пятница, 29 марта 2019 г.
William Blake | Critique Of Organized Religion
William Blake Critique Of Organized ReligionWilliam Blake is kn accept to be a lunatic of his beat, from 1757 to 1827, for producing imaginative engravings and mystical poetrys with radical opinions regarding parliamentary procedure and first harmonic public opinions. For this rea discussion, his move almost was non appreciated by the general public at that sentence even though they decease became extremely influential on the literary movement kn give birth as Romanticism. His condemnation of the authoritarianism temperament of organize worship is blatantly arrangementn in Songs of sleep with finished the depiction of gloomy scathe be fountain of the belief that make religion and kind in saveice atomic number 18 essentially conflated. For instance in The Garden of Love from Experience, Blake creates a separate in the midst of the purity and c befree record of children prevailing on the green, which is in addition seen in The Echoing Green in Songs of ho nor, and criticism of the per process understanded by the metonym, Chapel. The reference to green typifys the centre of the villold age community before the industrial R ontogeny and more importantly, to the innocence of the prelapsarian. In addition, the detail that the Chapel is reinforced in the midst illustrates the watch that the church predominantly causes corruption and visitation in cab atomic number 18t where contentment is a amour of the past as implied by the expression used to. then(prenominal)ce, the binary op plaza of innocence, the idyllic nature of childhood and acknowledge, the corruption of mankind in the deed of contr trifleances of the volumes is an teetotal st fall to defend the constraints of unearthly doctrines and the agony inflicted on people as a result. Gaining worldly experiences and knowledge will ultimately distort our innocence so Blake criticizes the Church and its part in causing as healthful as upholding well-disposed injustic e during the industrial Revolution. This is worthy of exploring because Blake is a poet of the freshman generation of revere affair so he wrote passionate meters as a protest during the Industrial Revolution when values atomic number 18 rouseed and oppression of the poor was a norm. in that locationof we ar able to get an in quite a little into what people felt during that snip of adversity through and through Blakes healthy lyrical deliin fairness using poetic language, rather than having to interpret meaningless features and figures.The isolated Songs of honor was head start publish in 1789, and the combined volume of Songs of honor and of Experience was later print in 1794, which turns away to be one of the most famous illuminate books Blake has ever composed. He brought about a groundbreaking technique at the time, relief etching, which enabled him to combine visuals and rallying crys to present a holistic design of his vision to the ref. The combination of the both volumes includes an extra subtitle Shewing the Two reversion States of the Human Soul, to illustrate the devil extremes of mankind innocence which dis home home plate be associated with the prelapsarian before The Fall of Man and experience, usually associated with the postlapsarian. This do-no liaison be seen in the engravings on the title page of this volume of flames representing graven images wrath make noise everyplace Adam and Eve who atomic number 18 covering their loins, illustrating their state of experience. As strong as that, the additional heading accents the importance of Blakes intention for the two originally separated books to be read side by side, so a complete argument is offered because Without contraries is no progression, he insisted. For instance, complementary verse forms of the a analogous name like understructure tush be found in both Songs, acting as commentaries on each early(a) with versatile viewpoints. The verse from the ingenuousness collection is undecomposable- oral sexed with an optimistic tone, showing animateness through the eyes of children. In the first two roots, we sense that the bank clerk is youthful and untainted by the world because the repeat of Piping intimates a purely spontaneous and natural form of music. In addition, the fact that the songs argon without lyrics symbolizes that in this terminus of innocence children be non confined to the interlinking meanings spoken terminology de none. As a direct contrast, in Introduction of Experience, The sanctum Word has been heard by people signifying complexity is brought into flavour after(prenominal) gaining experiences and they be subjected to development and suffering. different than that, we hatful observe from the title pages of both Songs the graduation of heartspan. This is because the young children portrayed in Innocence nonplus education from a blow, which represents joy and innocence as shown in Nurses Song , the nurse saysMy heart is at rest within my breastAnd eitherthing is stillwhen she watches children play on the field. A similar form of innocence is evident in her because she takes pleasure in watching her children in their c arefree spirit. However on the title page of