среда, 23 октября 2019 г.
Advantages of Homework
Almost every individual who underwent formal studying (traditional, distance learning, home schooling etc) experienced being assigned with a homework or assignment. A homework/assignment is a task delegated by a teacher to the student, a take-home chore that the student should accomplish at home and present/submit at the start of the following school day. Assignments and homework tasks inside school setting is, without a doubt, one of the oldest tools being used by teachers and academicians who believe that such tasks contribute to the learning of the student. The use of homework and assignment is largely observed in different parts of the world. Asian, American and European schools, as well as other learning institutions, use homework and assignment to impart lessons and to train students towards acquiring a habit of reading and writing. Furthermore, it develops other faculties of thinking and behavior to achieve the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"learning,Ã¢â¬ both academics-wise and the implication of this knowledge in more practical and real-life application. Homework, pop culture, socially-shared beliefs and the student stereotype Homework has been an integral part of the systematic, school-based learning process. Because the academic learning process is a significant aspect of the social life both for children (who are studying) and adults (who are parents or guardians of studying children), it should come as no surprise when student life, learning and the learning tools like homework and assignment was easily integrated in the social culture. The pop media portrays diligent and studious individuals as those who take time to work on their homework and assignment. While the accomplishment or failure to accomplish assignment and homework requirements are socially accepted cultural symbolisms for the lax, the academically-challenged or those who are not too serious about learning anything from school. Take for example, the case of the characters Hermione Granger and Ronald Weasly of the book and movie fame Harry Potter series. Hermione possesses the characteristic of being a bright and smart student, while her friend Ron was not as good in their academics while studying at Hogwarts. This is established with many different instances, including the several times Ron asked Hermione to help him with his assignment and homework. The times when Ron would grumble about lengthy homework and assignment, and the instances wherein Hermione would attribute her knowledge by studying well ahead and doing their homework and assignment as required by their teacher, implying that her knowledge was a result of many different things, and that includes homework and assignment. Mainstream media, like movies and television shows, portrays not just the stereotypes represented by their attitude towards assignment and homework. It also represents the different perspective of students towards homework and assignment, and the attitude the students take become role models or key influence-sources for other students for their attitude towards assignment and homework. Ã¢â¬Å"Students reported that they were distracted from schoolwork and homework by inappropriate role models on television. They complained that their parents did not sufficiently monitor the kinds of television programs they watch or how much time they spent watching television (Ogbu, 2003, p. 240). Ã¢â¬ In the movie American History X, the character played by Edward Furlong was summoned to the principalÃ¢â¬â¢s office because of a scandalous output in one of his history homework tasks. The principal made another assignment, and it was the accomplishment of this assignment that FurlongÃ¢â¬â¢s character managed to get a perspective of his life and how he is affected by the people around him and the society in general. The assignment/homework in the movie represents the many different touchstones for self realization, self assessment and a way to ventilate thoughts and feelings so that constructive knowledge can come in and help shape the person towards how the society expects one to be. This idea points to the fact that the state of homework and assignment culture reflects the students as much as it reflects the status of this particular tool in the society. If there are too many signs saying that the society condones dissatisfaction over the tasks involved in assignment and homework compliance, then the society should re-assess its position. It should take a very good look at the positive impact of homework and assignment in the learning process of a student before it allows the feeling of negativity towards this particular learning tool to go any further. In print and in television, fictional scenarios in books, television shows, comic strips, movies and other types of entertainment, tackle the issue of assignment and homework by featuring a dutiful mother or father encouraging their child to work on his/her assignment and homework. Amidst futile protests and childish grumblings, symbolizing the fact that homework and assignment is not particularly popular in some members of the student population. In real life, many students are not fond of assignments, and some of them may have very valid points in arguing for the abolition of the use of assignment and homework as a learning tool. In some cases, the inability of teachers and parents to use strategies for effective assignment and homework tasking removes whatever possible positive impact that assignment and homework posses. Most teachers see the value of assigning homework, but get bogged down in its management. Most parents see the value of homework (Mierzwik, 2005, p. 23). Ã¢â¬ But clearly, the above mentioned considerations are mere meager and insignificant compared to what students all in all are set to gain if the school systems are allowed to continue using homework and assignment to infuse the learning experience to the students. The reasons why assig nment and homework are educational tools advantageous to the learning of the students far outweigh the reasons why the academe should do without it. Problem Statement Despite the long use of assignment and homework inside the academic learning process, there are those who believe that homework and assignment is archaic, anachronistic and