne State University Press Witcomb, A., 2003, Re-Imagining the Museum: Beyond the Mausoleum. New York: Routledge 1 Footnotes [1] Gosden, C., and Knowles, C., 2001, Collecting Colonialism: Material Culture and Colonial Change. New York: Berg, p.49. [2] Ibid. [3] Pearce, S., ’Studying Museum Material and Collections,’ International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol 1, Issue 1, (1994), pp.30-39 [4] Benedict, B.M., 2001, A Cultural History of Early Modern Enquiry. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, p.1. [5] Ibid. [6] Todd, D., 2002, ‘Curiosity: A Cultural History of Early Modern Inquiry.’ Criticism, Vol. 44, p.189. [7] Koeppe, W., Collecting for the Kunstkammer . In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. Available from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kuns/hd_kuns.htm [Accessed 31/10/08] [8] Ibid. [9] Gosden, C., and Knowles, C., 2001, Collecting Colonialism: Material Culture and Colonial Change. New York: Berg, p.49. [10] See Michael Millgate, 2004, Thomas Hardy: A Biography Revisited. New York: Oxford University Press, p.227. [11] Todd, 2002, p.189. [12] Ibid. [13] Sealy, M., 2007, ‘White Noise Photography and Visual Power.’ [online[. Available from:http://thedemocraticimage.opendemocracy.net/participate-blog-for-us/[Accessed 31/10/08] [14] Ibid. [15] See Salloum’s article ‘Among the Cree Indians of Canada.’ Contemporary Review, (Jan, 1998). [online]. Available from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2242/is_n1584_v272/ai_20539966/pg_4[Accessed 31/10/08]. [16] Message, K., 2007, New Museums and the Making of Culture. Berg Publishers. [17] Ibid. [18] Silverman, LH., ‘The Therapeutic Potential of Museums as Pathways to Inclusion.’ In Sandall, R., 2002, Museums, Society, Inequality. London: Routledge, pp.69-78. [19] Cited in Koeppe, 2000. [20] Sealy, M., 2007, ‘White Noise Photography and Visual Power.’ [online[. Available from:http://thedemocraticimage.opendemocracy.net/participate-blog-for-us/[Accessed 31/10/08].

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