Experience, the young children from Innocence are grown up and shown to be exclaiming by the deathbed of their parents. This symbolizes that children in the end take a crap to grow to feed the harsh experiences life brings, for framework death as signified by Runs in blood down Palace walls in slap-up of the United Kingdom. In addition, they are prone to experience suffering that life as soundly as society brings to them, the latter being ironical because of the ontogenesis of children during that period in logical arguments like lamp chimney drag oning. This is suggested in the Introduction of Innocence where the progression of the blend in two stanzas foreshadows a transformation from innocence to ex perience. An element of purity is brought send on when the narrator uses water as ink to write, since it is typically used to represent purity. As the narrator staind the water clear it is overly implied that sins will eventually corrupt the purity of the child, and the inevitability that innocence will turn into experience is first proposed. Therefore, Blake seems to be suggesting that we find our own balance through these knowing comparisons amidst the two states and to enhance his disapproval of the treatments of people at that time by painting a model scenario of what would be more desirable.In the pairing of The Lamb from Innocence and The Tyger from Experience, a realistic perspective on religion is put frontwards when the naf ignorant view of children is set against a cynical experienced view. The Lamb is structured like a catechism, which is used to be used to teach children religious teachings, with questions and make outs in the first and second base stanza, respec tively. The central question from the narrator isLittle Lamb, who do thee?Dost thou know who do thee?This happens to be one of the fundamental and arguable problems of forgivingity, concerning the creation of life and the universe. The repetition of Little Lamb, Ill tell thee in the first two eviscerates of the second stanza shows the narrators confidence in his answer. Blake illustrates the link amidst the lamb and Jesus saviour, whom is symbolically the Lamb of theology, in the linesFor he calls himself a Lamb.He is meek, he is mild.The alliterative adjectives meek and mild are a conventional belief of Christs traits and the emphasized connection between the Lamb and Christ is evident. Therefore, this depicts the simple and bare faith that is typical in children because they do not question their beliefs or governance, even though the idea of a half-size child being the creator of the Little Lamb should seem comical to an innocent mind.On the other(a) hand, in The T yger at that place are a series of rhetorical questions posed, rather than one central, focused one, and the tone seems meagrely interrogative, adding more tension to the meter. The question which explicitly relates it to The Lamb is in the 5th stanza Did he who make the Lamb make thee? The poem presents a disbelieving of whether or not the homogeneous divine being or unfading hand or eye is the creator of both the lamb and the tyger, if so why would He create such a terrifying fauna anyway? The destructive nature of the tyger is expressed throughout the poem, for example in the second stanza. The imagery of the fire burning within its eyes exudes a sense of ferocity and danger, which is overly suggested by its fearful symmetry. As well as that, the regular iambic meter with a stressed first syllable on each line gives the poem an aggressive and pounding wheel. This brings the tyger to life, transferral its movements and the lector can feel the beating heart in the poem, adding a layer of intensity, whereas in The Lamb, there is a resemblance to songs and hymns with a compose rhythm to it. This is out-of-pocket to the soft vowels and repetitive couplets, giving the poem a sense of flowing continuity. Consequently, the tyger is essentially a symbol for the evil and sliminess of human nature which eventually is responsible for instigating the favorable evils, as hostile to innocence and slap-upness represented by the lamb. According to that, the poem offers the ref a more experienced issue so to speak, that God produces suffering and violence in the world too, challenging the typical and conventional beliefs of God that innocent Christians would possess. Another point worth noting is that the tyger portrayed in the poem is in some ways reminiscent of the devils of the Industrial Revolution. The reason cornerstone this is that God is presented as a downheartedsmith with the craftsmanship of divinity, suggested by the lexes hammer, chain, furn ace and anvil in the fourth stanza which can be associated to the tools and noises that may be heard during that period. The simple union of the two concepts of an imperfect God creating good and evil frame forth in the lamb and the tiger, and the endless suffering the Industrial Revolution resulted in, gives the ratifier a glimpse into Blakes ideology of the alliance between organize religion and social injustice.The fight between the discussions of creation in the two aforesaid(prenominal) poems leads to the imminent cornerstone of social injustice, which Blake