воскресенье, 13 октября 2019 г.
German Expressionism in Film: A History
German Expressionism in Film: A History THE RISE AND FALLÃ OFÃ GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM RAVISHANKAR.N INTRODUCTION German Expressionism refers to a number of related creative movements in Germany before the First World War during the 1920s. These developments in Germany were part of a larger Expressionist movement in north and central European art. German Expressionism as a movement spanned many media, including theatre, architecture, music, painting and sculpture. It is an important but sadly overlooked field in the history of art in the twentieth century. It was very complex, different, off-beat and probably the most depressive and emotion exploiting of all art forms. German Expressionism was not just in movies, but also overall generally in drama, stage, theatre, paintings, dance, and many other artistic movements. Popular themes of these include were madness, betrayal, insanity, and other Ã¢â¬Å"intellectualÃ¢â¬ topics (as opposed to standard action-adventure and romantic films), as they appealed to an intellectual fan base. RISE AND BRIEF HISTORY During the period of recovery following World War I, the German film industry was booming. However, because of the hard economic times, filmmakers found it difficult to create movies that could compare with the extravagant features coming from Hollywood. The filmmakers of the German Universum Film AG studio, better known as the UFA developed their own style by using symbolism and mise en scÃ ¨ne to add mood and deeper meaning to a movie. The first Expressionist films made up for their low budgets by using set designs with wildly non-realistic, geometrically absurd sets, along with designs painted on walls and floors to represent lights, shadows, and objects. In the beginning the term Ã¢â¬Å"ExpressionismÃ¢â¬ was used to show that their interpretation of Art was different from other peoples. But eventually the phrase would eventually start to be given to anyone showing a disturbing point of view or showing some mental illnesses in their work according to critics. Basically anythin g that was different from other movies started to be called Expressionism. Eventually by the 1920s, German film industry had become very popular in Europe and encouraged film movements across the world to start experimenting with different ideals and emotional states. In fact, the influence crossed the oceans over into America when Hitler came into power, because all the Expressionist actors, directors, producers, went to America. So this was a very influential movement as well. But the artists involved in Expressionism never concerned themselves with what the term might mean, which is why it continued to evolve and take upon different new meanings until it effectively became an umbrella term. The main idea was always artistic expression. In fact, many expressionists had voluntarily joined the First World War in the hope that it would inspire them and their art and create social change as well. By the end of the Second World War, there were three main schools in Expressionism. INFLUENCE It is no question that German cinema from 1910 to 1940 was far ahead of American cinema and other cinemas in Europe and worldwide. Along with German expressionist films, it was the number of German immigrants to America as well as to other countries, who helped develop film techniques and provide more intellectual strength to film movements. Some of the more influential films of the movement was Cabinet of Dr.Caligari (1920). That film set the tone for many of the features of the movement. That included evil characters in the plot who usually had madness and obsessions, with the story told from very subjective angles. And instead of high and mighty buildings and artificial lifestyles, it showed dark and gritty urban underworld and lifestyles of people. Areas were structures with angled archways, staircases, windows, connected together in strange ways to create different atmospheres Ã¢â¬â with shadows being used often. Other famous films include Nosferatu (1922) which created the horror genre, and Metropolis (1927) which created the science fiction genre. Also, today most films have unconventional plot lines, heroes, and a lot of other things that one can attribute to the German Expressionist movement. Horror film and film noir were two genres that were especially influenced by Expressionism. Carl Laemmle and Universal Studios had made a name for themselves by producing such famous horror films of the silent era as Lon Chaneys The Phantom of the Opera. German filmmakers such as Karl Freund (the cinematographer for Dracula in 1931) set the style and mood of the Universal monster movies of the 1930s with their dark and artistically designed sets, providing a model for later generations of horror films. Directors such as Fritz Lang, Billy Wilder, Otto Preminger, Alfred Hitchcock, and Michael CurtizÃ introduced the Expressionist style to crime dramas of the 1940s, expanding Expressionisms influence on modern film making. DOWNFALL It was before the Second World War when the downfall of German Expressionism began. When Hitler came in power, he preferred old Greek and Roman style art which showed racial superiority. Expressionists were deemed anti-German and a threat