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Comparative Analysis on Kikuyu

Comparative Analysis on KikuyuComparative Analysis on Kikuyu at bottom the SPE and Post-SPE Framework Term Paper for Foundations of Phonology CourseIntroductionThis news piece aims at observing the selective information as theater of Kikuyu voice communication. Two good examples argon comp bed, i.e. the buy the farm Pattern of English (henceforth SPE), and Post SPE (Auto elemental Phonology). at bottom the controvertion, approaches form different theories gist worrywise be highlighted however, the main point summarizeressed in this paper is to evaluate the information circumstances of Kikuyu on the basis of phonological theories deep down the two posers involved.Based on SPE possibility, the lexical entries should consist of sufficient information for the phonological traffic patterns in order to learn its ph whizztic forms for each context. In other words, each lexical en travail is entered as a set of phonological distinctive gambols. Furtherto a greater extent , the inherent mental federal agency (UR) is considered as an abstract authority in comparison to a surface playactation (SR). Along the paper, we lead discuss both fabrics to permither with possess notations and consequently we each(prenominal)ow collapse the info set segmentally to obtain the traffic patterns governing the language of Kikuyu.In the neighboring section, we result attempt to analyze the variability of the coordinated articulary frame-up with the spirit of the Post-SPE framework driven by a number of principals in the optimization of the info set epitome of with respect to the framework inquestion. During the analysis, we pass on not consider some basic requirements such as No Crossing Constraint and Linking Constraint in order to be self-consistent with the well-formedness condition of Post-SPE framework. Furthermore, we im partly also approach the so-called geome leaven of phonic representations accompevery by sufficient examples to figure c ome in any practical solution. nonpareil of the central issues addressed inwardly this paper is the analysis on the modify of wasted + consonant with respect to the given up data set. We leave try to compare two theories in question and observe how those theories could account for the changes in the data set. At a later stage, we will read which theory casts better analysis of the given data than the other does.Some literatures will be considered especially those from the textbook of Phonological Theory The Essential Readings by Goldsmith, J. such as The Sound Pattern of English by Chomsky, N. and Halle, M., among others, as well as relevant sources which might give us more information about the language of Kikuyu. Now, let us go with the analysis from the first framework, i.e. the SPE framework.The SPE FrameworkThe SPE framework is believed to be the basis of fat Phonology since theories at heart this framework were influenced by the views from generative linguistics. Ch omsky and Halle (in Goldsmith, 1999 17-19) states that a speakers cognition of his language consists of k without delaying the lexical features of the language and each lexical intromission must contain specified features, which determine the phonetic form of the item in all contexts, i.e. the items phonological features. Furthermore, such phonological features are classificatory devices, they are binary, as are all other classificatory features in the lexicon, for the natural bearing of indicating whether or not an item belongs to a extra category is by means of binary features.There will be two levels of representations that will be discussed in the SPE framework underlying representation (i.e. lexical or morphophonemic sequence) and the surface form (i.e. phonetic yield form). Given the authors aim at maximizing the simplicity of the grammar, it follows that underlying representations should be as abstract as possible and avoid redundant, or non-distinctive, features. minif y underlying representations are indeed a requirement to ensure the inductive terra firmaing of the overall linguistic system.Within this framework, we will analyze the data set on the language of Kikuyu in the spirit of geomorphologic analysis, overview on any possible alternation in spite of appearance the dataset, as well as identifying the underlying representation (UR) from the given data set. Following this analysis, we will try to observe possible rules with feature notation of the given data in order to get a generalized rule ordering within the data set. For this analysis, we also refer to the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) chart, especially for the consonants chart and their features. let us try to analyze the data set from the structural analysis with the given data set to a lower place.The data set of Kikuyu is given below in conf drop 1 Imperative---1 sg. continuous tense--English Meaning ura------mbureet?