regarded to be do available by the Church which he also accuses to be responsible for repression. This is explored in the two different The Chimney carpet sweeper poems as Kathleen Raine delicately puts it The Chimney Sweeper of Innocence can escape in dreams into a heavenly democracy still Experience reminds us that the crimes of society against the children of the poor are none the less for that.1First of all, in the poem in Innocence, even though the sweeper is abandoned as implied by the lines his mother died And his father sell him, he seems to be content with his berth. In contrast, the narrators conscious awareness and point of his parents betrayal and their part in his abject circumstances in Experience is apparent in the linesWhere are thy father mother? Say?They are both gone up to the church to pray.To hide their guilt, the parents go to church and praise God, perhaps so that their sins of abandoning their child to a dangerous job can be forgiven. Optimism is first shown in Innocence in the parley the narrator has with Tom,Hush, Tom Never mind it, for when you heads bareYou know that the obscenity cannot spoil your white hair.A sense of hope in shown in this speech, which is typical of children but it can also mean that nothing can remove the innocence of children, through the juxtaposition of white hair typify purity and blackness of the earthenware jar which can not only represent evilness of man that led to this suffering but sins too also beginning with the letter, s. However, Blake proves this to be untrue in other poems as the innocent will eventually get exposed to the corruption and distortion that comes with age and experience.On the other hand, The Chimney Sweeper in Experience acts as a complaint of the exploitation of children to be chimney sweepers with bitterness, presenting the hard man. alternatively than believing that So if all do their duty they need not fear harm like the chimney sweep in Innocence believed, which is full of naivety because he is hopeful in the roughness of his situation and faithful that being obedient will eventually get him to the place he wants to be Heaven he believed thatBecause I was happy upon the heath,And smild among the winters gust,They masked me in the clothes of death,And taught me to sing the notes of woe.Blake uses a half verse line in this stanza to stress the atrocity of the situation and the extent of the narrators suffering. Therefore, the narrator acknowledges that he is do a victim because his parents envy his happiness so he is garment in the clothes of death which may resemble the black soot that covers a chimney sweepers body and clothes, or it can illustrate his life of endless suffering that resembles death anyway. As well as that, the belief of the narrator in Innocence is twisted and ironic in a way since the nature of the job is dangerous, as implied in the poem in Innocence through coffins of black conveying death, so in existence they are constantly being harmed. Therefore this may suggest that organized religion sometimes makes it possible for children to be do victim of their own innocence. Similarly in Experience, the chimney sweep has been dehumanized to A slender black thing and the ever last-placeing(a) contrast of colors between the snow and him is indicative that he is corrupted to simply a spot of dross upon the snow.Blakes contempt and s kepticism for parents who fail to protect their children, and authorities in Eng pull down at that time are evident in the final stanza. After the exploitation of children, the parents think they have done no injury which shows their ignorance because in fact the children are not only strong-armly harmed but also mentally. The plate of this poem paints a realistic picture of a chimney sweep confronting at the sky full of gloom, with a bag on his back presumably filled with soot. The heart of this design is that it gives the poem a quality of poignancy because the male child is alone, after knowing that his protectors have disregard his safety. Other than that, the last two lines of the poem are a business officeful accusation due to the fact that Blake condemns God his Priest King. In other words, the Church and the government are criticized for endorsing and upholding the chimney sweep trade, but God is also reproached for his callousness and for condoning the suffering of His children, His lambs. Blake seems to be suggesting that the Church and the government are conspiring to oppress the weaker communities in society, for instance the poor, perpetuating their misery. The conclusion of the poem, make up a Heaven of our misery evokes much thought since it is the narrators realization that the authorities who paint a picture the suffering makes certain promises of Heaven, of eternal joy, if hed be a good male child as told by the Angel in Innocence. However, these may merely be a form of illusion designed to make the agony and cruelty of the world seem plausible and even honorable.A reference to chimney sweepers is also do in the famous poem London in Experience, bringing to catch fire the exploitation of children at that time and the social debasement that resulted. This is shown in the third stanza where