overall a waste of time. This is largely because they consider assignment and homework as futile and a waste of time for students and teachers since nothing advantageous is extracted from it. This paper will try to refute this idea and present proof that contrary to the belief of those batting for the abolition and removal of assignment and homework. The use of this particular tool inside schools and learning institutions in fact provide a very important contribution towards the overall growth and development of the knowledge and intelligence level of a student owed to a productive learning process maximized by the input of homework and assignment in the learning process. The root of the problem is the emergence of the belief that school systems and teaching styles is better off without the use of assignment and homework. Looking at the life cycle of assignments, it is easily noticeable how there are many different weak points in the homework and assignment accomplishment process that somehow contributes to the weakening of the desired effects of homework and assignment, and these factors cannot be easily remedied. The desired effect to students who accomplish the homework and assignment tasks given by the teacher is clearly jeopardized in many different instances, and because of this, some people believe that the system is better without such set of tasks. Proponents of those going against the idea of using assignment and homework believe that the use of such tool is pointless in many different instances which are constantly occurring and is not something alien to the way of life of students everywhere. Roots of the problem: Providing a hypothetical analysis to the reasons and the factors involved in the perceived failure and futility of the use of assignment and homework To be able to see the weak points where the essence of the advantages of homework and assignment seeps out even before it is used and maximized by the students, there should be an analysis of some of the common instances and factors that should be addressed before homework and assignment returns to its previously potent state. Why is assignment and homework not doing what it is supposed to do to students? The very first weak link in the armor is found in the participation of the students. But these are problems which can be remedied. These problems decreases the impact of assignment and homework but this alone does not make homework and assignment useless. The educational institution cannot just remove an age old learning tool just because it was more convenient to do so. The problem was there were factors that limit and adversely affect the impact of homework and assignment on the students. This does not mean that homework and assignment are useless and was useless from the start. The rest of the paper will elaborate on the perceived advantages of the use of assignment and homework, in the hope that these advantages are convincing enough for it to be the catalyst of change towards the manner by which homework and assignment is appraised, considered and utilized. The paper hopes to accomplish this through by proving key points about the issue by referencing some of the previously published works that support the overall claim and stand of the paper about homework and assignment. Literature Review To be able to establish the claim that the use of homework and assignment as part of the academic progress and learning process of the student is indeed useful and advantageous for the student, this research will rely on the input from several literary sources proving that the paper's claim stands on solid grounds. Proof of the advantages of Homework Artzt and Armour-Thomas (2001) explicitly stated in the book Ã¢â¬Å"Becoming a Reflective Mathematics TeacherÃ¢â¬ about the importance and significance of assignment and homework in student learning. Most teachers agree that homework is a critical part of the teaching-learning process (Artzt, Armour-Thomas, 2001, p. 130). Ã¢â¬ Artzt and Armour-Thomas believed that the role of homework and assignment is that this allows the student to demonstrate what he or she learned in school. Through this exercise, the lessons are retained more effectively in the consciousness of the student, therefore making assignments and homework integral in the learning process. This particular line of thought can be seen in different research and study efforts wherein researchers used real students and real learning experience to see the effect of providing assignment and homework and other learning tools and support structures to see if improvement is noticeable after exposure to such methods. Cooper and Valentine (2001) wrote in detail about these types of studies so that researchers can reference previous research and study results involving students and the effect of homework and assignment in their performance after long term and short term experimentation. Students with learning disabilities and average-achieving students with homework problems showed significantly improved rates of homework completion ad weekly quiz performance in response to Ã¢â¬Å"real-lifeÃ¢â¬ assignments, homework planners and graphing (Cooper, Valentine, 2001, p. 175). Ã¢â¬ The learning process, as Artzt and Armour-Thomas suggested, is not confined in the four corners of t he classroom but instead involves the family and the home. Since it is not always easy to consistently gauge if all of the students are learning, the outcome in of the assignments and homework which the student submit will allow the teacher an additional avenue which the teacher can use to have an insight in the academic development and learning progress of the student. Assignment and homework is an important support structure in learning because through assignment and homework, the information that the student needs to remember constantly to be able to learn and master is tackled during and after school. Yes, those who oppose assignment and have no faith in the positive effect of homework may argue that indeed, there are many other different learning tools which can be used to teach students and make their learning process a success. But what is more important is that while assignment and homework alone cannot provide the holistic academic and learning development a student needs. It is nonetheless a very integral and significant