-------- take apart off aara-----m baareet?-------look at t?ma------nd?meet?--------cut toma------ndomeet?--------send reha------ndeheet?--------pay ru?a------ndu?eet?--------cook cina------ineet?--------burn koma------?gomeet?--------sleep kera------?gereet?--------cross ?ora------?goreet?--------buy ?aja------?gajeet?--------divideFrom dishearten 1, we burn down bewitch that there are two forms to observe, the one being Imperative and the other being the 1-sg-Imperfect from data set of Kikuyu language, which is followed by its meaning in English. The table shows that for each given word, several(prenominal) letter remain unchanged, which is typed in Bold inside the word. Most of them designm to substantiate a Vowel and Consonant order (VC) and a long vowel one (i.e. VVC) such as in aara. Furthermore, we lavatory also see in the Imperative column in which all words are of all time ended with a, marked afterwards a clobber sign (-). Subsequently, the words in the first singular Imperfect column are always ended with an eet?, which is also separated by a slash (-). A complete data set analysis is given in table 2 below. carry over 2 Imperative-------------1 sg. Imperfect------------English Translation ur - a--------------------mbur - eet?----------------------lop off aar- a--------------------mbaar- eet?----------------------look at t?m - a--------------------nd?m - eet?----------------------cut tom - a--------------------ndom - eet?----------------------send reh - a--------------------ndeh - eet?----------------------pay ru? - a--------------------ndu? - eet?----------------------cook cin - a--------------------in - eet?----------------------burn kom - a--------------------?gom - eet?----------------------sleep ker - a--------------------?ger - eet?----------------------cross ?or - a--------------------?gor - eet?----------------------buy ?aj - a --------------------?gaj - eet?----------------------divideFrom table 2, we fire see that the unchanged letters, which are Bold typed above, are the stems or could be better of the stems of the word in underlying representation. Furthermore, we fuel also see suffixes, which delegate the Imperativeness or the given words that are signaled as the closing letter a at the terminal position of the word. From the regularity of the final letters eet?, we bay window say that the given words must be classified as suffixes indicating the 1 sg. Imperfect form of Kikuyu language. We will discuss the underlying forms of the morphemes regularity in a separate discussion in a later part. Now let us see the body structure of the wasted sound which occurs in front the stems.It is presumable that an alternation is defined as a morpheme, which has two different sound shapes, which can be analyze by a phonological butt against. From the data set of Kikuyu, the some alternations can be spy a s indicated in the followers table (see table 3). The alternations can be place easily in that mystifys b t /r becomes d c becomes ? k / ? becomes g. Those alternations can be viewed as the alternations in the language of Kikuyu whose phonological assist will be explored in rules. tabular array 3 Imperative------------1 sg. Imperfect In a.b.-------------------------mb In c.d.t-------------------------nd In e.f.r-------------------------nd In g.c--------------------------- In h. i. k-----------------------?g In j. k. ?-----------------------?gFurthermore, we can also see that a impecunious consonant is inserted before the changed consonant, e.g. m n ? and ?, which suggests that the morphological process goes along with the phonological process. Such insertion shows us great points for the data set in the language of Kikuyu. We will discuss such phenomenon in greater concern in later part. However, there is one affair to say about this phenomenon in the insertion of nasal consonant in the 1 sg. Imperfect groups could be analyzed as certain prefixes implant which might express the tense of a verb. Whenever the alternation is constructed in an opposite way, i.e. b becomes in data set, this lead to an ill formed construction. Such a case is also falsifiable from data h. and j. in which ?g would become k and ? respectively following the case. Therefore, we will consider the sequence of alternation as from Imperative to 1 sg. Imperfect. The reanalysis of the stems of both forms is illustrated in table 4 below. two prefixes (nasals) and suffixes ( a and eet?) are discarded in table 4 so that we can get the stem of each verb.Table 4. Imperative--------------1 sg. Imperfect--------------English Meaning ur---------------------bur-------------------------------lop off aar--------------------baar------------------------------look at t?m---------------------d?m-------------------------------cut tom---------------------dom--- ----------------------------send reh---------------------deh-------------------------------pay ruc---------------------du?