the victim, Chimney-sweepers, along with the others such as the Harlot and Soldier, is shown as a proper noun to enhance the scru niggling of the suffering they are made to endure. The cry refers to the line Could stingyly cry weep weep weep weep in The Chimney Sweeper of Innocence, which not only echoes innocence because it acts as a plaintive cry but it also urges the reader to empathize with the boy. However it also indicates that the boy is unable to correctly declaim sweep, which comes with age. Therefore it deepens the effect of the poem since a young innocent boy has to seek ways to escape from the atrocities in life that he ineluctably to face which in reality he should not have to. The second line reminds the reader of Blakes criticism that the Church condones chimney sweeping, which covered the children with black soot. Plus, the word blackning symbolizes the corruption and wearing down of the reputation of the Church and its pietism which appalls Blake, as well as the citizens of London and the reader. The choice of vocabulary is very interesting here, as appalls acts as a pun insinuating death a pall bein g a cloth to cover a coffin, march on suggesting that the Church condones death which is also used in Holy atomic number 90 of Innocence. On the contrary, The Ecchoing Green of Innocence, which can be considered to be the counterpart of London, depicts a day in the life of children enjoying the freedom of nature as indicated by the first line The Sun does rise representing dawn and in the last stanza, dusk The sun does descend. Consequently, it is possible that this reflects the cycle of life as well and the graduation of childhood to maturity. Other than that, the freedom of nature is evident through the repetition of words that gives a sense of happiness throughout, for instance happy, merry, chearful, joke and so on. It is apparent that the delightful tone conveys an idealistic love for nature and life as opposed to the revulsion of what has become of ones existence in London.The form of London is crucial in understanding the main theme the alternate rhyming lines, and consist ent number of lines and syllables with a simple rhythm throughout evoke a feeling of limitation. Consequently, it provides an initial idea that the poem will contain numerous images of restriction and an in-depth study of the fears of the people during that period of time. The Ecchoing Green however, has trine verses of ten short lines with an alternating rhyme scheme. The effect of the short lines is that the rhyme is heard more frequently so the air of the poem is more lighthearted instead of the dark, bitter tone of London. Other than that the rhyme enables the poem to flow, and producing the echo as suggested by the title at the same time, which brings to mind a raw setting. The notion of confinement of London is further dealt with in the ambiguity of the word that appears in the first line charterd, which is also repeated in the next line, as it can convey freedom as well as constraint and control. However when the word is put against the phrase Thames does flow, an oxymoron is created by implying that a flowing river is being moderate further growth the notion of a lack of freedom in the city. In addition, the progression from a visual imagery in the first stanza Marks of weakness, fits of woe, to aural in the next In any Infants cry of fear makes it virtually impossible for the reader or auditory modality to shy away from the grave topic. Blake makes use of a pun in mark where it is first used as a verb in mark in every face and next as a noun to emphasize the commonality of misery. On another note, the numerous cases in which deliberate repetition is used in the poem not only give strain to the subject but it also reinforces the idea of human abjection that should not be overlooked.In every cry of every Man,In every Infants cry of fear,In every voice, in every ban,The mind-forgd manacles I hear.The instant(a) repetition of every in this case emphasizes that the suffering and agony presented is a social norm, begging for the readers concern and attention. Yet, the last line of the stanza brings to mind the psychological torment the Church endorses the restriction of thoughts and desires as implied by the mind-forgd manacles that bind the mind from thoughts and any outbursts of rebellion. Also, this can be related to The Garden of Love mentioned beforehand, since it alludes to the fact that organized religion and the Church has a major role in oppressing the poor. For instance, the imagery Blake uses to portray this is the Garden of Love which is now filled with sculpt,/ And tomb-stones where flowers should be. The graves and tomb-stones signify death after the loss of innocence, represented by the sweet flowers of the past, due to religious authorities. This conclusion can be drawn because of the self-assertive quote, Thou shalt not written on the admittance of the Chapel, a scriptural allusion to the Ten Commandments, and an instrument to make repression and prohibition of expression appear satisfactory whereas at the same time showing the extent of the restriction oblige by religious doctrines. Although this poem has an implicit