вторник, 12 марта 2019 г.
11 important Problems of Universalization of statement and their Remedies SWASTIK Universalization of Elementary bringing up is Constitutional directive. knowledge is e genuinely bodys birth-right and it is binding on any government to provide facilities for statement for children who atomic number 18 born and seduce the school-going age. It was stipulated to achieve Universalization within 10 years from the introduction of Constitution and that is by 1960. But it is now more than three decades after the scheduled time.Now the chores with current possible remedies to solve them have been discussed as fol showtimes (1) Faulty Policy of presidential term The constitutional directive is that states sh all(prenominal) endeavour to provide throw in and compulsory study to all children until they complete the age of 14 years. But it is a subject field of regret that the prescribed goal has non been reached as yet. The main contract for this is that the policy of brass was b ased on idealism. Basic procreation was evaluate as the form of national education.Being inspired with this aim, cultivate started to convert the be primary election schools into prefatory schools. India is a vast country with a precise whopping population. Money was too much in shortage for writ of execution of so expensive a scheme of conversion of a large number of Elementary Schools. Government has alike admitted this. In such a situation, the best policy would have been to make separate treatment for the basic schools along with the general primary and middle schools. (2) Political Difficulties Education is the fanny of democracy.It is undeniable to educate the citizens in order to make democracy a success. But so far the Government of India has not been able to pay up their full tending towards education. Main reason is that since the attainment of Independence, Government had to pose the problems of food, of inimical neighbours, the problem of Kashmir, the p roblem of linguistic states and so forth Those problems still survive and these problems have all along forced to allocate so much money that Government has not been able to devote their due(p) attention for elementary education.The Government is responsible to solve the political problems the Government is also duty-bound for smooth progress of public education. On no account, this nonchalance of Government towards widely distributed primary education could be justified. (3) Faulty plaque of Education In most of the states the responsibility of universal primary education is on the authorities of Blocks, Municipalities and Educational Districts. The progress of expansion of primary education shits slow because of the indifference and incapability of these institutions.In fact, it is the responsibility of the nation to educate its citizens. It is necessary that the Government of India should take upon itself the sacred work of universal enrolment and universal retention at the Elementary stage. In fact it is the responsibility of the proceeding to educate its citizens. (4) shortfall of Money Inadequacy of money is a full problem that confronts primary schools. Income of the local institutions responsible for primary education is so much limited that they be totally incapable of following the wasting disease of compulsory education.To meet the requirements of compulsory basis education it was estimated that an annual expenditure of Rs. 269. 5 crores will be required. But in the First quint Year Plan the allocation was Rs. 93 crores and this allocation was reduced to Rs. 89 crores in the Second Plan. So sincere and honest efforts should be do to educate as many children as possible so as to banish illiteracy to the maximum extent possible. Only after abolishment of illiteracy, quality of education as a matter of importance should come. (5) Dearth of Trained Teachers There is shortage of trained teachers to make Elementary Education Universal and c ompulsory.Nowa sidereal days, the young teachers do not wish to work in rural areas. But the fact remains that majority of Primary Schools are in rural areas. The chief reason of non-availability of suitable teachers is that article of faith work is not attractive for many persons, since the salary of primary teachers is hopelessly low. The bod of Scheduled areas is still more miserable. The hilly and impassable jungle areas with really poor communication and transport facilities fail to attract the present day luxury-loving young men.Teachers should be provided with proper residence in the settlements of their work. The question of Women teachers is very much special. So the question of teachers quarters, residential schools, especially residential Ashram Schools in the Scheduled areas should be provided. The quality of teachers can be betterd by executing a training progrmme for the untrained teachers in service on basis of study-leave basis. (6) Establishment and School Build ings Even the Third and Fourth only India Educational Surveys indicate that even now there are lakhs of villages and habitations without schools.There are nearly 4 lakhs schoolless villages in India which are to be given schools. It is not that easy to provide necessary funds for setting up such a large number of schools with buildings and other equipments. In order to meet this problem of new buildings along with the existing schools in private houses, temples, art gallery of rich persons, residence of teachers etc. should be met by construction of low cost houses of thatch or tile with local materials looking to the survive conditions of certain places open air stands may be taken up in the ShantiNiketan pattern.All the same, the Primary schools should have accommodations of their own as far as practicable. Problem of school houses along with the problem of need of teachers in all the primary schools can be solved through shift arranging in the existing schools. In order to e nrol the surplus age-group 6-14 children additional section rooms should be constructed. (7) Unsuitable Curriculum The curriculum for primary schools is narrow and unsuitable to the local needs. The curriculum should be interesting for the children for its continuance.Learning by work should replace the emphasis on monotonous bookish knowledge. Education of craft should be given in the primary schools in agreement with the local needs and requirements. But the schemes of craft education in the primary schools should not of highly expensive ones. (8) Wastage and Stagnation It is another major problem and great breastwork for universalization of Elementary Education. Out of every 100 students enrolled in class I more than half leave schools by course of action IV, only 32 pupils reach class V and only 26 reach class VIII.This is due to the lack of educational atmosphere, undesirable environment, lack of devoted teachers, poor economic condition of parents, absence of proper equip ment etc. In order to check such massive wastage and stagnation at the primary stage, existing educational system and curriculum should be reformed, teaching method should be interesting, school buildings should be adequate and neat and clean, and the parents should be better. These may help the problem of wastage and stagnation to be solved. (9) earthy Obstacles Natural barriers are the great obstacles in the way of expansion of compulsory education.The village and minor habitations in areas of Himalayan regions, Kashmir, Garhwal, Almora with less population are ascertain in distances apart. So also the desert areas in Rajasthan, the dense quality areas in Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Assam and many Southern States create problems for expected enrolment. These are very very difficult areas with lack of communication and of Education and School arrangement absence of transport. It is desirable to make provision, for schooling facilities even in small habitations without leaving muc h for mobility of small children in the severe cold, heat or heavy rains 10) Social Evils Social evils like superstition, illiteracy faith in ancient conventions and customs, child marriages, untouchability, pardah system etc. create innumerable obstacle in the expansion of compulsory primary education. Still man persons get their sons and daughters married at a very minor age against the nestling Marriage Prohibition Act and deprive these school-going children of the fruits of education. Because of illiteracy and ignorance these societal evils grow. The educated young men and women should volunteer themselves to remove these evils of society in their neighbourhood.Against these friendly evils, the work of expansion of universal enrolment should not be slackened, since social evils flourish because of illiteracy and ignorance. (11) Language Problem 1961 Census reports about 826 languages and 1652 dialects in the country. The Constitution of India, 1950 mentions 14 languages, whic h can be made medium of education. exacting education has not been fully introduced among the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and denotified tribes in the country. This is due to the hindrances of languages as medium of education.In the Five Year Plans the incentive programmes of free text-books, free uniform, stipends in hostels, and conversion of Residential Ashram Schools etc. do not improve matters much. The responsibility of education of these castes and tribes, who are staggering under the weight of visitation and poverty for centuries, should not be left alone on Govt. unpaid and philanthropic organization and people should come forward to assist the Government in this sacred and significant work of the nation.