-------------------------------cook cin---------------------?in-------------------------------burn kom---------------------gom-------------------------------sleep ker---------------------ger-------------------------------cross ?or---------------------gor-------------------------------buy ?aj---------------------gaj-------------------------------divideWhat we train ascertained so far indicates that phonological components are obtained by mapping from the underlying representation (UR) to the surface (phonetic) representation (SR). This mapping phenomenon can be observed by rewrite rules which will be discussed in a separate part. In other words, the data set of Kikuyu we lead so far could be considered as the Surface Representation. In the following paragraphs, we attempt to identify the underlying representation of the Kikuyu language.As noted above, we beget seen that the unchanged letters in table 2 could be analyzed as the stems or part of the stems of the words in the underlying representation. On the basis of minimization of the underlying representation we will attempt to rule in the consonant before the unchanged letters because it seems to be farfand so forthed to predict the consonants such as , t, r, c, k, ? by rule. Furthermore, we redeem also observed that the consonant can shift to b not the vice versa. Referring to the SPE theory, minimizing the underlying representation means that anything, which can be predicted by a rule, should be eliminated from the underlying representation. For instance, the duty period from to b can be viewed in table 4 which is exemplified by the shifting is from ur to bur. Such process also applies to all other words in the data set. By definition, we could get something like /ur/ to be the actual stem for underlying representation of the word, which m eans lop off in Kikuyu. The stems in underlying representation in the data set are presented in table 5 below and the fundamental Representations for the Imperative and 1 sg. Imperfect are represented in table 6.Table 5 UR Stem English Meaning /ur/ lop off /aar/ look at /t?m/ cut /tom/ send /reh/ pay /ru?/ cook /cin/ burn /kom/ sleep /ker/ cross /?or/ buy /?aj/ divideTable 6 Imperative UR 1 sg. Imperfect UR English Meaning /ur - a/ /Nas - bur -eet lop off /aar - a/ /Nas - baar-eet look at /t?m - a/ /Nas - d?m -eet cut /tom - a/ /Nas - dom -eet send /reh - a/ /Nas - deh -eet pay /ru? - a/ /Nas - du? -eet cook /cin - a/ /Nas - ?in -eet burn /kom - a/ /Nas - gom -eet sleep /ker - a/ /Nas - ger -eet cross /?or - a/ /Nas - gor -eet buy /?aj - a/ /Nas - gaj -eet divideIn the framework of SPE, we acquire been familiar with the cost such as abbreviatory conventions, conciseness, understate UR, dominate format and Evaluation measures, etc. They will be considered here under IPA consonant chart and feature table where relevant information is given in table 7 belowTable 7(Imp = Imperative) (1sg = 1 sg. Imperfect) assort A (data a. b.) - bilabial fricative (Imp) b - bilabial full point (1sg) m - bilabial nasal (1sg) multitude B (data c. d. e. f.) t - dental consonant stop (Imp) r - alveolar fricative (Imp) d - alveolar plosive (1sg) n - alveolar nasal (1sg) Group C (data g.) c - palatal plosive (Imp) ? - palatal plosive (1sg) ? - palatal nasal (1sg) Group D (data h. i. j. k.) k - velar plosive (Imp) ? - velar fricative (Imp) g - velar plosive (1sg) ? - velar nasal (1sg)From the distribution in table 7, we can draw some outstanding information in the surface level. In Imperative classification (Imp), we can observe that the fricatives are plosives whereas in (1sg) group, we only observe the plosives ones. This observation is stabilising for arriving at t he deduction that under certain environment, fricatives/plosives are interpreted as () plosives. Furthermore, within each group, we can identify that the same agency of voice is shared, i.e., bilabial / alveolar / palatal / velar. This observation will contribute to identify the relation between the changed consonants and the added nasal sound types.In the mean time, within each 1sg group, we can also observe that the nasal sound always precedes the plosive sound. This observation is useful for understanding whether the prefix gaunt functions are in a linear order. By curbing the minimized major feature for these consonants, we can generate some crucial feature notations as noted below. 