link with London, a more obvious connection can be found between it and The Ecchoing Green, which is why many critics claim that the latter is the true counterpart assigned to it. The line that draws immediate connection to The Ecchoing Green is Where I used to play on the green in the first stanza, where the comparison of the tranquility of The birds of the bush,/ Sing lounder around is made against the garden which is destroyed by the regimentation of organized religion.A stark contrast is shown between The Ecchoing Green and London with regards to love within a family. For instance, in the former poem the children return to their mothers and through a simple simile Like birds in their nest, Blake is able to convey innocent love in family life whereas in London even the most fundamental relationship one between mother and child, is tainted. This is evident in th e last stanza where a prostitute is portrayed as a representative of women who were victims in England during that time. Plagues implies that the prostitute will pass on venereal disease to her children and family, then the curse on the infant and the paradoxical expression Marriage hearse. This is because a hearse is associated to death and funerals implying that she will wreck the marriage. Other than that, the disease she carries illustrates the corruption of physical self which Blake intended to be a criticism of societys lack of project for this community. Additionally, the pun made on curse can be of the cussing due to her self-loathing for the distress she causes her child, or it can be the horrors that the child will eventually have to face in the world. As opposed to the affectionate mothers in The Ecchoing Green, she is responsible for passing on a disease. The curse can also be on society because everyone is potentially cursed the total degradation of life and health gi ves a poignant yet world powerful indictment on the social injustices the blackning Church makes allowances for. Furthermore, a powerful condemnation is made in the final two lines of The Garden of Love,And Priests in black gowns were base on balls their rounds,And binding with briars my joys desires.Throughout the poem the first and third lines of each stanza rhyme but the last line is inconsistent with this rhyme scheme, hence foreground its importance. An anti-priest view is stated when the connection between Priests and black gowns are made because it suggests that organized religion is responsible for the death and the graves that are previously discussed. The internal rhyme in these two lines is significant because it shows the restriction impose by the Church and it connects important words together, such as briars and desires. Consequently it reflects the suppression of thoughts and the dictatorship of the Church over peoples freedom.Similarly, the two Holy thorium poems form an accusation against society for hypocrisy and for the grim lives of children living on charity when read collectively. The two poems depict children from charity schools setting out to St. Pauls Cathedral on Ascension Day, also known as Holy thorium. However, each of the poems offers a different perspective of the occasion. For instance in the poem in Innocence there are repetitions of words such as Innocent, white, flowers, radiance and lambs, suggesting innocence and delight. At first look the poem seems to be of children singing praise like a mighty wind to the authorities that help the poor the wise guardians of the poor, however the readers interpretation of it may shift after reading the more realistic view in the poem in Experience. The mighty wind of their voices has now become a precarious cry which is ironic since the children shown in Innocence are full of power but in reality they are powerless when being exploited. As well as that the wise guardians are now co mpared to being a usurous hand. This effectively demonstrates Blakes criticism that the supposed guardians lack the attention and compassion for the upbeat of children as they are figuratively compared to a hand. Therefore these two examples show Blakes use of duality in his symbolisms and metaphors to enhance his complaint of society. However, the difference between the experiences of the world of the narrators from each of the poems may be due to the difference in their beliefs and their exposure to reality.Blakes usage of contrasting colours of the uniforms in red pitiful green with the grey-headed beadles in the first stanza of the poem in Innocence suggests that innocence is in the hands of abused authority. Furthermore, the wands as white as snow may evoke a sense of innocence but the wand can equally suggest rigidity and regimentation. Other than that, the repetition of the quantity of people participating in the occasion in the words multitude and thousands, shows the la rge amount of scantness that existed, on a real level. It also urges us to question why the charities are necessary in the first place, therefore challenging the quality of life people had at that time. On the other hand, a more explicit condemnation is made through the rhetorical questions and partial answers in Experience. Firstly, in the first stanza the flowers