to German culture and racial superiority, and many fled to America where they continued to further develop their art. By this point, Expressionism had went from personal to social to political themes and was now a very diverse genre that would influence Film Noir and New Hollywood in the future. After the end of inflation in 1924, Weimar reality stabilized and films sought to be realistic, objective, documentary (in accordance with the cool, sober Ã¢â¬Å"New ObjectivityÃ¢â¬ in painting, photography, and literature). Also, the introduction of sound after 1928 forced the films to become more Ã¢â¬Å"realisticÃ¢â¬ . But there are a few exceptions including MurnauÃ¢â¬â¢s Faust and Fritz LangÃ¢â¬â¢s Metropolis (both 1926) were the last major Expressionist films, both excessive in their production values. REASONS FOR DOWNFALL Though the ideas still stand the test of time due to their universal appeal to people of all generations and times, the extreme non-realism of Expressionism was short-lived, fading away after only a few years. However, the themes of Expressionism were integrated into later films of the 1920s and 1930s, resulting in an artistic control over the placement of scenery, light, etc. to enhance the mood of a film. It could be said that the specific movement of German Expressionism died mostly due to politics. Hitler and his Nazi party deemed the expressionists as immoral, people who had destroyed art and culture. They were considered unpatriotic people, and the fact that most Expressionists were Jews made the matters worse. The ideas of the Expressionists as a result started to spread out farther and farther to other areas instead of Germany during HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s regime and the tone became more and more political in nature. Some of the potential was not fulfilled because of the limitations of technology at the time. If you compare Science Fiction and Horror of today to German Expressionism you see both the big influence, but also the limitations of German Expressionists. The ideas were great but were just not ready for mass consumption at the time. But from a purely artistic and creative perspective they are timeless just for the same reasons. With limited things they still managed to stretch limits of human imagination with their works. LEGACY Notable filmmakers (Lubitsch, Murnau), actors (Jannings, Veidt, Dietrich), cameramen (Karl Freund), were lured to Hollywood. This type of film making was brought to America when the Nazis gained power and a number of German filmmakers emigrated to Hollywood. These German directors found American movie studios willing to embrace their ideas, and several German directors and cameramen flourished there, producing a repertoire of Hollywood films, which had a big impact on film as a whole. British Alfred Hitchcock was influenced by the Expressionist movement, using their techniques and direct homages in several of his films as well as acknowledging the influence in interviews. HitchcockÃ¢â¬â¢s film making in turn influenced far more film makers and shows the Expressionists overall reach in terms of film influence. Tim BurtonÃ¢â¬â¢s dark characteristics in his films are also influenced by German Expressionism. Stylistic elements from German Expressionist films are very common regardless, being seen in everything from Batman movies to films like Shutter Island. Trees: A Sign Of Life | Analysis Trees: A Sign Of Life | Analysis Have you heard of a car running without a fuel? No. Similarly, for survival of every living being requires some sort of fuel. Oxygen serves as the life line for us. Trees and plants generate oxygen by photosynthesis by utilizing the sunlight. It is simply impossible of thinking life without trees. Besides providing oxygen trees provide us with food, furniture, fuel and shelter. Moreover, trees are the friends of humanity. They have marvelous feature, colors of their lives are simply breath taking. Ralph Waldo Emerson said The wonder is that we can see these trees and not wonder more Ralph Waldo Emerson. Trees are true friends of humanity. The trees are oxygen providers and are called the lungs of planet. They not only absorb carbon dioxide which is injurious to us but also produces oxygen which is a source of life on our planet earth. With the industrial development and excessive use of fuel like petrol and gas, produces a huge amount of carbon dioxide. Trees are air purifiers they filter polluted air by absorbing the carbon contents. Thus trees decrease the air pollution which keep the environment clean and provide pure air to breath. Trees also play role in lessening the sound pollution. According to United States Department of Agriculture, a properly designed buffer of trees and shrubs reduces the sound pollution by 10 decibels or about 50% as received by human ear. Evaporation from the leaves brings about the formation of clouds; these clouds cause rain and irrigate the land which increases the crop production. Moreover, they also keep the temperature milder. Trees help in incre asing the fertility of soil. Roots of trees keep the soil intact and decrease the soil erosion. Trees provide us with beauty and peace of mind. They fill our heart with unexplainable happiness. Green color of trees symbolizes self-respect and well being. They are the essential part of