1. Fricatives -son, +cont 2. Plosives -son, -cont 3. Nasals +son, -contTherefore, flat we can observe the assimilation of the feature cont in the course of transferring from fricatives to plosives and plausibly the dissimilation of the feature son between nasals and plosives. In order to satisfy the conditions of Minimize UR and the Evaluation measure, we could observe each sound in detail and add the feature voice where we can see that all plosives and nasals are +voiced as illustrated in table 8 below.Table 8 Features - consonant Features-place of articulation Group A (data a. b.) - -son +cont +voiced (Imp) +ant -cor b - -son -cont +voiced (1sg) +ant -cor m - +son -cont +voiced (1sg) +ant -cor Group B (data c. d. e. f.) t - -son -cont -voiced (Imp) +ant +cor r - +son +cont +voiced (Imp) +ant +cor d - -son -cont +voiced (1sg) +ant +cor n - +son -cont +voiced (1sg) +ant +cor Group C (data g.) c - -son -cont -voiced (Imp) -ant +cor ? - -son -cont +voiced (1sg) -ant +cor ? - +son -cont +voiced (1sg) -ant +cor Group D (data h. i. j. k.) k - -son -cont -voiced (Imp) -ant -cor ? - -son +cont +voiced (Imp) -ant -cor g - -son -cont +voiced (1sg) -ant -cor ? - +son -cont +voiced (1sg) -ant -corFrom the features distribution above, we can observe several important generalizations. First, as we can see in the left column, consonants could adjust themselves to the nasal during the shifting to plosive by preserving -cont and +voiced. Then, the consonant r in Group B is the only consonant in Imp which has feature +son, therefore, we have to shift it to become -son as well in the course of shifting to plosive. However, this is definitely not a kind of adjustment to the nasal since it is conceivable that all nasals are found to be +son. Second, in the right column, we can observe that the insertions of prefixing nasals adjust themselves to the consonants and become bilabial / alveolar / palatal / velar nasal respectively in place of articulation. Furthermore, we attempt to figure out the adjustments above as assimilation, as well as the dis-adjustment of r as dissimilation. In sum, we can obtain two important rules in the language in question. get A -cont +cons +voi ce/+nas ______ -sonSuch rule entails the adjustment of the consonants to the nasals. under this rule, becomes b t and r becomes d c becomes ? k and ? becomes g due to the prefixing nasal. Then, all fricatives become plosives as given the following rule. form B +nas aPlace/______aPlaceIn rule B, the same place of articulation is construed by the notation aPlace represents here. This rule signals the adjustment of the nasals to the consonants. By using this rule, nasal will become m whenever aPlace is bilabial n whenever aPlace is alveolar ? whenever aPlace is palatal and ? whenever aPlace is velar. The line of work nasal in prefixing cannot be observed from the given data set. For instance, if it is +nas, +cor then it should be a consonant n. Along the previous part, we have observed some ordering rules in the language of Kikuyu. Further in this part, we will try to figure out the ordering of the two rules we have mentioned in advance. Based on the SPE framework, we have seen that all morphological rules apply before all phonological rules. Although Kiparsky and many another(prenominal) others believe the other way against this framework, we try to see whether this rule is indeed workable within the spirit of SPE framework.Here, the morphological rules are viewed as infix insertion, i.e. prefix /Nas/ suffix /-a/ and /eet?/ in the given data set which will apply in the first place and the phonological rules given in Rule A and Rule B above will apply in the second place. Now the question turns to which phonological rule applies in first order, being Rule A or Rule B. Suppose we take examples in data d and e from the given data set. First, let us look at data d. it seems that we will not find any difference in data d with respect to the ordering of two rules and hence the result looks like the same. Then, try to compare with data e. Let see what happens.Table 9 Data d = from toma to ndomeet? If Rule A precedes Rule B geomorphologic Rule /Nas/ + /tom/ + /eet?/ =UR Rule A /Nas/ + /dom/ + /eet?/ Rule B /n/ + /dom/ + /eet?/ =SR If Rule B precedes Rule A morphologic Rule /Nas/ + /tom/ + /eet?/ =UR Rule B /n/ + /tom/ + /eet?/ Rule A /n/ + /dom/ + /eet?/ =SR Data e. from reha to ndeheet? If Rule A precedes Rule B Morphological Rule /Nas/ + /reh/ + /eet?/ =UR Rule A /Nas/ + /deh/ + /eet?/ Rule B /n/ + /deh/ + /eet?/ =SR If Rule B precedes Rule A Morphological Rule /Nas/ + /reh/ + /eet?/ =UR Rule B /n/ + /reh/ + /eet?/ Rule A /n/ + /deh/ + /eet?