part that without which there will be a clear struggle to learn and retain information which was absorbed by the student while in school. With access to these various support structures, students' ability to successfully learn mathematics was enhanced. One studentÃ¢â¬ ¦ stated, Ã¢â¬Ëin algebra when I first started, I didn't understand something like writing equations, so I would go in after school. I got help everyday until I understood (Kitchen, Celedon-Pattichis, De Pree, 2006, p. 102). Ã¢â¬ Mierzwik (2005) was in total agreement about the proposition on the idea about the significance of the role of assignment and homework in student learning and the overall Learning Process. Everyone would agree that the more you practice a skill, the better you will be at performing that skill. Homework provides a valuable opportunity to Ã¢â¬Ëmonitor student learning, practice of a skill or concept that has been taught, tie in school learning with real world experience, actively involve the family in the student's education and prepare for in-school activities (Mierzwik, 2005, p. 23). Ã¢â¬ Several books talk about how teachers, researchers and academicians study the impact of homework and assignment in different subjects, different age level and in different situations. There are results that lead to the conclusion that homework indeed helps students improve in their academics and be more susceptible to learning. Cooper and Valentine (2001) wrote in a book entitled Ã¢â¬Å"HomeworkÃ¢â¬ about a study involving students who were provided with homework. Before the use of homework, the researcher noted the academic performance and strength of all of the students involved, and the researcher noted that 50 percent of the students involved in the experiment showed improvement after being subjected to assignments. Rosenberg (1989) compared the effect of direct instruction plus supplemental homework on the math performances of six elementary students with learning disabilities. Homework improved the performance of three students while three showed inconsistent performances (Cooper, Valentine, 2001, p. 175). Ã¢â¬ Cooper and Valentine (2001) talked about studies focused on the role of homework and equal significance of their supporting learning tools. The completion of homework and the ability to make the most out of homework and assignment is harnessed among the target students, writing about how a group of researchers Ã¢â¬Å"trained parents of students who were both learning disabled and gifted to use homework compliance timetable (e. g. homework is to be done from 4:45 to 5:50 p. m. ) and noncoercive behavioral discipline techniques. From baseline to study end, students showed improved grades and behavior (Cooper, Valentine, 2001, p. 175). Ã¢â¬ Homework, active participation and the positive end result. Working on assignments and homework can bring out the best in the student especially for shy and timid students who would not recite or actively participate in class. This is because assignment are done inside the house, inside the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s room where the student is not conscious with the approval and appraisal of his/her teacher/classmate with what he or she is doing. Because of this, the inhibition decreases and the student becomes more relaxed, allowing the student to be able to focus and bring out everything that he or she learned at school and apply it in the assignment. Mathematics, in particular, is one of the subjects which can be better learned if the learning set up and situation is like this, making it more conducive to learning. Ã¢â¬Å"Learning mathematics necessitates active involvement on the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s part. Giving students problems to do on their own in the privacy of their homes affords them the opportunity to practice what they have learned, to discover what is they do not understand, and possibly to extend their learning through new applications (Artzt, Armour-Thomas, 2001, p. 30). Ã¢â¬ Rosenblum-Lowden (2000) explained the importance of assignment and homework in the teaching and learning cycle of the life of students and teachers by describing homework and assignment as something regularly and consistently seen. Teachers have a very crucial role in the preservation of the culture of assignment and homework inside the classroom because if the teachers give in to the demand for the Ã¢â¬Å"no-assignmentÃ¢â¬ policy. Students would stop expecting it altogether, and that is a problem, not just in the behavior of students in learning-related tasks but as well as their outlook in assignment and homework after long stretches of not experiencing one. Because of this, there is a need for a consistent, regular and expected assignment and homework tasks. Ã¢â¬Å"It is a good idea to have a short daily homework assignment prepared from Day 1. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll groan, but don't be put off by it. They expect homework! I always put my assignments in the same spot on the board. When my students walk in my room, they automatically look at the upper left-hand corner of the board. It just makes for an easy routine, and homework becomes something they expect Ã¢â¬â and should get (Rosenblum-Lowden, 2000, p. 39). Ã¢â¬ Having provided sufficient input to prove that assignment and homework is an important part of a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life which enables the learning process to take its course in a way that is productive and effective, it is also important to point out that there are people and institutions that are still doing everything they can. They can better understand the nature of giving assignments and homework and how this particular tool helps (and can better help) the students, the teacher, the teaching style, the learning process and experience and the facilitation of retention of knowledge through repetitive action and exercise. Researchers constantly focus on the understanding of different factors affecting the effectiveness of homework and assignment and why it can also fail for some students. The effort to understand assignment and homework better always have in it the potential to be able to improve assignment and homework design in a way that it can allow students and teacher to use it better and expect more