nature. Martin Luther says For in the nature of things, if we rightly consider, every green tree is far more glorious than if it were made of gold and silver. Trees have a significant role in our daily life. Despite its complex chemical nature, wood has excellent properties which lend themselves to human use. Mostly trees are use to manufacture furniture. Different species of trees are use to make different types of furniture. They vary in softness, hardness and flexibility. The wood we get from trees is used in the production of home and office furniture. Furniture industry is the source of employ for thousands of people all around the globe. Many countries export their marvelous designed furniture and earn a huge amount of foreign exchange. In other words trees helps in the flourishing of an economy of country. Now plastic furniture is also used alongside .Many types of sports equipment are made of wood. For example, cricket bats are made of white willow. The baseball bats are usually made of hickory and now days they are mostly manufacture of maple wood. The cellulose of trees is used in the manufacturing of papers. All around the world trees wood is use in construction of buildings. Wood is oldest material used by humans for constructional purposes, after stone. Even where other building materials are preferred, wood remains a major component in roofing, flooring, doors and windows and their frames, as external cladding and in furniture and fittings. Also for tool handles and cutlery, such as chopsticks, twigs (miswaks), toothpicks, and other utensils, like the wooden spoon. Wood is mostly preferred to make cooking utensils because of its non-conducting properties. Woods also provide shelter and safety for living beings. Shelter is essential for birds. Birds feel safe and secure the shelter provided by trees. A garden with adequate shelter attracts a wider range of birds. A good shelter also save the birds from harsh weather .the shelter provided by trees protects the birds from extreme coldness and shade during summer season. During summers trees provide a shelter and shadow to the animals likes cows, cattle etc. Forest around the world is home for about 90% of the worlds terrestrial biodiversity. Moreover, human beings mostly in summer also enjoy a nap under the cool shady trees .Trees wood are also use to build houses which not only provide a decent look but also economical. Abundant tree reduces the flood water flow. A farmer in the Khairpur Mirs, Pakistan has suffered financial loss of 4million rupees ($44,000) as his cotton crop has ruined. But now he has planted mango, date and neem trees and when again the flood hits Khairpur, he repair ed water channels, buy new cotton seeds and pesticides from the income he earned from trees.(Saleem sheikh and Sughra Tunio are climate change and development reporters based in Karachi,Pakistan.This story is a part of series supported by the climate and development knowledge network.(www.trust.org). Trees are the source of sustenance of life as they provide food and medicine. Food from tree not only fulfills human appetite, but also provides fodder for animals. Food obtain from trees have a nutritional value. They are the cheap source of providing essential vitamins and minerals. Trees mostly provide fruits like mangoes, oranges etc and coffee beans. More importantly, trees are important in areas which are affected by flood and famines. They provide food when all the crops are destroyed due to excessive water or drought. A healthy environment ensures an excessive greenery and fodder for animals. According to FAO (food and agriculture organization of UN) a reliable supply of fodder is critical to the 30 to 40 million pastoralists world-wide. If an adequate supply of food is available to animals then it directly increases the livestock availability, by providing more milk and extra meet for people. The increase in production of milk and meet will make them easily available and low er the prices of these items. From early days trees and herbs are used to cure many diseases. Since May 1978 the World Health Organization has been making a study of medicinal plants. This study prompted the initial identification of 20000 species of medicinal plants and a more detailed investigation of a short list of 200(http://www.fao.org/documents/en/detail/1997). Many trees are used due to their medicinal properties. The medicine prepared from these trees helps in the fight against infections. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), as many as 80% of the worlds people depend on traditional medicine for their primary health care need. Not only in developing countries but also in developed countries medicines contains materials from higher plants. Wood is one of the oldest sources of energy. According to FAO more than 10 billion people utilize wood for cooking and heating purposes. Wood energy is important of all renewable energy resources. They also provide us electricity by running the turbines. Using wood for fuel is the cheaper way of generating energy. Wood is use for keeping the houses warm during winter. Wood also provides fire in outdoor camping and bonfires. In early days wood is the major source of generating energy. With the industrial development people new sources of energy has been discovered. Natural oil resources