/ =SRAs we can see above, the comparison between data d and e indicates the same thing for ordering of two rules as well. This suggests that the ordering of rules do not have something to do with the result. It further suggests that the nasals and the derived consonants could have a relatively strong connection with each other, i.e. one co-exists with the other.Within the SPE framework, the data set has been analyzed in the form of features of lexical individ ualistic segments. We tried to apply the rules we have and they seems to work well. This gives further indication that the SPE framework can be considered as effective tool in explaining the phenomenon in data set of Kikuyu language. However, it seems that the relationship between the two rules is not transparent. The reason for this might be the difficulty in generating the only one rule instead of two explaining such phenomenon in the SPE framework.The Post-SPE FrameworkAutosegmental phonology was introduced by John Goldsmith (1976) and re presented a great step previous in linguistic research. In the classical generative theory positive by Chomsky and Halle, phonological components were linear sequences of segments which themselves consisted of feature bundles. One of the downfalls of theSPE framework resided in the assumption that every segment had to correspond to exactly one feature condition and vice-versa (every feature specification had to correspond to exactly one segme nt). Consequently, many phonological phenomena (related to stress, lengthening, rhythm and intonation for instance) were left unexplained.SPE simply had no way of providing a proper account of prosodic phenomena. As stated by Goldsmith himself ((1999 p.137), Autosegmental phonology constitutes a particular claim about the geometry of phonetic and phonological representations. it suggests that the phonetic representation is composed of a set of several simultaneous sequences of these segments, with certain elementary constraints on how the various levels of sequences can be interrelated or associated. The main innovation brought about by Post-SPE framework is the fact that supra segmental features, such as stress or tone, are no longer confined to exactly one segment but can be shared by two or more segments and vice-versa. Some features, while remaining associated with a segment, are now handled separately. Many phonological phenomena can then be analyzed in terms of a restructuring or reorganization of the autosegments in a representation. contrary from the first section, here we will analyze the data set of Kikuyu within the Post-SPE framework, or also known as the Autosegmental Phonology but within this paper we rather use the term Post SPE just for the saki of easiness in comparison. In this section, we will also consider the use of the IPA chart and feature notations for the discussion in the Post-SPE framework. Also in this part we might still view some rules from SPE framework and will be reviewed in the spirit of Post-SPE framework. Phenomenon such as assimilation and dissimilation will be approached to address the problems we found in the data set of Kikuyu Language. Of course, other theories within the Post-SPE will also be introduced. Let us starting signal our discussion with the identification of features and spreading in this framework.In this framework, features will be viewed as independent features of their segments in order for them to be r epresented as auto-segments. We can observe in the data set of Kikuyu language that a phonological process can influence more than one consonant at a time. This might lead us to review the data we had in table 3 where mb t nd r nd c k ?g ? ?g, with the given two rules. We have mentioned earlier about assimilation in SPE, i.e. an alternation which copies a feature specification from the closest segment. Take Group A and Rule B as an example +nas bila Place / ______ bila Place N m / ______ / bIn the Post-SPE framework, assimilation is identified as the spreading of features to the neighbouring X-slots. This means that an X-slot is associated with the two X-slots, resulting assimilation as illustrated below NX NX mX +ant+ant +ant -cor -cor -corFor the interes t group of easiness, some tiers are excluded. Here, X represents the changed consonant in Kikuyu. The nasal is considered another X slot, which is marked as N. After spreading, we see that the two X-slots share the feature of +ant and -cor. The feature from the neighboring X-slot could be deleted after the course of spreading. The replacement of Rule A in the Post SPE framework is a bit more complicated than Rule B since track is involved. As for instance, consider Group A we have noted above, within the SPE framework, we will get the shifting below. +cons -cont +voice -son / +nas______ b / N______Then, let us apply this within the Post SPE framework to analyze this phenomenon where we have two X-slots represent Nasal and Consonant respectively during the course of alternation. An example of shifting from N to Nb is given below. X X X X / +son -son +son -son -cont +cont -cont -cont +voiced +voiced +voiced +voicedFor the sake of easiness, some tiers are reduced. We can see in the shifting process that -son, +voiced features are preserved during the shifting and +cont feature becomes -cont. In the SPE framework, it is conceivable that morphological rules apply before phonological rules, so we have a Nasal slot before Consonant slot in 1 sg. Imperfect i

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