are now Babes reducd to misery, which shows the vulnerability of the innocence to be exploited and it makes clear of what they have become victims. The rhetorical question presented therefore is whether or not it is a holy thing that some people are still so miserable in such a well-developed country. Also, this can emphasize the views brought forward in The Tyger, challenging the conventional God which brings pain and torture as suggested by the phrase filld with thorns, as well as evil to the world. The answer to the question seems to be in the second stanza, where the repetition of poor poverty creates an emphasis o n the hostile conditions, where the relentless suffering of the children are also illustrated through the repetition of And their in the third stanza. Therefore the ironic contrast between a rich and fruitful land and a land of poverty is formed, where the latter may in actual fact suggest the spiritual poverty of the organisation which appears to be the root of the problem. This is also suggested in the puns of the last stanza where the words sun and rain bring to mind son and reign, respectively. These words can be related back to Jesus and it shows that as long as Jesus is present in the people there will be spiritual fulfillment. As a result, the reason for the exploitation of children is suggested to be due to peoples lack of spiritual welfare so they constitute by being materialistic. The two lines in which these puns are used,For where-eer the sun does shine,And were-eer the rain does fallpresent a vision and hope for the future where children are no longer abused by the sy stem. Plus, references to the nature are made as opposed to the eternal winter caused by men and industrialization, which shows the devastation of the children.The structures of the two poems contribute a lot to their purposes too for example the iambic heptameter and relatively longer lines in Holy Thursday in Innocence informs the reader about the gravity of the content being dealt with, whilst the short lines of the poem in Experience is more upfront about the bitter displeasure it offers. The rhyming couplets in each verse of the poem in Innocence give a sense of the march of the children that is being depicted. As well as that, the plates paint a melancholic and authentic picture of the reality of the situation where in Innocence children are being lead by the beadles whereas victims of poverty are depicted in Experience. The latter plate gives a picture of dead children and their helpless mothers in horror at the sight of them. Consequently, if we look at the two plates tog ether they imply that the beadles or cheek symbolically led the children to their death and suffering, which may be Blakes intention after all.In conclusion, through the exploration of these miscellaneous sets of poems, a deeper understanding into Blakes reappraisal of the social conditions and exploitation that are condoned by a supposed guardian of society, the Church, is evident. This is apparent through the blatant portrayal of suffering and darkness in the poems in Experience, most notably in London where the depths of despair is shown through the Marks of weakness, marks of woe. He emphasizes that this act of inducing misery on others by the Church is despicable through his numerous allusions towards it, mentioning that Every blackning Church appalls. As a result, it makes a bold and unashamed denigration of organized religion in the 18th light speed. However, due to the dualism and the binary opposites that Blake makes use of through the concept of contrary states, he is also able to form an ironic satire out of certain poems in Innocence to emphasis that children are easily exposed to the evils of the world so we as readers must look deeper and help the victims. This is apparent in the last line of Holy Thursday in Innocence Then cherish pity, lest you drive an angel from your door where Blake attempts to tell the reader to be compassionate. The concept of dualism is with the intention that the extreme conditions can be laid out and the magnitude of the problem can be recognized, e pickyly the social evils made possible and upheld by the Church, thus the reader can empathize with the victims. Therefore, it is possible that Blake merely aims to bring the harsh conditions to light whilst advising the reader to proceed to make a change to rid of the evils of the authoritarians.Functionalism and involvement Sociological theoriesFunctionalism and conflict Sociological theoriesSociology is a social science that studies society and the individual in pers pective of Society. The origins of Sociology lie in the 19th century but during the 1960-70s, it became a major social science subject, taught in universities and colleges, and schools. The stove of sociology has only become more scientific with time. (Sociology Guide, no date)Sociology is the study of human social life, groups and societies. It is a dazzling and compelling enterprise, having as its subject matter our own behavior as social beings. The scope of sociology is extremely wide, ranging from the abbreviation of passing encounters between individuals in the street up to the investigation of