суббота, 9 марта 2019 г.
Constitutionalism in England in the 17th Century Essay
Analyze the development of Constitutionalism in England during the seventeenth century. Englands lengthy history of hereditary monarchs and abusive absolutistics has led to the system of constitutionalism in seventeenth century side of meat giving medication. The encouragement of these authoritarianism practices triggered the need to hunt club for a new way to govern. The reigns of the Stuart monarchy led to the shift from totalitarianism to constitutionalism during 17th century England. After witnessing the success of Louis XIVs of France establishment of absolutism, England would concisely see that crowd I, and his son Charles I, will fail at establishing absolutism in England and see a constitutional government established. After the expiry of Elizabeth I, the last of the Tudor dynasty, in 1603, throng VI of Scotland rose to cause as James I of England. James I was not apply to having to regulate with fan tan, therefore he did not get along with them. Since James I was similarly faggot of Scotland, he went to great lengths to make an take in charge at bringing Scotland and England as close to union as he could. His ira to fightds fan tans refusal of associating with Scotland financially was only the beginning of his problems with face fan tan. In 1618, the Thirty Years War broke turn out.England participated in this war until internal and financial problems drove them to cease their involvement in atomic number 63an affairs. The Addled fan tan overly met during the reign of James I. The Addled fantan was named that because of its ineffectiveness, it lasted only a few weeks and no real progress came out of its assembly. When King James I passed away, Charles I was the successor as King of England. Charles I married Henrietta Maria, the Catholic sister of King Louis XIII, this aroused uncertainty of his religious preferences. Moreover, the efforts of Charles and the archbishop, William Laud, to impose the Anglican Book of Common Prayer up on England and Scotland triggered anger of the Puritans and rebellions by the Scots. fan tan signed a Petition of Right in 1628, which declared that thing king could not impose taxes without Parliaments consent, the quartering of soldiers in private houses, arbitrary imprisonment, and the declaration of martial faithfulness in peacetime.Charles I originally accepted this petition but in the end failed to carry out this agreement because it limited his baron. Charles soon decided that since he could not work with Parliament he would not call them to meet. Charles adept personal rule for eleven years, which forced him to find ways to watch taxes without the support and approval of Parliament. An example of these taxes is ship bills, a tax on seacoast towns to pay for the defense of the coast. Charles I also raised capital with the set of Revocation in 1625, which revoked all land gifted to aristocracy from the church or royal family since 1540. Continued ownership was subject to an yearbook rent. Eventually, Charles I could not rule any longer without the help of Parliament, thusly the beginning of Long Parliament in 1640. During Long Parliament, Parliament passed the tercentenary Act, forcing Charles I to call them to session at least once any three years. Also, in 1641, Parliament presents The Grand Remonstrance, which was a demand for governmental and church reform. The Grand Remonstrance ordered Charles to stop the ship money tax inland, abolish and demolish the Star Chamber, and requesting that English Common natural law have power over the king. This irritates Charles to the point that he declares some members of Parliament outlaws, one of them being Oliver Cromwell. The accused members run away Parliament and begin to plat against Charles I, hence the beginning of the English Civil War.The success of Parliament during the outset phase of the English Civil War can be attributed to Oliver Cromwells New Model Army. This army consisted of radi cal Puritans and Independents, who believed they were fighting for God. Cromwell was one of the Independents. The introductory phase of the war was ended with capture of Charles I. Blinded by his tactile sensation in divine right, Charles took advantage Parliaments troubles and decided to flee to the Scots for protection. The Rump Parliament now accused the king of treachery saying that he had acted as a tyrant, traitor, murder, and a public foe to the good people of the nation. Charles was beheaded for his actions in 1649 and his attempt at absolutism was put an end. This was a great achievement in the rise of absolutism, as Parliament continued to gain more power in England with every passing monarchy. After the death of Charles I, his son Charles II rose to power (during the civil war). The Roundheads, supporters of Parliament, were victorious by the end of the English Civil War. Oliver Cromwell became ecclesiastic Protector of England and held all executive power legislativ e power was given(p) to Parliament. Cromwell came to find that it was difficult to work with Parliament, even more so when members debated his authority. sixsome years after the death of Charles I, who Cromwell fought so hard to eliminate, Cromwell himself had done the postulate same thing asCharles demolish Parliament.After the death of Cromwell in 1658, England was damaged by all the change and turmoil that had occurred. This left Europe wanting to go hind end to tradition. Parliament kept the power that it had gained back and it played a big role in the government by not allowing taxes without its consent. Since Cromwell did not leave an heir to the bathroom, Parliament allowed Charles II to replica from exile and take power. This is the beginning of a period known as The Restoration. The moral lesson that was taken from the English Civil War was, Parliament could no more exist without the Crown than the Crown without Parliament. Shortly into Charles IIs reign, the Cavalier Parliament was called to session. It was filled with Royalists, supporters of Charles I & II during the English Civil War. During this session, Parliament disbanded the Puritan army, while pardoning most of the Puritan rebels. They also restored the authority of the Anglican Church by enforcing the Clarendon Code. The Clarendon Code contained the Act of Uniformity, which state that all clergy and church officials had to conform to the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. It also forbade non-conformists from worshipping publically, teaching their faith, or attending English universities. Even though he permitted the Clarendon Code, Charles II favored religious tolerance. In 1672, he declared the Act of Indulgence, which suspended all laws against Catholics. Parliament, not able to get the king to take a hop the Act of Indulgence, passed the Test Act, which only allowed members of the Anglican Church to guard troops or civil offices. Charles later dismissed Parliament and relied on th e French to finance his rule.When Charles II died, the threat of Catholicism grew larger for Parliament when Charless brother, James II, a strong catholic, took the throne. The ascension of James II to throne essentially meant a new constitutional crisis was at hand for England. James IIs attempt to make Catholicism the primary pietism in England once again created conflict between the monarch and Parliament over religion. James issued another Declaration of Indulgence allowing Catholics the right to hold offices, contrary to the Test Act. When James second wife, a strong Catholic, became pregnant, Parliaments outrage could no longer be calmed. A conference of members from Parliament invited William of Orange, husband of Jamess protestant daughter Mary, to use up England and take to throne. While William and Mary raised an army to invade England, James, hiswife, and sister son fled to France, living the rest of their lives under the protection of Jamess cousin, Louis XIV. The Gl orious Revolution had occurred in England not over what form of government it would have, but rather who the monarchy would be. In 1689, Parliament offered the throne to William and Mary, who accepted with the excite of Rights.The mailing of Rights eliminated absolutism in England forever, making it impossible for the king to correspond Parliament or do without Parliaments approval. In the Bill of Rights, the people were given rights to petition, to bear arms, and the right to trial by a jury. The Bill of Rights established a government based on the rule of law, where no one was above the law including the king. This laid the foundations of a unattackable constitutional monarchy. The theory of divine right was now rejected in England, and the power to rule came from Parliament and the people, not God. The rise of constitutionalism can be greatly contributed to the foolishness of the monarchies that believed in absolutism and divine right of kings. These absolutist monarchs virtu ally destroyed themselves by ruling greedily and were more power-hungry than they could handle. The acts and counter-acts that were interchange between the monarchs and Parliament set the stage for civil war. The victory of the Parliament after the English Civil War generated the superiority of constitutionalism in 17th century England.