positive impact with the use of this tool. Ã¢â¬Å"We wanted to include factors such as studentÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude to the subject and their relevant prior knowledge in relation to the task as it was likely to be relevant to their response to a particular homework assignment (Poulson, Wallace, 2003, p. 130). Ã¢â¬ Other implications of homework and assignment in student and learning process Aside from the role of assignment and homework in student learning per se, some professionals believe that there are other roles that homework and assignment takes on, roles which yield output that is still advantageous to the pursuit of learning of the student. Ã¢â¬Å"Earlier research had suggested that studentÃ¢â¬â¢s engagement with homework may be related to their learning identity (Poulson, Wallace, 2003, p. 90). Ã¢â¬ The full impact of the role of homework and assignment, professionals believe, is yet to be discovered despite available information that already shows the significance of homework and assignment. Aware of such situation, some researchers are still putting effort towards finding out more about homework and its impact and effect in the student and in the student learning process. Researchers anticipate results that are inclined towards proving that homework and assignments are overall useful and advantageous to the student. Ã¢â¬Å"We wished to discover whether a particular homework assignment had increased any student's knowledge of the topic, provided the student with new skills or understanding, or helped her or him to make connections with out-of-school learning. Following Pollard and Filer, we were interested in looking at wider learning outcomes, such as whether the completion (or non completion) of a homework assignment had any impact on a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s self esteem, attitude towards the subject or wider orientation towards learning (Poulson, Wallace, 2003, p90). Ã¢â¬ Some teachers and academicians believe so much in the power of homework and assignment in student learning that they even organize groups and school-based clubs designed specifically to maximize the use and impact of homework and assignment in the life of the students, using it to learn more and consistently. An additional means for supporting student learning was an afterschool homework club staffed with volunteer tutors from the community. One teacherÃ¢â¬ ¦ explained, Ã¢â¬Ëthe schoolÃ¢â¬ ¦ offers a homework club that runs Monday through Friday. Ã¢â¬â¢ Finally, most teachers were available everyday after school for additional support (Kitchen, Celedon-Pattichis, D e Pree, 2006, p. 102). Ã¢â¬ Literary support outside the educatorÃ¢â¬â¢s readings for understanding homework and assignment problems and solutions. In the effort to understand the nature of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction towards assignment and homework, academicians and teachers should also try exploring other fields and profession which utilizes homework and assignment. Through this, teachers and academicians can better appreciate and understand the impact of homework and assignment even outside academic life and in the process learn new things which it can integrate to the teaching paradigm involving the use of assignment. Take for example, the assessment of assignment and homework compliance and the attitude and the factors involved in this analysis. This aspect is important if the academic world wants to preserve the use of assignment and homework. But for them to do so, it is not enough to understand merely the positive impact of assignment and homework. It is also important that they have a very good perspective when it comes to analysing the probable chinks in the failure of the assignment and homework as a teaching strategy. The field of psychology maybe the best first stop in the effort to circumnavigate the different professions that are dependent on the use of assignment which are capable of understanding the nature of homework when it breaks down. When clients fail to do homework, respond in a neutral but curious manner and focus on identifying the problems that may have contributed to homework noncompliance. If the homework was not completed (or attempted) set aside the entire session to review why the homework was not doneÃ¢â¬ ¦ Did we make the homework too difficult? Were the homework instructions unclear? Did some u nanticipated problem arise (Koocher, Norcross, Hill, 2004, p. 323)? Ã¢â¬ This particular style in insight towards understanding assignment and homework and the factors that affect it may not just minimize the rise of negativity over assignment and homework all in all. But this may also lead to a more constructive appraisal and assessment of the problem and the possible solutions and adjustments so that assignments and homework can be used and improved. Recommendation The investigation of the paper about the different important aspects related to the establishment of the presence of advantage and gain in the use of homework and assignment also brought to light some important points of discussion. The perceived positive characteristics of assignment and homework are maximized by the student, teacher and the academic /educational institutions. As the presence of the good effect of assignment and homework is already seen and felt, it is nonetheless paramount that factors that deter the further development of assignment and homework as a learning tool are identified and necessary actions taken regarding such factors. There are less and less reasons for cynics and sceptics to doubt the potency of homework and assignment. Seek parent support in utilizing and maximizing the effect of assignment and homework Ã¢â¬â The active role of parents also is an important consideration if teachers and academicians want to take assignment and homework to another level and make the most of the effect of homework and assignment. This is something that researchers have already looked into in the past, and they have contributed several important insights in the importance of parent roles in the success and positive impact of assignments and homework. If parents think that they are not instrumental in the success of homework and assignment and the overall academic performance of their student-children, they are completely