world-wide social processes. (Giddens cited on Sociology guide, 1989).Sociology enables to gain a better understanding on how the action among the society members works. Through the knowledge on sociology, we are able to better our networking which is very useful and important for businesspeople.The study of sociology today focuses on three primary theoretical perspectives the symbo lic interactionist perspective, the functionalist perspective, and the conflict perspective.1.2 FunctionalismFunctionalism views society as a system that is a set of interconnected parts which together form a whole (India, 2009). It emphasizes on the macro level of society and its various parts are understood mainly in term of their relationship to the whole. The founder, Emile Durkheim suggested that social consensus takes one of two forms namely mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity. robotlike solidarity is a situation where people with similar vision and beliefs together give goal in the society. In contrast, organic solidarity said that although people in the society are interdependent they hold different values and beliefs.1.3 symbolic Interactionist PerspectiveThe symbolic interactionist perspective, directs sociologists to consider the symbols and details of everyday life, what these symbols mean, and how people interact with each other (Cliffsnotes, no date). Accor ding to this guess, people attach meanings to symbols, and then they act according to their subjective interpretation of these symbols (Cliffsnotes, no date). betimes difference Theory contest surmisal was introduced by a great German theorist and political activist, Karl Marx (1818-1883). The founder of this conflict mentioned that history of social life began from providing the basic necessities of life such as- food, clothing and shelter (McClelland, 2000).In order to get going in the danger, humans realize the need to work together to amend the social structure (Hatch and Cunfille,2006, p.28). Karl Marx insisted that all things with values in society are the contribution of labor through their engagement in creating the society for their own existence (McClelland, 2000).According to Marx, the society is divided into two sectiones, the bourgeoisie which is the owners of capital and the proletariat- the labors. Division of labor refers to breaking down of large jobs into man y tiny components (Dhamee, 1995). Division of labors, therefore, leads to alienation that is the disenfranchising of workers from the product of their work efforts (Hatch and Cunfille, 2006, p.29). Labor, in fact, is defined as the cost of fruit rather than merely the means to achieve a collective benefit for the society (Hatch and Cunfille, 2006, p.29). It gives humans a purely subservient relationship based on their economic value of potential to do work (Hatch and Cunfille, 2006, p.29). Therefore, when the capitalists accepted this alienation, exploitation will take place. As The American Heritage vocabulary of the English Language (2000) cited in The Free Dictionary (no date), exploitation refers to the utilization of another person or group for egoistic purposes.The central institution of a capitalist society is private property, the system where the capital owned by the dominant groups is controlled by the small nonage of the population (McClelland, 2000). The major conflic t is on whether which group should get the biggest take of profit. The owner of the land argued that they are entitled as they are the providers of the factors of production whereas the labor stressed that they are the involving in all production.Recent Conflict Theory3.1 Max WeberDue to the weakness of Karl Marxs conflict conjecture which is too ideal, Max Weber reformulated the conflict theory and thus he is also known as bourgeois Marx (http//www.change.freeuk.com/learning/socthink/weber.html, no date). In the process of formulation, Weber concerned so much with testing, reassessing or developing Marxs ideas and thus, also known as the bourgeois Marx (Marxism Structural Conflict Theory, no date) . From his study of the society, Weber went beyond ideas of Marx, for example, Weber focuses on the action in the social institution which is not the same as Marx and Durkheim who viewed the society as an object in itself (http//www.change.freeuk.com/learning/socthink/weber.html (no dat e). Although Weber agreed with Marxs view that class is economic in its origin, stratification in the opinion of Weber, includes also the status of status, power and political parties (Marxism Structural Conflict Theory, no date). Weber (1924) cited in http//www.change.freeuk.com/learning/socthink/weber.html (no date) states that status is social estimation of labours and the development of seen lifestyles. According to Weber, conflict is occurring in any social relationship when an action within it is lie intentionally to carrying out the actors own will against the resistance of the other society or parties (Henderson and Parsons, 1947).In the society today, communication has becoming an important cause of conflict. As defined in Websters dictionary, communication involves sending giving, or exchanging selective information and ideas, which