are directly or indirectly obtained from trees. Fuel is Thought to be produced from the dead trees and animals which were present inside the earth ,the high pressure and temperature convert them into fuel. Trees that were burnt inside the earth not only provide oil but also coal and natural gas. source oilpalm_deforestation_indonesia_sumatra_edwards50595_352459.jpg Trees are decreasing all around the world. Man has been utilizing them since the old days. Besides providing oxygen, man use trees for many purposes. Our life directly or indirectly depends on trees. But with the increase in population of mankind, the increase population put a burden on trees growth. People started to cut more and more trees to fulfill their needs. For providing shelter to people new housing schemes has been started. For the construction of these colonies trees are cut at large level. When trees are cut rapidly there function as an environmental cleaner is reduced. This also disturbs the natural ecosystem.Many birds and animals are forced to leave their habitats which affect their lives at greater extent. Trees are harvested mainly for furniture and as a source of food. In developing countries, trees are cut down as a source of fuel. Trees decrease not only due to human activities but also due to natural disasters like floods, volcanic eruption and forest fires. Acco rding to FAO 13 million hectares-of worlds population are cut and converted to other land uses every year. For biofuel a great number of trees are cut down for meeting the power resources. The rapid decrease in trees has very negative aspects on every creature of earth. Over 8000 tree species, 10% of the worlds total trees are threatened with extinction (UNEP). In cities trees are cut down due to which a clean and pure environment is not available. Forests are shrinking and cities are expanding. People living in cities prefer to spend their free time in recreation parks and gardens available with trees of many kinds. The forest degradation and industrial revolution results into increase in environmental pollutants and global warming. It is also due to the mismanagement of government. It is the case mostly in developing countries ,where government has little technical staff to manage and monitor thousands of hectors of forest resources. Moreover, general public also do not take their responsibility and show very non serious attitude towards the threat faced by trees. Source : Forest and Agricultural department Forests cover roughly 30% of the worlds land area. Three percentage of the earths forest cover was lost between 1990 and 2005 and there has been no significant decrease in the rate of deforestation over the past 20 years. Some 96% of deforestation occurs in tropical regions (FAO). Major challenge is to recognize the strategic importance of trees. Environmental conditions are getting worse. All types of pollution have very serious effects on all the life existing on earth. Government should take urgent steps to play its role in developing a healthy and pure environment. It should allocate an appropriate amount of funds and appoint technical and experienced staff and use the most advance technology. That staff should make policies which can easily be implemented and have very fruitful outcome. Government should make laws and put a ban on cutting of endanger species of trees. Different teams under the supervision of Government should go to school and collages to persuade students to pla nt more and more trees, books can also be published and documentaries related to trees importance can be shown on television. Small story books related to trees for children to make children environmental conscious at an early age. Public should also take the responsibility and help government in planting trees. Private sector especially the honors of different firms and industries can play a vital role. They help in providing seeds for plantation and an appropriate place helpful in the growth of trees. Public awareness programs especially in villages to convince people in understanding that trees not only provide food to them and their animals but also a source of earning livelihood and in this way they can improve their standard of living. The point here is that we should not only plant trees once, but also take care of them. A part from purifying the environment ,trees are helpful in our life in variety of ways, it is need of hour that as trees take care of our needs we should al so take care of them and provide them with a suitable environment for their growth and reproduction. Trees are the largest and longest living organism on earth. Trees are the marvelous chemical factory. Man is utilizing trees since the old days. Although world has progressed a lot, we are still dependent on these trees. The existence of man is very much dependent upon them. Trees are not only beneficial to mankind, but also to all organisms living on the earth. With increase in population trees are cut down much faster than their growth. The increase in pollution and decrease in the number of trees become the cause of global warming. It is our Moral duty to plant as much of trees as we can. We should not only plant them but also provide them suitable environment for growth. The health of our planet is base on the health of our ecosystem and survival of life.