mislead by this belief. Ã¢â¬Å"The importance of parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ supervision of homework was not lost on the students. For example, MAC scholars reported that parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ supervision of their schoolwork and homework was an important reason for their academic success (Ogbu, 2003, p. 240). Ã¢â¬ Cooper and Valentine (2001) wrote about the positive impact of assignment when used alongside effective parenting in the learning and education process of a student. Cooper and Valentine (2001) discussed about a study featured the training of Ã¢â¬Å"parents of sixth and seventh grade at-risk youth to monitor and check homework, use materials provided, and role-play homework situations. Students were trained to (a) self monitor, (b) self record, (c) self-reinforce, and (d) self-instruct and set goals. Students whose parents implemented program strategies accurately and consistently showed increased homework completion, homework quality, and scores on a standardized math test than students who parents did not follow through (Cooper, Valentine, 2001, p. 175). Ã¢â¬ But parents should understand that the meaning of parentÃ¢â¬â¢s participation refers to the presence of encouragement and guidance in having the student accomplish the assignment or homework. Parent involvement in the homework does not mean that teachers should make very difficult assignments that the parents are forced to do it themselves. Homework is also a parent-teacher relationship too. The homework represents you. Make sure it isn't just busywork, or so difficult that you expect parents to play a major role in it (Rosenblum-Lowden, 2000, p. 39). Ã¢â¬ Take active role in the breaking down of culture and practices surrounding students today which enables them to escape the task of doing their assignment and hom ework Many parents, individuals and groups are talking about the possible decay of the educational institutions because of the worsening case of the ability of students to learn. But adults who are influential in the educational system of the society should also take a good look at their role as policy makers in the educational system. Instead, they should support the development and continued use of learning tools such as assignment and homework by doing their part in removing and blocking social trends that inhibit the undertaking and effectiveness of homework and assignment. Some may think that this issue should be addressed solely by the members of the educational institutions and parents. But there are those who believe that the change in educational system involves the entire society in itself. All of the aspects found here contribute greatly to how educational system and culture is shaped, and that includes the shaping of the attitude towards assignment and homework by students, parents, academicians and other members of the society, some of them indifferent to the problem itself. Ã¢â¬Å"We also needed to recognise that these specific contexts were in turn located within a range or wider social, political and cultural contexts. For example, as already mentioned, we would be carrying out our study in a time when there was considerable support and enthusiasm for homework from politicians and policymakers (Poulson, Wallace, 2003, p. 90). Ã¢â¬ There are also other significant inputs for this particular issue. For one, it is important that there is an effort to redesign, if necessary, assignment styles and structures in a way that it is more exciting and stimulating to do, moving away from the copy-and-paste approach that question and answer assignment types solicit from students who are answering their assignments in a robotic function. Believe it or not, your students understand that homework is a sign that a teacher cares about them. It is easier not to give homework, but we must give challenging assignments. Of equal importance is the manner in which the assignments are treated by the teacher (Rosenblum-Lowden, 2000, p. 39). Ã¢â¬ One of the possible reasons why assignments, over time and long exposure of students to it, becomes ineffective is the redundancy and the lack of exciting and stimulating challenge that students get from it. Learning is more easily achieved if the experience features excitement due to mental stimulation, powered by the fuel of genuine inquisitiveness and not forced by role-playing chores or by authoritarian pressure. It is important to remind the teachers and the academicians that as much as students are learning everyday, so should they. The focus of learning is how to move away from overused assignment and homework styles, try to move out of their comfort zone and study new ways and means to make assignment and homework more intellectually stimulating. If the students find homework and assignment as exciting as the other things that they do in their own accord and will, then the learning process that goes with it will be able to function. Ã¢â¬Å"In addition to thoughtfully assigning problems from the text, teachers should also try to assign interesting problems by consulting other sources and or using their own creativity (Artzt, Armour-Thomas, 2001, p. 130). Ã¢â¬ Conclusion One of the important points raised here, is that, despite the fact that there are already many different available information about homework and assignment and the role of this learning tool not just in learning but also in the overall development of a student as a person, there are still many individuals who are bent on knowing more about the impact of homework and assignment to a student. There are other important information about homework and assignment, which maybe usable in the near future for homework/assignment assessment and other related endeavor. The other information coming from the pursuit of knowing the advantages of homework and assignment to a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s learning process also yields information that is interesting and quite useful for demographic breakdown on other assignment and homework-related problems (i. e. the ratio of the different types of students and how they respond to assignments and homework and the reason for such occurrence, etc). Ã¢â¬Å"There is evidence that female students do more homework than males (Poulson, Wallace, 2003, p. 90). Ã¢â¬