is often expressed nonverbally and verbally (Relationship- with -self.com, no date). For non verbal communication, messages are expressed through facial gestures, body languages and the impression through dressing, body imaging and so on. Verbal communication, on the other hand, means expressing what is on ones mind through voicing out.3.2 Communication Government and MediaThe communication between government and media today has become an important focus and struggle in our society. Governments as the standing pillars of a country, plays a vital role in ruling and maintaining a country in a prosperous state. In order to maintain the harmony, fairness and truthfully are the keys to the stability. In other words, government should treat all the society in a same way and fair. Besides that, government may manage the economy in a good way, so the society can live in a wealthy environment. However, the written communication in Malaysia is implying that the status quo and special treatment of the dominant groups, the Malays cannot be questioned. For instance, Malays are better handle by government than other races.On the o ther view, the media plays an important role in delivering the governments message to the public. Therefore, nowadays, everyone gains current situation on politic, economy and so on through mess media such as television, radio and newspaper. People can know the actual situations or what is currently happen in the society through the news spread by media. However, media is highly dependent on government. The media is in deep dilemma as they want to spread the truth on the other side, while being controlled by government. Intentionally, government possesses power on the media in order to secure the public trust and to skeleton a positive image of themselves for the public. To further elaborate, government restricts and control media not to spread out government scandal and only spread good or something that is benefit for government, The information needed by the media is so scarce. Therefore, media with confine resources to spread for society is required to obey governments laws an d orders and since government is the minority that owns the information. Since media is depending on government to provide them information, government has the power to control and restrict what media can spread out to society.From the explanation above, we can see the interplay of conflict between government and media. The government whom possesses the resources is possesses the power as well.The Overlapping Between Early and Recent Conflict TheoriesThe first overlapping is that both of the conflict theories emphasizes on economic factors. In the olden days, labor and capital are competing over resources. In the world today, labor and capital still exist. The terms just are jolly different. Labor in those days is todays employee. For example employees are competing for job advancement and position in an organization or company.The second overlapping between the early conflict and recent conflict theory is on the reason of occurring is due to scarcity. Bs relationship to A when A p ossesses something that B requires. For example, government got the power over media because government contains the information that media call for to be included in their newspaper, program and so on. Another example in US, many of the candidates are participating in filling the position of a president. But, it is rare. Only one person is entitled, in other words, it is scarce and thus leads to competition. Dependency increases when resources are important, scarce and non-substitutable.The third overlapping between early and recent conflict theory is inequality. For example in US, there is obviously inequality, the discrimination of the Black by the White. The white always been comprehend as the dominant party. As defined in Dictionary.com (2010), discrimination is an act of treatment or consideration of, or making a eminence in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person or thing belongs rather than on individual merit. Th e common discriminations are racial, gender and religious intolerance. Until today where the Black has becoming the president, the Black is still being treated as the lower class despite of the fact the situation is slightly improving.ConclusionIn a nutshell, conflict theory is a theory that sees the society as a place with inequality which then leads to evolution and social change. In the early conflict theory, an investigation on social class in the free market economy was conducted. It emphasizes merely on the capitalist and the labor as the cause of inequality, which is too ideal. Therefore it leads to the critical review of the conflict theory by Max Weber. Max Weber, being the benefactor of bureaucracy, highlighted more detailed by stating that there are different types of capitalists and skills of labors are vary as well. From our discussion above, semi-struggle between government and media is unavoidable. In my view, conflicts resulted in positivity because it stresses on competition. In order to survive, people will filtrate to gain the limited resources which then consequence in the improvement of the society.